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1.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Supl. Especial 2): 79-88, 2021/12/28.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352331

ABSTRACT

A tuberculose é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis muito disseminada no Brasil. Tem preferência pelo acometimento pulmonar, embora vários outros órgãos possam ser afetados, como vasos linfáticos, trato geniturinário, ossos, articulações, sistema nervoso central, trato gastrointestinal e pericárdio. A pneumonia tuberculosa é uma forma rara, que se apresenta com consolidação alveolar, principalmente em lobo superior, podendo mimetizar um quadro de pneumonia pneumocócica. O objetivo deste ensaio é relatar o caso clínico de um indivíduo do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de pneumonia tuberculosa no Hospital Geral Roberto Santos (HGRS) e fazer uma breve revisão da literatura sobre o tema. O método utilizado para isso será o relato de caso clínico, com informações obtidas por meio de revisão de dados contidos em prontuário médico. Os resultados obtidos foram: paciente do sexo masculino, 19 anos, previamente hígido, não tabagista, natural de Recife, procedente de Salvador, admitido em agosto de 2019 no serviço de emergência do HGRS, com história de tosse produtiva de secreção amarelada, febre não mensurada e calafrios. O relato de caso descrito mostra uma apresentação atípica, rara e pouco comum de pneumonia tuberculosa/tuberculose pulmonar. A procura por diagnósticos diferenciais em quadros com resposta ruim à terapêutica inicialmente instituída é fundamental para evitar atrasos entre a realização do diagnóstico correto e a introdução das devidas medidas terapêuticas.


Tuberculosis is a highly prevalent infectious disease in Brazil, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite mostly affecting the lungs, it may also affect other organs, such as lymphatic vessels, genitourinary tract, bones, joints, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and pericardium. A rare form of the disease, tuberculous pneumonia presents with alveolar consolidation, especially in the upper lobe, possibly mimicking pneumococcal pneumonia. This study sought to report the clinical case of a male individual diagnosed with Tuberculous Pneumonia at the Hospital Geral Roberto Santos, as well as to perform a brief literature review of subject. The study was conducted with data collected from the medical records of a male patient aged 19 years old, previously healthy, non-smoker, born in Recife and living in Salvador, admitted in August 2019 to the emergency service of Hospital Geral Roberto Santos with a history of productive cough yellowish sputum, unmeasured fever, and chills. The case report here described shows an atypical, rare, and uncommon presentation of Tuberculous Pneumonia/Pulmonary Tuberculosis. To avoid delays between the correct diagnosis and the introduction of the respective therapeutic measures, health professionals should search for differential diagnoses in conditions with poor response to the initially instituted therapy.


La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis muy prevalente en Brasil. Tiene preferencia por la afectación pulmonar, aunque pueden estar implicados muchos otros órganos, como vasos linfáticos, tracto genitourinario, huesos, articulaciones, sistema nervioso central, tracto gastrointestinal y pericardio. La neumonía tuberculosa es una forma rara, que se presenta con consolidación alveolar, especialmente en el lóbulo superior, que puede simular un cuadro de neumonía neumocócica. El objetivo de este ensayo es informar el caso clínico de un varón diagnosticado de Neumonía Tuberculosa en el Hospital Geral Roberto Santos y realizar una breve revisión de la literatura sobre el tema. El método utilizado para ello será elreporte de caso clínico con información obtenida mediante revisión de datos contenidos en historias clínicas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: paciente varón de 19 años, previamente sano, no fumador, nacido en Recife, residente en Salvador, ingresado en agosto de 2019 en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Geral Roberto Santos, con antecedente de tos productiva amarillenta, fiebre no medida y escalofríos. El reporte de caso aquí descrito muestra una presentación atípica, rara y poco común de neumonía tuberculosa/tuberculosis pulmonar. La búsqueda de diagnósticos diferenciales en condiciones con mala respuesta a la terapia inicialmente instituida es fundamental para evitar retrasos entre el diagnóstico correcto y la introducción de las respectivas medidas terapéuticas.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Gastrointestinal Tract , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 180-176, jul. 29, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283009

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El diagnóstico temprano de tuberculosis permite el control de la enfermedad y su transmisibilidad. Objetivo. Describir la validez diagnóstica del GeneXpert MTB/RIF para Mycobacterium tuberculosis en muestra bronquial, utilizando como referencia el cultivo Löwenstein Jensen. Metodología. Estudio transversal analítico, mediante revisión de 942 registros de la Unidad de Broncoscopía durante el año 2014 al 2018, de las cuales 320 cumplieron criterios de inclusión. Estos datos fueron exportados a un formato compatible con Epi Info versión 7 y analizados con parámetros estadísticos de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, prueba de concordancia e índice Kappa Epidat 4,2. Resultados. De los 320 pacientes sometidos a fibrobroncoscopía diagnóstica para tuberculosis con GeneXpert MTB/RIF, los resultados negativos fueron 79 % (252) y positivo 21 % (68); el 1 % mostró resistencia a rifampicina. Se reportó una fuerte concordancia de GeneXpert MTB/RIF con el cultivo bacilo ácido alcohol resistente, que se determinó con un índice de kappa de 0,88 +/- (0,81-0,94) IC 95 %, una sensibilidad del 98 %, especificidad del 96 %, valor predictivo positivo 83 % (IC 95 %), valor predictivo negativo 99,6 % (CI 95 %). Conclusión. La prueba GeneXpert MTB/RIF tiene una capacidad altamente sensible y específica para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis en muestras obtenidas por fibrobroncoscopía


Introduction. The early diagnosis of tuberculosis allows the control of the disease and its transmissibility. Objective. Describe the diagnostic validity of GeneXpert MTB / RIF for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bronchial sample using the Löwenstein Jensen culture as reference. Methodology. Analytical cross-sectional study, through a review of 942 records of the Bronchoscopy Unit during the year 2014 to 2018, of which 320 met inclusion criteria. These data were exported to a format compatible with Epi Info version 7, analyzed with statistical parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, concordance test, and Kappa Epidat index 4,2. Results. Of the 320 patients who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy for tuberculosis with GeneXpert MTB / RIF, the negative results were 79 % (252), and positive 21 % (68), 1 % showed genetic resistance to rifampicin. A strong concordance of GeneXpert MTB / RIF was reported with the acid-alcohol-resistant bacillus culture determined with a kappa index of 0,88 +/- (0,81-0,94) 95 % CI, a sensitivity of 98 %, specificity 96 %, positive predictive value 83 % (95 % CI), negative predictive value 99,6 % (95 % CI). Conclusions. The GeneXpert MTB / RIF Test has a highly sensitive and specific capacity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in samples obtained by bronchoscopy


Subject(s)
Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Bronchoscopy
3.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(2): e1016, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280222

