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1.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(2): e1016, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280222

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El empiema de necesidad o empiema necessitatis (del latín) es un hallazgo raro en la actualidad y la tuberculosis es la causa más común, sobre todo en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Objetivo: Presentar un caso con un empiema de necesidad como complicación de la tuberculosis extrapulmonar Caso clínico: Paciente de sexo femenino de 47 años de edad, sin antecedentes de enfermedad conocidos. Ingresa por una neumonía de la base derecha y como complicación un empiema de necesidad de naturaleza tuberculosa. Es tratada de forma médica y quirúrgica, tuvo una evolución favorable. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de la epidemiología de la zona donde se diagnosticó la enferma y la medicina personalizada contribuyeron a un diagnóstico rápido y a un tratamiento médico y quirúrgico acorde a los protocolos establecidos para la tuberculosis extrapleural(AU)


Introduction: Empyema of necessity (or empyema necessitatis) is, at present, a rare finding, of which tuberculosis is the most common cause, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Objective: To present a case of empyema of necessity as a complication of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical case: 47-year-old female patient, without known history of disease, who was admitted due to pneumonia of the right base and, as a complication, an empyema of necessity of a tubercular nature. She was treated medically and surgically, and had a favorable evolution. Conclusions: Knowledge of the epidemiology of the area where the patient was diagnosed, together with personalized medical care, contributed to a rapid diagnosis, as well as to the medical and surgical treatment provided according to the protocols established for extrapleural tuberculosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Medical Care , Empyema, Tuberculous/surgery , Empyema, Tuberculous/complications , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e525, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149917

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia el control de la tuberculosis se ha visto amenazado por la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos y especialmente la tuberculosis multidrogorresistente. Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia global y perfiles de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a fármacos antituberculosos de primera línea y combinaciones. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el que se evaluaron 2 701 pacientes con tuberculosis en el Departamento del Atlántico (Colombia), durante los años 2011 a 2016. Se valoraron aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos y condiciones de riesgo. Se realizó análisis de frecuencias relativas y absolutas, diferencia de proporciones ((2) y razón de prevalencias. Resultados: El 66,5 por ciento de los pacientes eran hombres, el 53 por ciento tenían entre 15 y 44 años de edad. El 47,34 por ciento con pérdida en el seguimiento y el 11,62 por ciento monorresistentes a isoniacida. La resistencia en casos nuevos fue 7,30 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 6,3-8,5), para este grupo la multidrogorresistencia fue de 1,1 por ciento; mientras que en los previamente tratados la resistencia fue de 18,27 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 15,6- 22,4) y la multidrogorresistencia de 5,7 por ciento. Los factores asociados a resistencia fueron presencia de VIH/TB (RP= 2,6; p= 0,000), otros factores inmunosupresores (RP= 3,5; p= 0,009), contacto de paciente con tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (RP= 16; p= 0,000) y caso previamente tratado (RP= 2,24; p= 0,00). Conclusiones: Se evidencia un descenso en la resistencia global a rifampicina e isoniacida, así como en la prevalencia multidrogorresistente tanto en casos nuevos como en previamente tratados en la población estudiada; lo que genera una línea base para la toma de decisiones que permita continuar mejorando la vigilancia y control de la resistencia del M. tuberculosis a fármacos de primera línea, debido a los nuevos retos que este microorganismo representa para la salud pública(AU)


Introduction: Tuberculosis control in Colombia has been hampered by resistance to antituberculosis drugs and particularly by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Objective: Determine the overall resistance and resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-line antituberculosis drugs and their combinations. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 2 701 tuberculosis patients from Atlántico Department in Colombia in the period 2011-2016. The evaluation included sociodemographic aspects, clinical characteristics and risk conditions. Data analysis was based on relative and absolute frequencies, proportion difference (x2) and prevalence ratio. Results: Of the total sample, 66.5 percent were men and 53 percent were aged 15-44 years. 47.34 percent were lost to follow-up and 11.62 percent were monoresistant to isoniazid. In new cases resistance was 7.30 percent (CI 95 percent: 6.3-8.5) and multi-drug resistance was 1.1 percent, whereas in previously treated cases resistance was 18.27 percent (CI 95 percent: 15.6-22.4) and multi-drug resistance was 5.7 percent. The factors associated to resistance were the presence of HIV/TB (AR= 2.6; p= 0.000), other immunosuppressive factors (AR= 3.5; p= 0.009), contact with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patient (AR= 16; p= 0.000) and previously treated case (AR= 2.24; p= 0.00). Conclusions: A reduction is observed in overall resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, as well as in the prevalence of multi-drug resistance, both in new cases and in previously treated cases, which creates a baseline for the taking of decisions aimed at the continuing improvement of the surveillance and control of M. tuberculosis resistance to first-line drugs, due to the new challenges posed by this microorganism to public health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190179, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132181

