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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon.@*METHODS@#We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM@*RESULTS@#The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 814-816, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763088

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is a trend of an increasing number of Plasmodium vivaxmalaria cases in China that are imported across its Southeast Asia border, especially in the China-Myanmar border area (CMB). To date, little is known about the genetic diversity of P. vivaxin this region. In this paper, we report the first genome sequencing of a P. vivaxisolate (CMB-1) from a vivax malaria patient in CMB. The sequencing data were aligned onto 96.43% of the P. vivaxSalvador I reference strain (Sal I) genome with 7.84-fold coverage as well as onto 98.32% of 14 Sal I chromosomes. Using the de novoassembly approach, we generated 8,541 scaffolds and assembled a total of 27.1 Mb of sequence into CMB-1 scaffolds. Furthermore, we identified all 295 known virgenes, which is the largest subtelomeric multigene family in malaria parasites. These results provide an important foundation for further research onP. vivaxpopulation genetics.


Subject(s)
DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Genome, Protozoan , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , China/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91223

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterobiasis/diagnosis , Enterobius/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Myanmar/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence , Students/statistics & numerical data
4.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 410-418
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145837

ABSTRACT

Background: Second-hand smoke (SHS) is a threat to people's health particularly in South-East Region including Myanmar. Aim: To describe the exposure to SHS among the adult population of Myanmar. Materials and Methods: The analysis was done based on the data relating to SHS exposure from 2009 Noncommunicable Risk Factor Survey conducted in Myanmar. A total of 7,429 respondents aged 15-64 from a nationally representative household-based cross-sectional multi-stage probability sample were used. Gender-specific estimates of the proportion of adults exposed to SHS were examined across various socio-demographic characteristics. Results: The exposure to SHS was 55.6% (52% among males and 57.8% among females) at home, 63.6% (71.9% among males and 54.7% among females) in indoor places and 23.3% (38.8% among males and 13.6% among females) in public places. SHS exposure at home was more common among females. However, males were more likely to be exposed at work and public places than females. SHS exposure at home and public places decreased with age in both sexes. In these settings, SHS exposure was related to education, residence, employment status, marital status, and income level. At workplaces, it was mainly related to educational attainment and occupational status. Conclusion: Exposure was significantly high in settings having partial ban as compared with settings having a complete ban. The solution is simple and straightforward, smoke-free environments. The findings emphasize the need for continuing efforts to decrease the exposure and to increase the knowledge of its harmful effects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Educational Status , Employment , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Marital Status , Myanmar/epidemiology , Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Adolescent
5.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 379-386
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145833

ABSTRACT

Background: The Medical and Dental Global Health Professions Student Surveys (GHPSS) are surveys based in schools that collect self-administered data from students on the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and tobacco cessation training, among the third-year medical and dental students. Materials and Methods: Two rounds of medical and dental GHPSS have been conducted in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, among the third-year medical and dental students, between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011. Results: The prevalence of any tobacco use among third-year male and female medical students did not change in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011; however, it reduced significantly among females in Myanmar (3.3% in 2006 to 1.8% in 2009) and in Sri Lanka (2.5% in 2006 to 0.6% in 2011). The prevalence of any tobacco use among third-year male dental students did not change in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Thailand between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011; however, in Myanmar, the prevalence increased significantly (35.6% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2009). Among the third-year female students, a significant increase in prevalence was noticed in Bangladesh (4.0% in 2005 to 22.2% in 2009) and Thailand (0.7% in 2006 to 2.1% in 2011). It remained unchanged in the other three countries. Prevalence of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) both at home and in public places, among medical students, decreased significantly in Myanmar and Sri Lanka between 2006 and 2009 and in 2011. Among dental students, the prevalence of SHS exposure at home reduced significantly in Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar, and in public places in India. However, there was an increase of SHS exposure among dental students in Nepal, both at home and in public places, between 2005 and 2011. Medical students in Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka reported a declining trend in schools, with a smoking ban policy in place, between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011, while proportions of dental students reported that schools with a smoking ban policy have increased significantly in Bangladesh and Myanmar. Ever receiving cessation training increased significantly among medical students in Sri Lanka only, whereas, among dental students, it increased in India, Nepal, and Thailand. Conclusion: Trends of tobacco use and exposure to SHS among medical and dental students in most countries of the South-East Asia Region had changed only relatively between the two rounds of GHPSS (2005-2006 and 2009-2011). No significant improvement was observed in the trend in schools with a policy banning smoking in school buildings and clinics. Almost all countries in the SEA Region that participated in GHPSS showed no significant change in ever having received formal training on tobacco cessation among medical and dental students.