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El empiema de necesidad o empiema necessitatis (del latín) es un hallazgo raro en la actualidad y la tuberculosis es la causa más común, sobre todo en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Objetivo: Presentar un caso con un empiema de necesidad como complicación de la tuberculosis extrapulmonar Caso clínico: Paciente de sexo femenino de 47 años de edad, sin antecedentes de enfermedad conocidos. Ingresa por una neumonía de la base derecha y como complicación un empiema de necesidad de naturaleza tuberculosa. Es tratada de forma médica y quirúrgica, tuvo una evolución favorable. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de la epidemiología de la zona donde se diagnosticó la enferma y la medicina personalizada contribuyeron a un diagnóstico rápido y a un tratamiento médico y quirúrgico acorde a los protocolos establecidos para la tuberculosis extrapleural(AU)


Introduction: Empyema of necessity (or empyema necessitatis) is, at present, a rare finding, of which tuberculosis is the most common cause, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Objective: To present a case of empyema of necessity as a complication of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical case: 47-year-old female patient, without known history of disease, who was admitted due to pneumonia of the right base and, as a complication, an empyema of necessity of a tubercular nature. She was treated medically and surgically, and had a favorable evolution. Conclusions: Knowledge of the epidemiology of the area where the patient was diagnosed, together with personalized medical care, contributed to a rapid diagnosis, as well as to the medical and surgical treatment provided according to the protocols established for extrapleural tuberculosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Medical Care , Empyema, Tuberculous/surgery , Empyema, Tuberculous/complications , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
4.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-20, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa, causada por diversas especies del Complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, actualmente se estima que un tercio de la población mundial se encuentra afectada por lo que representa una amenaza para la salud pública, principalmente por el surgimiento de cepas Multidrogorresistentes (TB-MDR). En Bolivia se reportaron 7.538 personas enfermas con Tuberculosis, los últimos datos sobre TB-MDR indican un aumento de 0,2% por año, en 2019 se registró un 3,1% de TB-MDR. Actualmente en nuestro país se emplean métodos moleculares para la identificación de este agente infeccioso; no obstante, existen muy pocos o ningún trabajo acerca de la aplicación de métodos moleculares para la detección precisa y efectiva de cepas TB-MDR que otorguen validez a los resultados emitidos. Este trabajo resuelve el cuestionamiento de, si la PCR en tiempo real (RT-qPCR) acoplada a curvas melting es una herramienta de diagnóstico alternativo aplicable, para la identificación de Tuberculosis Multidrogorresistente MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se trabajó con 74 cepas de Mycobaterium tuberculosis fenotípicamente identificadas por cultivo (método de las proporciones, Canetti Rist) como gold standar. El material genético para las pruebas moleculares se obtuvo por el método de columnas, se utilizaron dos controles primarios para la determinación de resistencia a los fármacos Isoniacida y Rifampicina, tanto los controles como las muestras se procesaron por RT-qPCR acoplada a curvas melting, mediante cambios de temperatura de disociación. RESULTADOS: los parámetros de test diagnóstico de la prueba demostraron sensibilidad: 67.4%, especificidad: 83.3%, Exactitud: 73.97%, VPP: 85.3%, VPN: 64.1% para Isoniacida. Mientras que para Rifampicina: Sensibilidad: 97%, especificidad: 20%, exactitud: 58.9%, VPP: 55.4% y VPN: 87.5%. CONCLUSIÓN: el método evaluado para la determinación de resistencia a Isoniacida presenta un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad, por lo que representa una alternativa diagnóstica confiable, mientras que para resistencia a Rifampicina presenta una alta sensibilidad que es muy útil para países endémicos como el nuestro.


INTRODUCTION: tuberculosis is an infectious-contagious disease, caused by various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, it is estimated that one third of the world population is affected by what represents a threat to public health, mainly by the emergence of multidrugresistant strains (MDR-TB). In Bolivia, 7,538 people are reported sick with Tuberculosis, the latest data on MDR-TB indicate an increase of 0.2% per year, in 2018 there was 3.1% of MDR-TB. Currently in our country molecular methods are used to identify this infectious agent; however, there is very little or no work on the application of molecular methods for the precise and effective detection of MDR-TB strains that give validity to the results issued. This work resolves the question of whether real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) coupled to melting curves is an applicable alternative diagnostic tool for the identification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MATERIALS AND METHODS: we worked with 74 strains of Mycobaterium tuberculosis phenotypically identified by culture (method of proportions, Canetti Rist) as a gold standar. The genetic material for molecular methods was obtained by the column assay, two primary controls were used for the determination of resistance to the drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin, both the controls and the samples were processed by RT-qPCR coupled to melting curves, by means of temperature changes of dissociation. RESULTS: the diagnostic test parameters of the test demonstrated sensitivity: 67.4%, specificity: 83.3%, Accuracy: 73.97%, PPV: 85.3%, NPV: 64.1% for Isoniazid. While for Rifampicin: Sensitivity: 97%, Specificity: 20%, Accuracy: 58.9%, PPV: 55.4% and NPV: 87.5% CONCLUSION: the method evaluated for the determination of resistance to Isoniazid presents a balance between sensitivity and specificity, therefore it represents a reliable diagnostic alternative, while for resistance to Rifampicin it presents a high sensitivity that is very useful for endemic countries such as ours.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Public Health , Isoniazid
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 30-36, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251543

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tuberculosis es una enfermedad de importancia en la salud pública a nivel mundial, con una alta incidencia a nivel del territorio colombiano. Principalmente, afecta el parénquima pulmonar; sin embargo, en un porcentaje elevado de casos se diagnostica en su forma extrapulmonar y el tracto gastrointestinal es uno de los sitios más frecuentes. Así mismo, la región ileocecal y el íleon terminal son las regiones con más predilección por la bacteria Mycobaterium tuberculosis. Las manifestaciones en esta rara presentación de la enfermedad están dadas por dolor abdominal y sensación de masa principalmente, lesiones ulcerosas en la mucosa intestinal y hallazgos histológicos correspondientes a granulomas caseificantes de gran tamaño y de morfología confluente, que se diferencian de otras entidades como la enfermedad de Crohn. La búsqueda de la enfermedad dentro del tracto gastrointestinal se realiza con ayuda de métodos invasivos como la colonoscopia y de ayudas diagnósticas de laboratorio como cultivos, tinciones o reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Dada la complejidad en el diagnóstico de esta forma de tuberculosis, el conocimiento y la manera en que se aborda un paciente con un cuadro sugestivo de esta enfermedad son factores importantes para establecer el manejo terapéutico oportuno. Se comparte un caso inusual de tuberculosis ileocecal como manifestación de síndrome febril prolongado con desenlace fatal.