ABSTRACT

Abstract (1) Background: The Commercial Kit SIRE Nitratase® PlastLabor, is a drug susceptibility test kit used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first-line TB treatment drugs. The present study aimed at evaluating its performance in a multicenter study. (2) Methods: To determine its accuracy, the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or the BACTECTMMGITTM960 system was used as a gold standard. (3) Results: The study revealed that the respective accuracies of the kit with 190 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, using the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or BACTECTMMGITTM960 system as a gold standard, were 93.9% and 94.6%, 96.9% and 94.6%, 98.0% and 97.8%, and 98.0% and 98.9%, for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol, respectively. (4) Conclusion: Thus, the kit can rapidly screen resistance to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. Additionally, it does not require sophisticated equipment; hence, it can be easily used in the laboratories of low and middle income countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/classification
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190408, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous substance collected and processed by Apis mellifera from parts of plants, buds and exudates. In Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO). The oil showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL), Mycobacterium avium (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 64 µg/mL). Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by both DPPH (IC50 = 23.48 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 32.18 µg/mL) methods. The antiproliferative activity in normal (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) and tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and M059J) was analyzed by the XTT assay. BGP-EO showed inhibition of normal cell growth at 68.93 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Antiproliferative activity was observed against human tumor cell lines, whose IC50 values were 56.17, 66.43 and -65.83 µg/mL for MCF-7, HeLa and M059J cells, respectively. Its major constituents, which were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, were carvacrol (20.7 %), acetophenone (13.5 %), spathulenol (11.0 %), (E)-nerolidol (9.7 %) and β-caryophyllene (6.2 %). These results showed the effectiveness of BGP-EO as a natural product which has promising biological activities.


Subject(s)
Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Mycobacterium avium/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190404, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136910