Subject(s)
Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Asia, Western/epidemiology , Bhutan/epidemiology , Data Collection , Humans , India/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation , Students, Dental , Students, Medical , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/trends , Smoking Cessation
6.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 342-346
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145827

ABSTRACT

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is an understudied problem in South-East Asia. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1%) and northeastern (4.7%) region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3%) and Thailand (1.8%). However, Khaini (11.6%) chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS)" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Asia, Western/epidemiology , Democratic People's Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Dentifrices/statistics & numerical data , Bhutan/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Thailand/epidemiology , Tobacco Products/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco, Smokeless/statistics & numerical data
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-43197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiologic characteristics of a cholera outbreak involving mainly Myanmar migrants living in overcrowded conditions with poor sanitation in a Thai-Myanmar border district, in 2007. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Both passive and active case surveillances were carried out in Mae Sot District, Tak Province since the beginning of the outbreak. Samples of various types of drinking and non-drinking water from the infected areas, communal waters, and some selected foods were analyzed for the presence of cholera contamination. A case-control study was conducted to determine the vehicle of cholera transmission among Myanmar migrants in one municipal community with a cluster of 72 cholera cases. Preventive and control measures were primarily carried out by trained migrant health volunteers and workers. RESULTS: Between May and October 2007, 477 cholera cases of biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, were identified in the district. The majority of them (93.1%) were detected by active case surveillance in the communities. None died in this outbreak. Most (84.9%) were Myanmar migrants and the remainder were local Thai residents. The infection rates of cholera were significantly greater in communities with known passive cases than in those with no such cases. Three samples of seafood illegally imported from Myanmar were positive for cholera of the same biotype and serotype. Fifteen of 324 (4.6%) food handlers in the district were found to carry V. cholerae O1. A case-control study in one municipal community revealed a significant association between infection and frequently having food purchased from one infected food handler. CONCLUSION: Active case finding and implementation of control measures by the assistance of trained migrant health volunteers and workers might reduce the morbidity and mortality in this population.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cholera/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Vibrio cholerae/genetics , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35027

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium falciparum liver stage antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) is one of the few antigens expressed exclusively in liver stage parasites. In this study, we evaluated the antibody responses against recombinant PfLSA-1 in naturally infected individuals in Myanmar. High levels of antibody responses (70.7%) were detected in 82 serum samples from 116 infected individuals, and IgG responses to PfLSA-1 principally composed of responses of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. These results show that PfLSA-1 elicits effective antibody responses in individuals infected with P. falciparum, and thus it could be not only an attractive candidate protein for vaccine development, but also a useful antigen for serodiagnosis of the infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Myanmar/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30744

ABSTRACT

This study was to determine the relationship between a commonly used social stratification indicator, net equivalent income, and self-rated health, long-term disability, visual acuity status, death rate, birth rate, unsafe delivery and school enrollment in a rural area of Myanmar. Data were collected from 3,558 respondents in 805 households of all ages. Data analysis for various items was based on different age groups. The results from two income groups (highest and lowest) are as follows: the percent of those who self-rated their health as very good were 17.8% and 10.4% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted coefficient = 0.30, 95% Cl 0.11-0.50); those with an acute medical condition were found in 16.3% and 20.8% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% Cl 1.08-1.68); those with long-term disability were found in 15.3% and 21.2% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% Cl 1.05-1.84); and those with poor visual acuity at a distance of 13 feet were found in 8.1% and 13.5% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% Cl 1.18-2.30). The birth rate ratio was 1.3, the death rate ratio was 1.2, and school enrollment was found in 92.8% and 83.2% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95% Cl 0.1-0.8). These results indicate that there is an urgent need to strengthen the health care infrastructure and educational system, targeting the poor in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Birth Rate , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Income/classification , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32200