Abstract Tuberculosis is a disease of public health importance worldwide with a high incidence in Colombia. It mainly affects the lung parenchyma. However, in a large number of cases, it is diagnosed in its extrapulmonary form, with the gastrointestinal tract being one of the most frequent sites. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a strong predilection for the ileocecal region and the terminal ileum. Manifestations of this rare form of the disease are abdominal pain and mass sensation mainly, as well as ulcerative lesions in the intestinal mucosa and histological findings corresponding to large caseating granulomas of confluent morphology, which distinguish it from other entities such as Crohn's disease. Invasive procedures, such as colonoscopy, and diagnostic laboratory aids, such as cultures, stains, and PCR, are used to find the disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Given the difficulty of diagnosing this type of tuberculosis, knowledge and how a patient with symptoms suggestive of the disease is approached are critical factors for establishing timely treatment. The following is an unusual case of ileocecal TB as a manifestation of prolonged febrile illness with a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Bacteria , Colonoscopy , Fatal Outcome , Laboratories
6.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 109-114, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251530

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa que suele afectar a los pulmones y es causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se transmite de una persona a otra a través de gotículas generadas en el sistema respiratorio de pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar activa. La tuberculosis esofágica es una afección rara (representa solo el 2,8% de todos los casos de tuberculosis gastrointestinal). Por lo general, ocurre como resultado de la diseminación directa desde los ganglios mediastínicos (rara vez desde los pulmones o el torrente sanguíneo). Su diagnóstico definitivo requiere el aislamiento de los bacilos tuberculosos, lo que rara vez se logra en la práctica clínica; aun así, clínicamente los pacientes presentan síntomas de disfagia, odinofagia y adelgazamiento. Caso clínico: se presenta un paciente de 40 años de edad con cuadro clínico de 6 meses de evolución con disfagia progresiva exacerbada a disfagia para líquidos, astenia, adinamia, hiporexia, dolor pleurítico, epigastralgia y tos con expectoración blanquecina; se realizó una endoscopia de vías digestivas altas que mostró una mucosa gravemente inflamada con ulceraciones irregulares de hasta 2 cm de profundidad, lesiones que sugirieron tuberculosis esofágica, confirmada por el estudio histopatológico: esofagitis crónica granulomatosa; por tanto, se inició el tratamiento tetraconjugado: rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida y etambutol. Conclusiones: La tuberculosis con afección del tubo digestivo es una entidad de baja frecuencia; adicionalmente, es importante recordar que la gravedad del cuadro clínico usualmente está relacionada con la coinfección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), y que la asociación de ambas patologías es frecuente.


Abstract Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs and is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is transmitted from one person to another through droplets generated in the respiratory system of patients with active lung disease. Esophageal tuberculosis is a rare condition (accounting for only 2.8% of all cases of gastrointestinal tuberculosis). It usually occurs as a result of the direct spread from the mediastinal nodes, but rarely from the lungs or bloodstream. Its definitive diagnosis requires the isolation of tuberculous bacilli, which is rarely achieved in clinical practice. However, clinically speaking, patients present with symptoms of dysphagia, odynophagia, and weight loss. Case study: This is the case of a 40-year-old patient with symptoms of 6 months of evolution with progressive dysphagia exacerbated to dysphagia for liquids, asthenia, adynamia, hyporexia, pleuritic pain, epigastric pain, and cough with whitish sputum. An endoscopy of the upper digestive tract was performed, showing severely inflamed mucosa with irregular ulcerations up to 2 cm deep, which suggested esophageal TB. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, which reported chronic granulomatous esophagitis. Tetraconjugated treatment was initiated, including rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is a rare entity. It should be noted that the severity of the symptoms is usually associated with HIV co-infection, and their association is a frequent occurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis , HIV , Immunosuppression , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(1): e37106, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1289843

ABSTRACT

Resumen: A nivel mundial se estima que en 2018 hubo alrededor de 10 millones de nuevos casos de tuberculosis (TBC). La detección molecular es una herramienta diagnóstica crecientemente utilizada para el diagnóstico de TBC. Los predictores de riesgo para TBC pulmonar son variados y varían de acuerdo a la población estudiada. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la performance de la detección de M. tuberculosis por la técnica Xpert® MTB/RIF para el diagnóstico de TBC pulmonar y determinar los factores predictores de presencia de esta enfermedad en pacientes asistidos en el Hospital Pasteur de Montevideo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron 254 pacientes, 68 con TBC pulmonar. La sensibilidad de la prueba Xpert® MTB/RIF para detectar M. tuberculosis fue 100% (IC 95%: 91,2-100) y la especificidad 95,1% (IC 95%: 83,9-98,7). En el análisis multivariado se evidenció que los predictores independientes para presencia de TBC pulmonar fueron: contacto cercano con otro caso de TBC (p<0,001), consumo de pasta base de cocaína (p=0,006) y presentarse con adelgazamiento (p<0,001). En suma, la prueba Xpert® MTB/RIF se comportó como una excelente herramienta diagnóstica en nuestra población con elevada prevalencia de TBC pulmonar. Los predictores independientes para esta enfermedad indican que en la población analizada las estrategias de control de esta enfermedad requieren un abordaje multidisciplinario.


Summary: According to global estimations, there were approximately 10 million new cases of tuberculosis in 2018. Molecular diagnosis constitutes a rapidly growing diagnostic tool for tuberculosis. Risk predictors for pulmonary tuberculosis are varied and they depend on the population studied. The study aimed to assess the performance of M. tuberculosis detection by use of Xpert® MTB/RIF diagnostic test to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify predictive factors for this disease in patients assisted at Pasteur Hospital in Montevideo. A descriptive, observational and transversal study was conducted, which included 254 patients, 68 of which had pulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to detect M. tuberculosis was 100% (CI 95%: 91.2-100) and specificity 95.1% (CI 95%: 83.9-98.7). Multivariate analysis evidenced the following to be the independent predictors that detect pulmonary tuberculosis: close contact with other cases of tuberculosis (p<0.001), coca-paste consumption (p=0.006) and evidence of loss of weight (p<0,001). To sum up, the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in our population with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Independent predictors for this disease show that, in the population studied, control strategies require a multidisciplinary approach.