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden Brazilian setting under directly observed therapy short-course strategy. METHODS: Isolates of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from Guarulhos, Brazil, diagnosed in October 2007-2011 were subjected to drug susceptibility and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism testing. RESULTS: The overall resistance prevalence was 11.5% and the multi-drug resistance rate was 4.2%. Twenty-six (43.3%) of 60 drug-resistant isolates were clustered. Epidemiological relationships were identified in 11 (42.3%) patients; 30.8% of the cases were transmitted in households. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-resistant tuberculosis was relatively low and transmitted in households and the community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Directly Observed Therapy/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200055, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the number of new cases of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB), pre extensively drug-resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has increased considerably worldwide. OBJECTIVES Herein, using 156 M. tuberculosis isolates from 106 patients previously classified as MDR or pre-XDR or XDR isolates, we investigated the genetic mutation profiles associated with phenotypic resistances in patients with MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB, treatment outcomes and resistance evolution. METHODS Molecular analyses were performed by partial sequencing of the rpoB, katG, gyrA, gyrB, rrs genes and analysis of the fabG-inhA promoter region. Clinical, epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from the TB Notification database system of São Paulo (TB-WEB) and the Information System for Special Tuberculosis Treatments (SITE-TB). FINDINGS Drug resistance was attributed to previously known mutations and a novel Asp449Val mutation in gyrB was observed in four isolates from the same patient. Ten patients had more than one isolate evaluated and eight of these patients displayed resistance progression. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study is the first to report the frequency of mutations related to second-line drug resistance in MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates. The results could lead to the improvement of available technologies for the rapid detection of drug resistant TB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/microbiology , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180386, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for the development of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between October of 2012 and October of 2014. We evaluated sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and radiological variables. The outcome considered to identify associations between tuberculosis and the explanatory variables was the treatment prescribed. To evaluate the associations between MDR-TB and the same explanatory variables, the change in MDR-TB treatment was considered. Results: The factors associated with tuberculosis were alcoholism, comorbidities, pulmonary cavitations, and a radiological pattern suggestive of tuberculosis. Cavitation and previous treatment for tuberculosis were associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: Despite the significant progress made in the fight against tuberculosis, there is a need for coordinated actions that include social protection measures and patient support.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco de pacientes atendidos em um hospital de referência terciária para o desenvolvimento de tuberculose e tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR). Métodos: Estudo transversal baseado em dados obtidos de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, na cidade de Belo Horizonte (MG), entre outubro de 2012 e outubro de 2014. As variáveis utilizadas foram agrupadas em características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, clínicas e radiológicas. O desfecho considerado para verificar associações entre tuberculose e variáveis explicativas foi o tratamento prescrito para tuberculose. Para avaliar a associação entre a tuberculose resistente e as mesmas variáveis explicativas considerou-se a mudança de tratamento para TBMR. Resultados: Alcoolismo, padrão radiológico sugestivo de tuberculose, presença de comorbidades e presença de cavitações pulmonares foram fatores associados à tuberculose. A TBMR foi associada a tratamento prévio para tuberculose e presença de cavitações. Conclusões: Apesar dos importantes progressos na luta contra a tuberculose, é necessário um conjunto de ações articuladas que incluam medidas de proteção social e suporte aos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190407, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and identification of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to anti-TB drugs are considered the main factors for disease control. OBJECTIVES To standardise a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay technique and apply it to identify mutations involved in M. tuberculosis resistance to Isoniazid (INH) directly in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides. METHODS Were analysed 55 independent DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by sequencing. For application in TB diagnosis resistance, 59 ZN-stained slides were used. The sensitivity, specificity and Kappa index, with a 95% confidence interval (CI95%), were determined. FINDINGS The agreement between the tests was, for the katG target, the Kappa index of 0.89 (CI95%: 0.7-1.0). The sensitivity and specificity were 97.6% (CI95%: 87.7-99.9) and 91.7% (CI95%: 61.5-99.5), respectively. For inhA, the Kappa index was 0.92 (CI95%: 0.8-1.0), the sensitivity and specificity were 94.4% (CI95%: 72.7-99.8) and 97.3% (CI95%: 85.8-99.9), respectively. The use of ZN-stained slides for drug-resistant TB detection showed significant results when compared to other standard tests for drug resistance. MAIN CONCLUSIONS qPCR genotyping proved to be an efficient method to detect genes that confer M. tuberculosis resistance to INH. Thus, qPCR genotyping may be an alternative instead of sequencing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Markers/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The evaluation of procedures for drug susceptibility prediction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on genomic data against the conventional reference method test based on culture is realistic considering the scenario of growing number of tools proposals based on whole-genome sequences (WGS). OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate drug susceptibility testing (DST) outcome based on WGS tools and the phenotypic methods performed on isolates of M. tuberculosis Lineage 1 from the state of Pará, Brazil, generally associated with low levels of drug resistance. METHODOLOGY Culture based DST was performed using the Proportion Method in Löwenstein-Jensen medium on 71 isolates that had been submitted to WGS. We analysed the seven main genome sequence-based tools for resistance and lineage prediction applied to M. tuberculosis and for comparison evaluation we have used the Kappa concordance test. FINDINGS When comparing the WGS-based tools against the DST, we observed the highest level of agreement using TB-profiler. Among the tools, TB-profiler, KvarQ and Mykrobe were those which identified the largest number of TB-MDR cases. Comparing the four most sensitive tools regarding resistance prediction, agreement was observed for 43 genomes. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Drug resistance profiling using next-generation sequencing offers rapid assessment of resistance-associated mutations, therefore facilitating rapid access to effective treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Whole Genome Sequencing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 384-388, nov.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057920