ABSTRACT

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia induced vasculitis, which is common in Asia and the Pacific Islands and is sometimes also encountered in Western countries. Even though it can cause multi-organ dysfunctions, there is limited information regarding the relationship between scrub typhus infection and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to discover the gastrointestinal manifestations of septic patients with scrub typhus infection. During the study period, 80 septic cases were recruited, and according to the results of immunofluorescent antibody testing (IFA), 20 (25%) were found to have scrub typhus infection. The most common gastrointestinal symptoms of scrub typhus patients were vomiting 13 (65%), nausea 12 (60%), diarrhea 9 (45%), and hametamesis or melena 5 (25%). Gastrointestinal signs included hepatomegaly 8 (40%), jaundice 7 (35%), and abdominal pain 4 (20%). Elevation of SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase were 16 (80%), 14 (70%), and 16 (80%), respectively. Direct bilirubin was elevated in 19 (95%) of the cases and half of the cases had a low serum protein level. Of scrub typhus cases, 8 (40%) had eschars. The sites of eschars were mostly in hidden areas, such as on the back, genitalia and abdomen. Three of the five patients with eschar had hepatomegaly on ultrasound examination. The significant findings of the scrub typhus septic patients with eschar on endoscopic examination were gastritis in two cases, gastritis with gastric erosion in two cases, and one case showed a duodenal ulcer and erosion. The differentiating point for endoscopic findings in scrub typhus compared to the other causes was that the stomach lesions were more frequent and severe than the duodenal lesions. According to our endoscopic findings, physicians should be aware of gastric and duodenal lesions in febrile patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort and indigestion. Scrub typhus can cause gastrointestinal and liver dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Scrub Typhus/complications , Sepsis/complications
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32343

ABSTRACT

We have performed a case-control analysis to determine the significance of clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features as predictive factors of rickettsioses among patients in Sangkhla Buri, Thailand (Thai-Myanmar border). Fifteen serologically-confirmed rickettsiosis patients including Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsioses, scrub typhus, and murine typhus were classified as 'cases'; one hundred and sixty-three acutely febrile patients presenting to the same hospital during the same time period, who had no serological evidence of acute rickettsiosis, were classified as 'controls'. Patients' report of rash/arthropod bite [Odds ratio (OR) 22.90, 95% CI (confidence interval) 6.23, 84.13] and history of jungle trips (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.69-16.62) were significant risk factors. Elevated ALT (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.04, 8.88) and depressed platelet count (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.13, 10.10) were also useful differentiating markers of rickettsioses in this population. Definitive diagnosis of rickettsioses is difficult without specialized diagnostic capabilities that are rarely available in remote areas such as Sangkhla Buri, where other acute febrile illnesses with similar presentation are commonly found. The relative importance of predictive factors presented here may provide clinicians with some useful guidance in distinguishing rickettsioses from other acute febrile illnesses. Timely administration of empiric treatment in highly suspicious cases can deter potential morbidity from these arthropod-borne infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/blood , Arthropod Vectors/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Rickettsia/immunology , Rickettsia Infections/blood , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Thailand/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32319

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a global health problem, in particular, a major health problem within Southeast Asia. This study aimed to investigate malaria control within a rural area of Myanmar, where traditionally non-western medicine is the preferred treatment. Whilst malaria was perceived by the local people to be a major health problem, knowledge about the mode of transmission and correct treatment for malaria was relatively low. Consequently, the practices of the local people to control malaria were often ill-informed or based on cultural and traditional beliefs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Developing Countries , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Educational Status , Endemic Diseases , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Incidence , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Male , Medicine, Traditional , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Rural Population , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2003 Sep; 21(3): 179-88
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37044