Resumo: Globalmente, estima-se que em 2018 ocorreram cerca de 10 milhões de novos casos de tuberculose (TB). A detecção molecular é uma ferramenta diagnóstica cada vez mais usada para seu diagnóstico. Os preditores de risco para TB pulmonar são diversos e variam de acordo com a população estudada. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar o desempenho da detecção do M. tuberculosis pela técnica Xpert MTB/RIF para o diagnóstico da TB pulmonar e determinar os fatores preditivos da presença desta doença em pacientes atendidos no Hospital Pasteur de Montevidéu. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal. 254 pacientes foram incluídos, 68 com TB pulmonar. A sensibilidade do teste Xpert® MTB/RIF para detectar M. tuberculosis foi de 100% (IC 95%: 91,2-100) e a especificidade de 95,1% (IC 95%: 83,9- 98,7). A análise multivariada mostrou que os preditores independentes para a presença de tuberculose pulmonar foram: contato próximo com outro caso de tuberculose (p <0,001), consumo de pasta base de cocaína (p = 0,006) e apresentar perda de peso (p <0,001). Em suma, o teste Xpert® MTB/RIF se comportou como uma excelente ferramenta diagnóstica em nossa população com alta prevalência de TB pulmonar. Os preditores independentes para essa doença indicam que, na população analisada, as estratégias de controle da doença requerem uma abordagem multidisciplinar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200517, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154877

ABSTRACT

Molecular-typing can help in unraveling epidemiological scenarios and improvement for disease control strategies. A literature review of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in Brazil through genotyping on 56 studies published from 1996-2019 was performed. The clustering rate for mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) of 1,613 isolates were: 73%, 33% and 28% based on 12, 15 and 24-loci, respectively; while for RFLP-IS6110 were: 84% among prison population in Rio de Janeiro, 69% among multidrug-resistant isolates in Rio Grande do Sul, and 56.2% in general population in São Paulo. These findings could improve tuberculosis (TB) surveillance and set up a solid basis to build a database of Mycobacterium genomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics , Minisatellite Repeats/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Molecular Epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31402, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291366

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) é uma doença infecciosa causada pela bactéria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, transmitida a partir da via aérea de pacientes com a forma pulmonar ou laríngea, que atinge cerca de 10 milhões de pessoas no mundo por ano. A forma pulmonar é a mais comum, sendo a TB cutânea responsável por 1,5% dos casos. Descrição do caso: Paciente 58 anos, masculino, apresentando síndrome consumptiva e abscessos em flanco direito, região pré-esternal e hemitórax direito há 60 dias, sem febre ou outros sintomas associados. Ao exame, apresentava lesão fibroelástica com aspecto similar a escrofuloderma. Análise histopatológica evidenciou processo inflamatório inespecífico sem sinais de malignidade. Cultura para fungos negativa e houve positivação da cultura para M. tuberculosis. Discussão: A TB cutânea é uma forma de apresentação rara de TB. Sua forma escrofuloderma é a mais observada em países em desenvolvimento. A lesão do escrofuloderma pode ser única ou múltipla. Todo paciente deve ser submetido a pesquisa de foco de TB subjacente, sendo a coexistência com um processo pulmonar ativo relativamente comum. O tratamento da TB cutânea inclui medidas gerais e terapia farmacológica por seis meses. Conclusão: A tuberculose continua sendo uma doença prevalente em todo mundo. O Brasil está entre os 30 países de alta carga de TB, considerados como prioritários no mundo para controle da doença pela OMS. Nesse contexto, reconhecer as formas de apresentação da doença se torna cada vez mais importante. Devemos sempre nos lembrar da TB como um diagnóstico diferencial em nosso meio.


Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, transmitted from the airways of patients with pulmonary or laryngeal forms, which affects around 10 million people worldwide each year. The pulmonary form is the most common, with cutaneous TB responsible for 1.5% of cases. Case description: A 58-year-old male patient, with consumptive syndrome and abscesses on the right flank, pre-sternal region and right hemithorax for 60 days, without fever or other associated symptoms. Upon physical examination, he presented fibroelastic lesion with an aspect similar to scrofuloderma. Histopathological analysis showed a nonspecific inflammatory process with no signs of malignancy. Culture for bacteria and fungi were negatives, while the culture for M. tuberculosis was positive. Discussion: Cutaneous TB is a rare form of TB. Its scrofuloderma form is the most observed in developing countries. The scrofuloderma lesion can be single or multiple. In every single patient, the underlying TB focus survey should be performed, coexistence with an active pulmonary process being relatively common. The cutaneous TB treatment includes general measures and pharmacological therapy for six months. Conclusion: Tuberculosis remains a prevalent disease worldwide. Brazil is among the 30 countries with a high TB load, considered as priorities in the world for the control of the disease by WHO. In this context, recognizing the forms of presentation of the disease becomes increasingly important. We must always remember TB as a differential diagnosis in our environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous , Communicable Diseases , Aerosols , Larynx , Lung , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21210127, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285571

ABSTRACT

Abstract The rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), especially considering limited resources, is still a challenge. Development of new methodologies and tests are needed to overcome several disadvantages of the available standard tests. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of two antigens specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the CFP10 and ESAT6 recombinant proteins, and developed stable formulations thereof. Sensitivity and specificity of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing and the induction of gamma interferon production (IFN-γ) by lymphocytes, as a non-invasive test, were evaluated using the CFP10 and ESAT6 protein formulations. The recombinant proteins produced by our group presented a high DTH response and the ability to differentiate between tuberculosis infection, BCG vaccination, and the contact with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The production of IFN-γ by stimulation with individual and combined proteins was detected in a panel of 40 individuals and showed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90% when the two proteins were used together. Lyophilized formulations were stable under all conditions, while soluble formulations were stable under freezing at -20 ºC and -80 ºC. The proposed formulations containing the ESAT6 and CFP10 recombinant antigens constitute satisfactory tools for TB testing, suitable to be developed and implemented in a large-scale trial.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Interferon-gamma , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antigens/chemistry
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3441, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289785

ABSTRACT

Objective: to assess the impact of the GeneXpert® MTB/RIF rapid molecular test on tuberculosis detection, to analyze the temporal trend of the event and to identify vulnerable territories in a Brazilian municipality. Method: an ecological study carried out in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, a municipality considered a priority in tuberculosis control due to the high number of cases. To classify the temporal trend, the Prais-Winsten method and the Interrupted Time Series were used to identify changes in the disease incidence. Kernel intensity analysis was applied to identify vulnerable areas. Results: the temporal trend of tuberculosis decreased by 18.1%/year and by 6.9%/year for children under 15 years old. The North District decreased by 6.67%/year and the East District increased by 17.5%/year in the incidence of tuberculosis. Resistant tuberculosis, after the implementation of the Rapid Molecular Test, increased by 0.6% per year. The South and West Districts showed a higher density of cases, with a range from 45 to 79 tuberculosis cases per square kilometer (km2). Conclusion: although resistant tuberculosis is not a problem in the scenario, the study showed an increase in its incidence, which puts it on alert. The use of spatial analysis enabled the identification of priority areas, putting them in evidence for health surveillance actions.