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Descrever aspectos clínicos e esquema terapêutico dos pacientes com tuberculose ocular presumida tratados em um centro de referência em tuberculose de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo. O teste exato de Fisher foi realizado quando apropriado. Resultados: A queixa mais comum foi baixa acuidade visual (83,1%), seguida por dor ocular generalizada (25,3%) e visão turva (22,8%). A uveíte posterior foi a apresentação mais comum (35,7%). O tratamento consistiu no esquema atualmente recomendado de rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol (RHZE). A prednisona oral foi incluída no tratamento de 37 pacientes, para tratamento da inflamação aguda, embora não tenha diminuído a prevalência de complicações crônicas, em comparação com a recuperação completa (p = 0,1). O diagnóstico precoce (<70 dias) foi associado a maiores taxas de recuperação total (p = 0,005). Não houve significância estatística quando se comparou a terapia de 6 a 9 meses (p = 0,7). Conclusão: A uveíte tuberculosa pode ser tratada por uma terapia com duração de seis meses. Um breve curso de esteroides melhora os sintomas agudos, embora não reduza as complicações a longo prazo.


Abstract Purpose: To analyze and describe the therapy used in presumed ocular tuberculosis in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study. Fisher's exact test was performed when appropriate. Results: The most common complaint was low visual acuity (83.1%), followed by generalized ocular pain (25.3%) and blurred vision (22.8%). Posterior uveitis was the most common presentation (35.7%). Treatment consisted of the currently recommended association of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol (RHZE) regimen. Oral prednisone was included in the treatment of 37 patients for acute inflammation, although it did not significantly decrease the prevalence of chronic complications compared to full recovery (p = 0,1). Early diagnosis (< 70 days) was associated with higher rates of full recovery (p = 0.005). No statistical significance was observed when comparing 6 to 9-month therapy (p = 0.7). Conclusion: Tuberculous uveitis can be treated with a 6-month duration RHZE therapy. A brief course of steroids may improve acute symptoms, although it did not reduce long-term disabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tuberculosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Uveitis/diagnosis , Uveitis/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Tuberculin Test , Visual Acuity , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 81-87, sept. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087242

ABSTRACT

Background: The search for innovative anti-tubercular agents has received increasing attention in tuberculosis chemotherapy because Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has steadily increased over the years. This underlines the necessity for new methods of preparation for polymer-drug adducts to treat this important infectious disease. The use of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) is an alternative producing anti-tubercular derivatives. However, it is not yet known whether PEGylated isonicotinylhydrazide conjugates obtained by direct links with PEG are useful for therapeutic applications. Results: Here, we synthesized a PEGylated isoniazid (PEG-g-INH or PEG­INH) by gamma radiation-induced polymerization, for the first time. The new prodrugs were characterized using Raman and UV/Vis spectrometry. The mechanism of PEGylated INH synthesis was proposed. The in vitro evaluation of a PEGylated isonicotinylhydrazide macromolecular prodrug was also carried out. The results indicated that PEG­INH inhibited the bacterial growth above 95% as compared with INH, which showed a lower value (80%) at a concentration of 0.25 µM. Similar trends are observed for 0.1, 1, and 5 µM. Conclusions: In summary, the research suggests that it is possible to covalently attach the PEG onto INH by the proposed method and to obtain a slow-acting isoniazid derivative with little toxicity in vitro and higher antimycobacterial potency than the neat drug.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Isoniazid/chemistry , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Polymers , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , In Vitro Techniques , Prodrugs , Polymerization , Gamma Rays , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 130-133, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Rifampicin is used in both phases of treatment for tuberculosis. In chronic use, the short half-life and the self-induction of metabolism can decrease the levels of the drug below the minimal inhibitory concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of rifampicin are sustained above 0.5 µg/mL in patients with tuberculosis using 600 mg/day. Rifampicin was measured in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and a sputum smear microscopy was performed in all days of the study. A total of 44 male patients completed the study. On days 31, 61 and 91, the mean plasma concentrations of rifampicin were 0.6 (0.5) µg/mL, 0.55 (0.5) µg/mL and 0.46 (0.4) µg/mL. There was a high variation of rifampicin levels leading to a high percentage of samples with concentrations below 0.5 µg/mL. There was no significant association between the frequency of samples with drug levels below 0.5 µg/mL with the conversion of the sputum microscopy. These data suggest that pre-doses samples offer limited information on the exposure of M. tuberculosis to rifampicin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/blood , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/administration & dosage , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/blood , Reference Values , Sputum/drug effects , Sputum/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20170451, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040271