ABSTRACT

To achieve the goal of eliminating lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, close monitoring systems and effective control strategies need to be implemented and the real disease burden needs to be assessed. Bancroftian filariasis is endemic at the Thai-Myanmar border. However, there are only limited data on the prevalence of this disease in Thailand available. We employed microscopic examination, together with ELISA kits to detect W. bancrofti-specific Og4C3 circulating antigen and specific anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies to determine the burden of bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area at the Thai-Myanmar border in Umphang District, Tak province, Thailand. A total of 433 Thai-Karen blood samples were analyzed. The microfilarial rate determined by microscope was 6% and the W. bancrofti-specific Og4C3 antigenemia rate was 22%, while the specific anti-filarial IgG4 antibody rate was 54%. There were statistically significant higher levels of W. bancrofti-specific Og4C3 antigen in the microfilaremic-antigenemic group than in the amicrofilaremic-antigenemic group (unpaired Student's t-test; p < 0.001), similar to the specific anti-filarial IgG4 antibody results (unpaired Student's t-test; p < 0.001). A statistically significant correlation of moderate degree between the presence of W. bancrofti-specific Og4C3 antigen and of specific anti-filarial IgG4 antibody was found in the amicrofilaremic group (r = 0.474, p < 0.001), but not in the microfilaremic group (r = 0.291, p > 0.05). Our study revealed a very high prevalence of bancroftian filariasis in this endemic area and thus emphasized the importance of using highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools to evaluate the true prevalence of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/analysis , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Microfilariae/immunology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Prevalence , Statistics as Topic , Thailand/epidemiology , Wuchereria bancrofti/immunology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34965

ABSTRACT

A total of 60 HIV infected patients complaining of dry cough for at least two weeks and attending the Out-patient Department of the Specialist Hospital, Waibargi, were screened for Pneumocystis carinii. Induced sputum samples were examined with Giemsa and Gomori silver methenamine stains. P. carinii were detected in 18 patients (30%) with silver stain and 13 patients (21.7%) with Giemsa stain. The sensitivity and specificity of the Giemsa stain were 72.2% and 95.2%, respectively. The range of CD4 counts in P. carinii-positive patients was found to be 0-562/microl, and the mean CD4 count was 132.3/microl. Out of 18 P. carinii-positive cases, CD4 counts of 15 cases (83.3%) were <200/microl and those of 3 cases were >200/microl. Clinically, P. carinii-positive cases were associated with fever in 55.5%, with tightness of the chest in 38.9%, and with cyanosis and tightness of the chest in 11.1%. Co-infection with tuberculosis was found in 16.7%. Anti-pneumocystic prophylaxis is recommended for those patients with a CD4 count <200/microl. Giemsa staining could be used as an alternative diagnostic method for detecting P. carinii. This study documented the existing prevalence of P. carinii among HIV-infected Myanmar patients.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Azure Stains , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Silver Staining , Survival Rate
17.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2003 ; 34 Suppl 4(): 1-102
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33518

ABSTRACT

In an expansion of the first Mekong Malaria monograph published in 1999, this second monograph updates the malaria database in the countries comprising the Mekong region of Southeast Asia. The update adds another 3 years' information to cover cumulative data from the 6 Mekong countries (Cambodia, China/Yunnan, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam) for the six-year period 1999-2001. The objective is to generate a more comprehensive regional perspective in what is a global epicenter of drug resistant falciparum malaria, in order to improve malaria control on a regional basis in the context of social and economic change. The further application of geographical information systems (GIS) to the analysis has underscored the overall asymmetry of disease patterns in the region, with increased emphasis on population mobility in disease spread. Of great importance is the continuing expansion of resistance of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs in common use and the increasing employment of differing drug combinations as a result. The variation in drug policy among the 6 countries still represents a major obstacle to the institution of region-wide restrictions on drug misuse. An important step forward has been the establishment of 36 sentinel sites throughout the 6 countries, with the objective of standardizing the drug monitoring process; while not all sentinel sites are fully operational yet, the initial implementation has already given encouraging results in relation to disease monitoring. Some decreases in malaria mortality have been recorded. The disease patterns delineated by GIS are particularly instructive when focused on inter-country distribution, which is where more local collaborative effort can be made to rationalize resource utilization and policy development. Placing disease data in the context of socio-economic trends within and between countries serves to further identify the needs and the potential for placing emphasis on resource rationalization on a regional basis. Despite the difficulties, the 6-year time frame represented in this monograph gives confidence that the now well established collaboration is becoming a major factor in improving malaria control on a regional basis and hopefully redressing to a substantial degree the key problem of spread of drug resistance regionally and eventually globally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Cambodia/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Culicidae , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Environment , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Incidence , Insect Vectors , Laos/epidemiology , Malaria/drug therapy , Myanmar/epidemiology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Socioeconomic Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35682