Objetivo: avaliar o impacto do teste rápido molecular GeneXpert® MTB/RIF na detecção da tuberculose, analisar a tendência temporal do evento e identificar territórios vulneráveis em município brasileiro. Método: estudo ecológico realizado em Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, município considerado prioritário no controle da tuberculose devido ao elevado número de casos. Para classificar a tendência temporal foi utilizado o método de Prais-Winsten e a Série Temporal Interrompida para identificar mudanças na incidência da doença. Aplicou-se a análise de intensidade de Kernel para a identificação de áreas vulneráveis. Resultados: a tendência temporal da tuberculose apresentou decréscimo de 18,1%/ano e de 6,9%/ano em menores de 15 anos. O Distrito Norte apresentou decréscimo de 6,67%/ano e o Distrito Leste crescimento de 17,5%/ano, na incidência de tuberculose. A tuberculose resistente, após a implementação do teste rápido molecular, apresentou aumento de 0,6% por ano. Os Distritos Sul e Oeste apresentaram maior densidade de casos, com variação de 45 a 79 casos de tuberculose por quilômetro quadrado (km2). Conclusão: apesar da tuberculose resistente não ser um problema no cenário, o estudo evidenciou um crescimento na sua incidência, o que o coloca em estado de alerta. O uso da análise espacial possibilitou a identificação das áreas prioritárias, colocando-as em evidência para ações de vigilância em saúde.


Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de la prueba rápida molecular GeneXpert® MTB/RIF en la detección de tuberculosis, analizar la tendencia temporal del evento e identificar territorios vulnerables en un municipio brasileño. Método: estudio ecológico realizado en Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, municipio considerado prioritario en el control de la tuberculosis por el elevado número de casos. Se utilizó el método de Prais-Winsten para clasificar la tendencia temporal y la técnica de Series de Tiempo Interrumpidas para identificar cambios en la incidencia de la enfermedad. Se aplicó un análisis de intensidad de Kernel para identificar áreas vulnerables. Resultados: la tendencia temporal de la tuberculosis disminuyó un 18,1%/año y un 6,9%/año en los menores de 15 años. La incidencia de tuberculosis disminuyó un 6,67%/año en el Distrito Norte y aumentó un 17,5%/año en el Distrito Este. La tuberculosis resistente, después de la implementación de la Prueba Molecular Rápida, aumentó un 0,6% anual. Los Distritos Sur y Oeste presentaron una mayor densidad de casos, con un rango de 45 a 79 casos de tuberculosis por kilómetros cuadrados (km2). Conclusión: aunque la tuberculosis resistente no representa un problema en el escenario, el estudio mostró un aumento en la incidencia, lo que genera una señal de alerta. El uso del análisis espacial permitió identificar áreas prioritarias, para que puedan llevarse a cabo acciones de vigilancia en salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Rifampin , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spatial Analysis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07552020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155600

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intensification of research and innovation with the creation of networks of rapid and effective molecular tests as strategies for the end of tuberculosis are essential to avoid late diagnosis and for the eradication of the disease. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert) in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in reference units, in scenarios with and without subsidies, and the respective cost adjustment for today. METHODS: The analyses were performed considering as criterion of effectiveness, negative culture or clinical improvement in the sixth month of follow-up. The comparison was performed using two diagnostic strategies for the drug susceptibility test (DST), BactecTMMGITTM960 System, versus Xpert. The cost effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and dollar-corrected for American inflation (US$ 1.00 = R$ 5,29). RESULTS: Subsidized Xpert had the lowest cost of US$ 33.48 (R$67,52) and the highest incremental average efficiency (13.57), thus being a dominated analysis. After the inflation was calculated, the mean cost was DST-MGIT=US$ 74.85 (R$ 396,73) and Xpert = US$ 37.33 (R$197,86) with subsidies. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert in the diagnosis of TB-DR in these reference units was cost-effective with subsidies. In the absence of a subsidy, Xpert in TB-DR is not characterized as cost effective. This factor reveals the vulnerability of countries dependent on international organizations' subsidy policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cost-Benefit Analysis
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0728-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155535

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes death worldwide. METHODS: MTB was subjected to phenotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST), and drug-resistant genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Previously treated patients were more likely to have positive smear results and exhibit drug resistance. New patients were more likely to be mono SM-resistant and less likely to be INH- and RIF-resistant. The most common mutations were katG (S315T), rpoB (S450L), rpsL (K43R), and embB (M306V). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of mono-SM-resistant TB among new patients was higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Mutation , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 202 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352763

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A tuberculose é uma doença milenar e infectocontagiosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Trata-se de uma doença prevenível e com histórico de cura desde meados do século XX, mesmo assim, ainda é considerada um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública global do século XXI, sendo as regiões mais afetadas, o Sudeste Asiático e a África Subsaariana, onde Moçambique faz parte. Objetivo: O estudo buscou descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos da tuberculose e dos serviços de atendimento à pessoa com tuberculose (SAPTB) no Município de Chimoio no período 2018-2019. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa no qual foram usados dados primários e secundários. Os dados primários foram referentes aos aspectos da estrutura organizacional e funcional dos SAPTB obtidos a partir da aplicação de um questionário aos gestores dos SAPTB dos Centros de Saúde (C.S). Os dados secundários foram relativos aos aspectos sociodemográficos e clínico-epidemiológicos dos casos de tuberculose notificados no período 2018-2019 confirmados pelos métodos laboratoriais de baciloscopia e GeneXpert®MTB/RIF. Para o estudo de fatores associados, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão logística não ajustado entre as variáveis independentes (sociodemográficos e clínico-epidemiológicas) e dependente (desfecho desfavorável do tratamento da doença: óbito, perda de seguimento hospitalar e/ou abandono e falência terapêutica). As variáveis que apresentaram p≤0,20 foram consideradas candidatas para a inclusão nos modelos de regressão logística múltiplo ajustado pelo sexo e faixa etária. Na sequência, a força de associação (Odds Ratio-OR) entre as variáveis e os respectivos intervalos de 95% confiança (IC95%) foram calculados. Teste de Hosmer e Lemeshow (HL) foi aplicado para a avaliação da qualidade da bondade do ajuste do modelo de regressão logística múltiplo final. Resultados: Todos os C.S tinham SAPTB e equipe técnica estabelecida, porém, diferentes na composição e no tempo de resposta laboratorial. Foram no total, 1.078 casos identificados, sendo, 1.030 novos, 48 reingressados e 555 coinfectados TB-HIV. Destes, 642 (59,6%) eram do sexo masculino, 455 (42,2%) tinham idades na faixa etária de 30 a 44 anos, 901 (83,6%) residentes de zona suburbana e 858 (79,6%) desempregados. Muitos casos não tinham registro sobre estado civil e nível de escolaridade, destacando-se dos poucos casos com essa informação, 65 (6,0) com companheiro e 258 (23,9%) com nível de escolaridade entre 8 e 12 anos respectivamente. Foram envolvidos 1.009 casos no estudo de fatores associados, dos quais, 904 foram declarados curados, 53 óbitos, 49 perdas de seguimento e/ou abandonos do seguimento hospitalar e 3 com falência terapêutica, tendo sido identificado a TB-DR como fator associado (OR=134,3; IC 95%: 47,5-380,1) ao desfecho desfavorável do tratamento observado entre os casos estudados. Conclusão: Esses dados descrevem a estrutura organizacional dos SAPTB nos C.S dos Serviços Distritais da Saúde Mulher e Ação Social de Chimoio e ressaltam seus desafios no enfrentamento do quadro epidemiológico da tuberculose e o possível fator associado, sendo importante para instituir novas estratégias de monitoria e avaliação do Programa de Controle à Tuberculose local.