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular test for tuberculosis, using pulmonary samples obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, which is operated by the Hospital Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais, in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This was a retrospective study comparing the Xpert MTB/RIF test results with those of standard culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phenotypic susceptibility tests. Although the Xpert MTB/RIF test showed high accuracy for the detection of M. tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin, attention must be given to the clinical status of the patient, in relation to the test results, as well as to the limitations of molecular tests.


RESUMO A tuberculose permanece como um grave problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a acurácia do teste rápido molecular Xpert MTB/RIF em amostras pulmonares no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, localizado em Belo Horizonte (MG). Trata-se de um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, considerando-se como método padrão a cultura para o bacilo da tuberculose e o teste de sensibilidade fenotípico. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF apresentou ótima acurácia para a detecção da tuberculose e resistência à rifampicina, mas é necessária a atenção a dados clínicos do paciente em relação ao resultado do exame e às limitações dos testes moleculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Trachea/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Rifampin/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180075, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990112

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify transmitted or primary resistance among cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and predictive factors for cure in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis after the first treatment. Method: Descriptive study of a cohort from 2006 to 2010, in a reference unit of tuberculosis in São Paulo, Brazil. The data were obtained by the revision of medical records. Clinical criteria were used to classify transmitted and acquired resistance. Extended primary resistance was also defined, in this study, as cases initially treated with a standardized scheme, but with no therapeutic success, and the pre-treatment drug susceptibility test (DST) showed presence of resistance. Results: 156 patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and their respective sputum samples were eligible for the study. Only 7% of the patients were positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Previous treatment occurred in 95% of the sample. The cure rate after the first treatment was 54%. The median bacteriological conversion time of those who healed was one month. Bacillary resistance was considered acquired resistance in 100 (64%) and transmitted resistance in 56 (36%). By logistic regression, patients who presented primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (odds ratio-OR = 6,29), without comorbidity (OR = 3,37) and with higher initial weight (OR = 1.04) were associated with cure after the first treatment. Conclusion: The early detection of bacillary resistance and appropriate treatment are in favor of healing. Thus, it is crucial to know exactly the primary resistance rate avoiding the use of inadequate treatments, amplification of bacillary resistance and its transmission.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar resistência transmitida ou primária entre casos de tuberculose multidrogarresistente e fatores preditivos associados à cura da tuberculose multidrogarresistente após o primeiro tratamento. Método: Estudo descritivo de uma coorte de 2006 a 2010, em uma unidade de referência em tuberculose no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de revisão de prontuários médicos. Critérios clínicos e laboratoriais foram utilizados para classificar resistência transmitida e adquirida. Resistência primária estendida por definição, neste estudo, abrange também casos inicialmente tratados com esquema padrão, porém sem sucesso terapêutico, e teste de sensibilidade colhido pré-tratamento demonstrou presença de resistência. Resultados: Foram elegíveis para o estudo 156 doentes com tuberculose multidrogarresistente e suas respectivas amostras de escarro. Apenas 7% dos doentes eram positivos ao vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Tratamento prévio aconteceu em 95% da amostra. A taxa de cura após o primeiro tratamento foi de 54%. A mediana do tempo de conversão bacteriológica dos que se curaram foi de um mês. Dos 156 doentes, 100 (64%) e 56 (36%) foram classificados como resistência adquirida e resistência transmitida, respectivamente. Pela regressão logística, os doentes que se apresentaram com tuberculose multidrogarresistente primária (razão de chance - RC = 6,29), sem comorbidade (RC = 3,37) e com maior peso inicial (RC = 1,04) foram associados ao desfecho cura ao final do primeiro tratamento. Conclusão: A detecção precoce da resistência bacilar e o tratamento adequado favorecem a cura. Dessa forma, é indispensável conhecer com exatidão a taxa de resistência primária evitando o uso de tratamentos inadequados, a ampliação da resistência bacilar e a sua transmissão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/etiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180128, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002440