ABSTRACT

A one year study (August 1998-July 1999) of bacteremia in febrile children was carried out in the Medical Unit (III), Yangon Children's Hospital (YCH), Myanmar, to determine: (1) the bacteria responsible for fever of five days or more in children; (2) the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of these bacteria. Children aged one month to 12 years who had fever for five days or more and who did not receive antibiotics within the first 48 hours irrespective of the diagnosis were included in this study. A total of 120 patients fulfilled the criteria. Bacteria could be isolated from 65 cases (54.2%). The commonest organism isolated was Salmonella typhi (43.1%). Others included Escherichia coli (12.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.7%); Streptococcus, Shigella, Diplococcus, Klebsiella and Acinetobacter were also isolated. The Salmonella typhi were resistant to conventional antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole); however, they were sensitive to amikacin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, and cephalothin. A cluster of enteric fever cases from Mingalartaungnyunt township was noticed and was reported to the Directorate of Health. Changes in the incidence and etiology of bacteremia in hospitals are well documented. Sentinel surveys of bacteremia in major hospitals should be carried out in order to detect the changing patterns of bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity; such surveys will be of great help in establishing local antibiotic policies.


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , Bacteremia/blood , Bacteriological Techniques , Bradycardia/microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Fever/microbiology , Hepatomegaly/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Myanmar/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , Splenomegaly/microbiology
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35351

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in three clustered communities, belonging to a single small village in Mae Chan subdistrict, Umphang district, Tak Province, close to the Thailand-Myanmar border, where regular night blood survey have been discontinued since 1997 and no epidemiological study had been conducted. In order to understand prevalences of distribution of male hydrocele and infection in clinically diagnostic and epidemiologic implications in uncertain transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, we analyzed the relationship between male hydrocele and community infection prevalences in 219 (90.5% coverage) subjects aged > or =1 year old, including 54.8% migratory and 45.2% local Karen inhabitants. Migratory inhabitants tended to have high prevalence of antigenemia (p < 0.05) and hydrocele. Overall rates of 23.7% antigenemia, 3.7% microfilaremia, and 4.6% male hydrocele were observed. Male hydrocele prevalence was significantly correlated (r = 0.348, p < 0.0001) with antigenemia prevalence, but not with microfilaremia prevalence (r = 0.065, p = 0.493). However, high antigenemia prevalence in local inhabitants was evident, particularly antigenemia prevalence in children suggesting that transmission in the village may have occurred in recent years.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Filariasis/complications , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Prevalence , Testicular Hydrocele/complications , Thailand/epidemiology , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolation & purification
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34623

ABSTRACT

An eight-month qualitative study was conducted in 1999 in four villages of Bong Tee subdistrict, Kanchanaburi Province located along the Thai-Myanmar border area using in-depth interviews of key informants and malaria survey as research methodologies. Malaria was a serious problem in 39.6% of the families surveyed in June 1999. The four villages located in a valley covered with forests and small streams which were ideal for malaria epidemic. The structure of the villages has been changed from stable communities to disrupted ones divided along ethnic and class lines. There were 5 ethnic groups dominated by ethnic Karen. Villagers were poor and thus deprived of anti-malaria resources which allow them to remain exposed to malaria.


Subject(s)
Health Care Rationing , Humans , Malaria/economics , Myanmar/epidemiology , Poverty/ethnology , Thailand/epidemiology
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