Introduction: Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a preventable disease with history of cure since the mid-twentieth century, yet it is still considered one of the greatest global public problems of the 21st century, with the most affected regions being Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where Mozambique is part. Objectives: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis and the services for the care of person with tuberculosis (SAPTB) in the Municipality of Chimoio in the period 2018-2019. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach in which were used primary and secondary data. Primary data were related to aspects of the organizational and functional structure of the SAPTB obtained from the application of a questionnaire to the managers of the SAPTB of the Health Centers (H.C). Secondary data were related to socio-demographic and clinical-epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis cases notified in the period 2018-2019 confirmed by the laboratory methods of bacilloscopy and GeneXpert®MTB/RIF. For the study of associated factors, the logistic regression model was used not adjusted between the independent variables (socio-demographic and clinical-epidemiological) and dependent (unfavourable outcome of the treatment of the disease: death, loss to follow-up and/or abandonment and therapeutic failure) variables. The variables that presented p≤0.20 were considered candidates for inclusion in the multiple logistic regression models adjusted for gender and age group. Subsequently, the strength of association (Odds Ratio-OR) between the variables was determined and the respective 95% confidence intervals (95% IC). Hosmer and Lemeshow test were applied to assess the quality of goodness of fit of the final multiple logistic regression model. Results: All the H.C had SAPTB and established technical team, however, different in composition and laboratory response time. 1,078 cases were identified, of which, 1,030 were new, 48 were re-infected and 555 were co-infected TB-HIV. Of these, 642 (59.6%) were male, 455 (42.2%) were aged between 30 and 44 years, 901 (83.6%) were living in suburban areas and 858 (79.6%) were unemployed. Many cases had no record on marital status and level of schooling, standing out from the few cases with this information, 65 (6.0) with a partner and 258 (23.9%) with a level of schooling between 8 and 12 years respectively. A total of 1009 cases were involved in the study of association factors, of which, 904 were declared cured, 53 deaths, 49 losses to follow-up and/or abandonment of hospital follow-up and 3 with treatment failure, and TB-DR was identified as factors associated (OR=134.3; IC 95%: 147.5-380.1) with the unfavourable treatment outcome observed among the cases studied. Conclusions: These data describe the organizational structure of SAPTB in the H.C of the District Health, Women and Social Services of Chimoio and highlight their challenges in addressing the epidemiological picture of tuberculosis and possible associated factors, being important to institute new strategies for monitoring and evaluating the local TB Control Program.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , HIV Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Diseases , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 700-707, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The timely diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is challenging. Molecular diagnostic tools are necessary for TBM, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: We aimed to calculate the diagnostics characteristics of Xpert MTB/RIF for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the frequency of rifampicin (RIF)-resistance in the CSF samples. Methods: A total of 313 consecutive CSF samples were studied and categorized into TBM definite, probable, possible, or not TBM cases based on the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data. Results: For the definite TBM cases (n=7), the sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, and positive likelihood ratio were 100, 97, 97, and 38%, respectively. However, for the TBM definite associated with the probable cases (n=24), the sensitivity decreased to 46%. All CSF samples that were Xpert MTB/RIF-positive were RIF susceptible. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF showed high discriminating value among the microbiology-proven TBM cases, although the values for the probable and possible TBM cases were reduced. Xpert MTB/RIF contributes significantly to the diagnosis of TBM, mainly when coupled with the conventional microbiological tests and clinical algorithms.


RESUMO Introdução: O diagnóstico da meningite tuberculosa (TBM) é desafiador. Ferramentas de diagnóstico molecular são necessárias para esse diagnóstico, particularmente em países de baixa e média renda. Objetivos: Calcular as características diagnósticas do Xpert MTB/RIF para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e a frequência de resistência à rifampicina (RIF) nas amostras do LCR. Métodos: Um total de 313 amostras consecutivas de LCR foram estudadas e categorizadas em casos de TBM definida, provável, possível ou não TBM, com base nos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e de imagem. Resultados: Para os casos definidos de TBM (n=7), sensibilidade, especificidade, eficiência e razão de verossimilhança positiva foram de 100, 97, 97 e 38%, respectivamente. No entanto, para os casos de TBM definidos associados aos prováveis (n=24), a sensibilidade diminuiu para 46%. Todas as amostras de LCR que foram positivas para Xpert MTB/RIF foram suscetíveis a RIF. Conclusão: O Xpert MTB/RIF mostrou alto valor discriminante entre os casos TBM comprovados por microbiologia, porém o valor nos casos prováveis e possíveis de TBM foram reduzidos. O Xpert MTB/RIF contribui significativamente para o diagnóstico de TBM, principalmente quando associado aos testes microbiológicos convencionais e algoritmos clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin/pharmacology , Brazil , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-12, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247650