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, by using a commercial line probe assay for rifampicin and isoniazid detection (LPA-plus), in the routine workflow of a tuberculosis reference laboratory. Methods: The LPA-plus was prospectively evaluated on 341 isolates concurrently submitted to the automated liquid drug susceptibility testing system. Results: Among 303 phenotypically valid results, none was genotypically rifampicin false-susceptible (13/13; 100% sensitivity). Two rifampicin-susceptible isolates harboured rpoB mutations (288/290; 99.3% specificity) which, however, were non-resistance-conferring mutations. LPA-plus missed three isoniazid-resistant isolates (23/26; 88.5% sensitivity) and detected all isoniazid-susceptible isolates (277/277; 100% specificity). Among the 38 (11%) invalid phenotypic results, LPA-plus identified 31 rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible isolates, one isoniazid-resistant and six as non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusions: LPA-plus showed excellent agreement (≥91%) and accuracy (≥99%). Implementing LPA-plus in our setting can speed up the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, yield a significantly higher number of valid results than phenotypic drug susceptibility testing and provide further information on the drug-resistance level.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o diagnóstico rápido de tuberculose multirresistente, utilizando um teste comercial de sondas em linha (LPA-plus), na rotina de um laboratório de referência de tuberculose. Métodos: O teste LPA-plus foi avaliado prospectivamente em 341 isolados simultaneamente submetidos ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos em meio líquido, pelo sistema automatizado. Resultados: Entre os 303 resultados fenotipicamente válidos, nenhum foi genotipicamente falso suscetível à rifampicina (13/13; 100% de sensibilidade). Dois isolados sensíveis à rifampicina apresentavam mutações no gene rpoB (288/290; especificidade de 99,3%), as quais, no entanto, não são associadas à resistência a rifampicina. O LPA-plus não identificou resistência à isoniazida em três isolados fenotipicamente resistentes (23/26; 88,5% de sensibilidade) e detectou todos os isolados sensíveis à isoniazida (277/277; especificidade de 100%). Entre os 38 (11%) resultados fenotípicos inválidos, o LPA-plus identificou 31 isolados sensíveis à rifampicina e à isoniazida, um resistente à isoniazida e seis como micobactérias não tuberculosas. Conclusões: O LPA-plus mostrou excelente concordância (≥91%) e acurácia (≥99%). Sua implementação pode acelerar o diagnóstico da tuberculose multirresistente, produzir número significativamente maior de resultados válidos do que o teste fenotípico de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos e fornecer informações adicionais sobre o nível de resistência aos fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Phenotype , Rifampin/pharmacology , Time Factors , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Early Diagnosis , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
17.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(4): 491-497, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979012

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En presencia de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) multifármaco-resistentes (MTB-MDR) y con resistencia extendida (MTB-XDR) las tasas de fracaso de los esquemas estandarizados de tratamiento son altas, constituyéndose en un verdadero problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La fármaco-resistencia en MTB se debe principalmente a mutaciones en genes blanco; sin embargo, una proporción de aislamientos fármaco-resistentes no presentan mutaciones en dichos genes, sugiriendo la participación de otros mecanismos, tales como permeabilidad reducida de la pared celular, modificación enzimática y/o bombas de eflujo. La resistencia clínica a los medicamentos anti-tuberculosos (anti-TB) ocurre en gran parte como resultado de la selección de mutantes resistentes durante la falta de adherencia del paciente al tratamiento, inapropiados seguimientos y prescripción médica, dosis subóptimas de fármacos y dificultad de acceso a los servicios de salud y al tratamiento. Los Avances de la biología molecular y la secuenciación del genoma de MTB han contribuido a mejorar el entendimiento de los mecanismos de resistencia a los principales medicamentos anti-TB. Un mejor conocimiento de los mecanismos de fármaco-resistencia en MTB contribuirá a la identificación de nuevos blancos terapéuticos, al diseño de nuevos medicamentos, al desarrollo de nuevos métodos diagnósticos y/o mejorar las técnicas que actualmente están disponibles para la detección rápida de TB fármaco-resistente. Este artículo presenta una revisión actualizada de los mecanismos y las bases moleculares de la resistencia de MTB a medicamentos anti-TB.(AU)