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Knowledge about species diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and the frequency of tuberculosis (TB) is an important issue in rural-urban regions such as Piauí (northeast of Brazil), of low incidence rate of TB , can help to improve diagnosis and prevention strategies. The aim of this study is to examine some epidemiological aspects and the frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and NTM isolated at the central public health reference laboratory, Dr. Costa Alvarenga, Piauí (LACEN-PI). Methods: Data records of all mycobacterosis and tuberculosis cases from January 2014 to March 2015 were analyzed. Results : Of the 20% (142/706) positive growths, 70% (99) were Mtb and 10% NTM. The remainde was of inadequate clinical samples, not allowing the identification of even the suspected NTM. The most frequent clinical form was pulmonary with TB patients younger than those infected with NTM (p = 0.001), the majority living in Teresina (52%). NTMs identified were M. abscessus (36%), M. avium, M. intracellulare, Mycobacterium sp. (14% each) and M. asiaticum, M. szulgai, M. kansasii 7% (each). Mtb drug resistance (7.8%) and TB co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-TB) found to be high (49%, 19/39). Conclusion: The frequencies of Mtb infection, drug resistance and HIV-TB co-infection are still underestimated and failures in the identification of NTM may decrease the actual frequency of these infections. Therefore, there is a need for improvements in TB control and in the diagnosis of NTMs in Piauí.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies de micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT ) e a frequência da tuberculose (TB) é uma questão importante em regiões rurais-urbanas como o Piauí (nordeste do Brasil), com baixa incidência de TB, pode ajudar a melhorar o diagnóstico e estratégias de prevenção. O objetivo deste estudo é examinar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) e MNT isolados, no Laboratório Central de Referência em Saúde Pública, Dr. Costa Alvarenga, Piauí (LACEN-PI). Métodos: Dados de todo s os casos de micobacterioses e tuberculose de janeiro de 2014 a março de 2015 foram analisados. Resultados: Dos 20% (142/706), de amostras com crescimento positivo 70% (99) foram Mtb e 10% MNT . O restante era de amostras clínicas inadequadas, não permitindo a identificação inclusive de MNT suspeitos. A forma clínica mais frequente foi pulmonar com pacientes TB mais jovens do que os infectados com MNT (p = 0,001), a maioria morando em Teresina (52%). As MNT s identificadas foram M. abscessus (36%), M. avium , M. intracellulare , M. sp. (14%, cada) e M. asiaticum, M. szulgai , M. kansasii 7% (cada). A droga resistência de Mtb (7,8%) e a co-infecção TB e vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV-TB) mostraram-se altas (49%, 19/39).Conclusão: As frequências de infecção por Mtb, de resistência a medicamentos e co-infecção HIV-TB ainda são subestimadas e as falhas na identificação de MNT podem diminuir a real frequência destas infecções . Portanto, há necessidade de melhorias no controle da TB e no diagnóstico de MNT s no Piauí.(AU)


Justificacion y objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de especies de micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) y la frecuencia de tuberculosis (TB) es tema importante en regiones rurales-urbanas como Piauí (noreste de Brasil) con baja tasa de incidencia de TB, y puede ayudar a mejorar el diagnóstico y las estrategias de prevenció. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y la frecuencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) y MNT aislado, en el laboratorio central de referencia de salud pública, Dr. Costa Alvarenga, Piauí (LACEN-PI). Métodos: Se analizaron los datos de todos los casos de micobacteriosis de enero de 2014 a marzo de 2015. Resultados: Del 20% (142/706), de las muestras con crecimiento positivo el 70% (99) fueron Mtb y el 10% MNT. El resto fue de muestras clínicas inadecuadas, no permitiendo la identificación de MNT incluso sospechosas. La forma clínica más frecuente fue la pulmonar y los pacientes con TB eran más jóvenes que los infectados con MNT (p = 0.001), la mayoría viviendo en Teresina (52%).Los MNT identificados fueron M.abscessus (36%), M.avium, M.intracellulare, Mycobacterium sp. (14% cada) y M.asiaticum, M.szulgai, M.kansasii 7% (cada ). La resistencia a los medicamentos de Mtb (7,8%) y la coinfección de TB y el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH-TB) fueron altas (49%, 19/39 )Conclusión: Las frecuencias aún subestimadas de resistencia a los medicamentos, coinfección por VIH-TB y fallas de identificaciónidentificación de MNT pueden disminuir la frecuencia real de estas infecciones. Consecuentemente, es necesario mejorar el control y diagnóstico de TB y MNT en Piauí.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiology , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Drug Resistance , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Health Services Research
17.
Infectio ; 24(3): 173-181, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114862

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y desenlaces al tratamiento de los pacientes con tuberculosis resistente a isoniazida (Hr-TB) en una institución del suroccidente colombiano. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con confirmación diagnóstica, aislamiento microbiológico, pruebas de susceptibilidad a fármacos y evidencia de Hr-TB. Resultados: Se incluyeron 32 pacientes con Hr-TB entre 2006-2018 que corresponden al 6% (32/528) de resistencia del total de casos. El 78% (n=25) fueron casos nuevos, resistencia primaria, y el 22% (n=7) previamente tratados, resistencia adquirida. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue infección por VIH (n=9). El patrón de Hr-TB mostró en 23 (72%) casos con alto nivel, 4 (12%) de bajo nivel y 5 (16%) con bajo y alto nivel. El análisis de resultados al tratamiento se realizó a 22 pacientes, presentando el 50% cura, el 41% tratamiento completo y 9% muerte relacionada con la tuberculosis. Conclusiones: La Hr-TB predomina en los casos nuevos, lo que supone un obstáculo al tratamiento donde no se realizan las pruebas de susceptibilidad de forma rutinaria.


Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes to the treatment of patients with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (Hr-TB) in an institution in southwest Colombia. Materials and methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. Patients with diagnostic confirmation, microbiological isolation, drug susceptibility tests, and evidence of Hr-TB were included. Results: Thirty-two patients with Hr-TB were included between 2006-2018, corresponding to 6% (32/528) of resistance in total cases. 78% were new cases, primary resistance, and 22% previously treated, acquired resistance. The most frequent comorbidity was HIV infection (n = 9). The pattern of Hr-TB showed in 23 (72%) cases with high level, 4 (12%) of low level and 5 (16%) with low and high level. The analysis of treatment results was performed on 22 patients, presenting 50% cure, 41% completed treatment, and 9% death related to tuberculosis. Conclusions: Hr-TB predominates in new cases, which is an obstacle to treatment where susceptibility tests are not performed routinely.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis , Isoniazid , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Therapeutics , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Pharmaceutical Preparations , HIV Infections , Colombia , Infections
18.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e525, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149917

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia el control de la tuberculosis se ha visto amenazado por la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos y especialmente la tuberculosis multidrogorresistente. Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia global y perfiles de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a fármacos antituberculosos de primera línea y combinaciones. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el que se evaluaron 2 701 pacientes con tuberculosis en el Departamento del Atlántico (Colombia), durante los años 2011 a 2016. Se valoraron aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos y condiciones de riesgo. Se realizó análisis de frecuencias relativas y absolutas, diferencia de proporciones ((2) y razón de prevalencias. Resultados: El 66,5 por ciento de los pacientes eran hombres, el 53 por ciento tenían entre 15 y 44 años de edad. El 47,34 por ciento con pérdida en el seguimiento y el 11,62 por ciento monorresistentes a isoniacida. La resistencia en casos nuevos fue 7,30 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 6,3-8,5), para este grupo la multidrogorresistencia fue de 1,1 por ciento; mientras que en los previamente tratados la resistencia fue de 18,27 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 15,6- 22,4) y la multidrogorresistencia de 5,7 por ciento. Los factores asociados a resistencia fueron presencia de VIH/TB (RP= 2,6; p= 0,000), otros factores inmunosupresores (RP= 3,5; p= 0,009), contacto de paciente con tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (RP= 16; p= 0,000) y caso previamente tratado (RP= 2,24; p= 0,00). Conclusiones: Se evidencia un descenso en la resistencia global a rifampicina e isoniacida, así como en la prevalencia multidrogorresistente tanto en casos nuevos como en previamente tratados en la población estudiada; lo que genera una línea base para la toma de decisiones que permita continuar mejorando la vigilancia y control de la resistencia del M. tuberculosis a fármacos de primera línea, debido a los nuevos retos que este microorganismo representa para la salud pública(AU)


Introduction: Tuberculosis control in Colombia has been hampered by resistance to antituberculosis drugs and particularly by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Objective: Determine the overall resistance and resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-line antituberculosis drugs and their combinations. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 2 701 tuberculosis patients from Atlántico Department in Colombia in the period 2011-2016. The evaluation included sociodemographic aspects, clinical characteristics and risk conditions. Data analysis was based on relative and absolute frequencies, proportion difference (x2) and prevalence ratio. Results: Of the total sample, 66.5 percent were men and 53 percent were aged 15-44 years. 47.34 percent were lost to follow-up and 11.62 percent were monoresistant to isoniazid. In new cases resistance was 7.30 percent (CI 95 percent: 6.3-8.5) and multi-drug resistance was 1.1 percent, whereas in previously treated cases resistance was 18.27 percent (CI 95 percent: 15.6-22.4) and multi-drug resistance was 5.7 percent. The factors associated to resistance were the presence of HIV/TB (AR= 2.6; p= 0.000), other immunosuppressive factors (AR= 3.5; p= 0.009), contact with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patient (AR= 16; p= 0.000) and previously treated case (AR= 2.24; p= 0.00). Conclusions: A reduction is observed in overall resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, as well as in the prevalence of multi-drug resistance, both in new cases and in previously treated cases, which creates a baseline for the taking of decisions aimed at the continuing improvement of the surveillance and control of M. tuberculosis resistance to first-line drugs, due to the new challenges posed by this microorganism to public health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
19.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127516

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud en el año 2018 reportó alrededor de 10 millones de enfermos y 1,5 millones de muertes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis es un patógeno intracelular y el agente causal de la enfermedad. Estudios experimentales de virulencia han permitido determinar un conjunto de genes de virulencia, que le confieren la capacidad de resistir el ambiente hostil en el macrófago, superar la actividad de la respuesta inmune y persistir en el hospedero. El objetivo de la publicación es presentar una revisión de las investigaciones de los últimos 20 años que han demostrado los genes o factores de virulencia de M. tuberculosis que contribuyen a la evasión de la respuesta inmune. Según los resultados de las investigaciones, existen múltiples factores y genes de virulencia que participan en la evasión de la respuesta inmune innata como ESAT-6, PknG, PhoP, ManLAM, SapM, katG, tpx, nuoG, sodA/secA2, pknE y Rv3654c/Rv3655c, mientras existen elementos capaces de modular la respuesta inmune adaptativa. La comprensión de la interacción entre los genes de virulencia y la actividad del sistema inmune, son importantes para estudiar nuevos métodos de diagnóstico, el diseño de nuevas vacunas y por ende, mejorar las medidas de control, prevención y tratamiento de la tuberculosis(AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization in 2018 reported about 10 million patients and 1.5 million deaths. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the disease. Experimental virulence studies have allowed to determine a set of virulence genes that confer the ability to resist the hostile environment in the macrophage, overcome the activity of the immune response and persist in the host. The objective of the publication is to present a review of the last 20 years investigations that have shown the genes or virulence factors of M. tuberculosis that contribute to the evasion of the immune response. According to the results of the investigations, there are multiple virulence factors and genes that participate in the evasion of the innate immune response such as ESAT-6, PknG, PhoP, ManLAM, SapM, katG, tpx, nuoG, sodA/secA2, pknE and Rv3654c/Rv3655c, while there are elements capable of modulating the adaptive immune response. The understanding of the interaction between the virulence genes and the activity of the immune system, are important to study new diagnostic methods, the design of new vaccines and therefore, to improve the control, prevention and treatment measures of tuberculosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Virulence Factors , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity
20.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 366-370, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138633

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La tuberculosis (TBC) genital es una infección relativamente poco frecuente en la mujer. Afecta principalmente a mujeres menores de 40 años, y el motivo de consulta más usual es la esterilidad, de ahí la importancia de su diagnóstico precoz. CASO CLÍNICO clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente con dolor pélvico crónico que acude a nuestras consultas para valoración. Durante el estudio se toma biopsia dirigida de la cavidad endometrial diagnosticándose la presencia de granulomas no necrotizantes. Posteriormente se realiza un cultivo microbiológico que resulta positivo para micobacterias y se determina el DNA, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, de mycobacterium tuberculosis, como causante del cuadro. DISCUSIÓN: El diagnóstico definitivo de TBC requiere el aislamiento en cultivo del bacilo de Koch, aunque en los casos de TBC genital, al ser una entidad paucibacilar, puede no resultar positivo. En éste caso, sería suficiente el diagnóstico de presunción basado en la sospecha clínica y el hallazgo histológico de granulomas. CONCLUSIÓN: La tuberculosis genital es una entidad poco frecuente en nuestro medio, aunque es una causa importante de infertilidad femenina y su predominio generalmente se subestima debido a la naturaleza paucisintomática de la misma. El diagnóstico temprano y el tratamiento multidisciplinar son fundamentales.


INTRODUCTION: Genital tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare afection in women. It mainly affects women younger than 40 years, and the most frequent reason for consultation is sterility, therefore early diagnosis is important. CLINICAL CASE: We presented the case of a patient with chronic pelvic pain who comes to our consultations. During the study, we take an endometrial biopsy diagnosing the presence of non-necrotizing granulomas. Finally, we determined the mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA through the polymerase chain reaction and positive microbiological culture, as the cause of pathology. DISCUSSION: The definitive diagnosis of TB requires the isolation in culture of the Koch bacillus, although in genital TB cases, as it is a paucibacillary entity, it may not be positive. In this case, the presumptive diagnosis based on clinical suspicion and the histological granulomas would be enough. CONCLUSIONS: Genital tuberculosis is a rare entity in our environment, although it is an important cause of female infertility and its prevalence is generally underestimated due to its paucisymptomatic nature. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment are essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/complications , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/diagnosis , Endometritis/etiology , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/pathology , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/drug therapy , Postmenopause , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Granuloma/etiology , Infertility, Female , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
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