ABSTRACT Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR-MTB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-MTB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates, the failure rates of standard treatment regimens are high, thus becoming a major public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to anti-tuberculous (anti-TB) drugs is attributed mainly to specific mutations in target genes; however, a proportion of drug-resistant MTB isolates do not have mutations in these genes, which suggests the involvement of other mechanisms, such as the low permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall, enzymatic modification and/or efflux pumps. Clinical drug resistance to anti-TB drugs occurs largely as a result of the selection of resistant mutants caused by poor patient adherence to treatment, inappropriate follow-ups and prescriptions, suboptimal doses of drugs and poor access to health services and treatment. Major advances in molecular biology tools and the availability of the complete genome sequences of MTB have contributed to improve understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to the main anti-TB drugs. Better knowledge of the drug-resistance of MTB will contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets to design new drugs, develop new diagnostic tests and/or improve methods currently available for the rapid detection of drug-resistant TB. This article presents an updated review of the mechanisms and molecular basis of drug resistance in MTB.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Patient Compliance , Prescriptions
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 234-236, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041454

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The teste rápido molecular para tuberculose (TRM-TB) was introduced in 2014 in Brazil for tuberculosis screening. However, its role in adolescents in Brazil has not been studied. METHODS A descriptive study of adolescents with suspected tuberculosis using National Laboratory software. RESULTS Of 852 (15.4%) suspected cases, 131 were positive by TRM-TB and 2% were resistant to rifampicin. Among TRM-TB-positive cases, 105 (91.4%) were culture-positive. Sixty-four of 96 samples were sensitive to rifampicin by TRM-TB; 11 were resistant to other drugs by drug sensitivity test (DST). CONCLUSIONS Among suspected cases, 16% were diagnosed by TRM-TB, of which 17% were drug-resistant by DST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Rifampin/pharmacology , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 112-117, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of the use of the molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF), under routine conditions, at a referral hospital in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Methods: This was a descriptive study using the database of the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of the Octávio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital, in the city of Salvador, and georeferencing software. We evaluated 3,877 sputum samples collected from symptomatic respiratory patients, under routine conditions, between June of 2014 and March of 2015. All of the samples were submitted to sputum smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF test. Patients were stratified by gender, age, and geolocation. Results: Among the 3,877 sputum samples evaluated, the Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 678 (17.5%), of which 60 (8.8%) showed resistance to rifampin. The Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 254 patients who tested negative for sputum smear microscopy, thus increasing the diagnostic power by 59.9%. Conclusions: The use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, under routine conditions, significantly increased the detection of cases of tuberculosis among sputum smear-negative patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do teste rápido molecular automatizado Xpert MTB/RIF, utilizado para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis e sua resistência à rifampicina, em condições de rotina, em um hospital de referência no estado da Bahia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo utilizando o banco de dados do Laboratório de Micobacteriologia do Hospital Especializado Octávio Mangabeira, localizado na cidade de Salvador, e um programa de georreferenciamento. Entre junho de 2014 e março de 2015, foram incluídas no estudo 3.877 amostras de escarro coletadas de pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios em condições de rotina. Todas as amostras coletadas foram submetidas tanto à baciloscopia quanto a Xpert MTB/RIF. Os pacientes foram estratificados por sexo, idade e georreferenciamento. Resultados: Das 3.877 amostras de escarro analisadas, Xpert MTB/RIF detectou a presença de M. tuberculosis em 678 pacientes (17,5%). Desses, 60 (8,8%) apresentaram resistência à rifampicina. O Xpert MTB/RIF detectou 254 pacientes com baciloscopia negativa, representando um acréscimo diagnóstico de 59,9%. Conclusões: A implantação do Xpert MTB/RIF, sob condições de rotina, teve um impacto significativo no aumento da detecção de casos de tuberculose em pacientes com baciloscopia negativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Microscopy/methods , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
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