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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.377-382, tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352599
2.
Brasília; s.n; 11 ago. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117979

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 5 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
3.
Brasília; s.n; 7 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117630

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 17 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Steroids/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1820, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to compare the clinical effects of mycophenolate mofetil combined with either tacrolimus or with cyclophosphamide on lupus nephritis (LN) and to analyze their influence on the expression of cystatin C and on transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-β1). METHODS: A total of 234 patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A, for mycophenolate mofetil combined with tacrolimus (n=117) and group B, for mycophenolate mofetil combined with cyclophosphamide (n=117). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was adopted to detect the expression levels of serum TGF-β1 and cystatin C before and after treatment. RESULTS: The total effectiveness rate in group A was much higher than that in group B. The times of effectiveness and effect validity in group A were much lower than those in group B. The expression levels of serum TGF-β1 and cystatin C decreased slightly after treatment in the two groups, and those of group A were much lower than those of group B. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus showed better clinical efficacy on LN and was safer than that of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide. Moreover, the drug combination of mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus greatly reduced the expression levels of serum TGF-β1 and cystatin C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lupus Nephritis/drug therapy , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 204-207, June 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020061

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Susac es una enfermedad rara causada por oclusión autoinmune de la microvasculatura del cerebro, de la retina y del oído interno, lo que provoca la triada clínica característica de disfunción del sistema nervioso central, trastornos visuales y déficit vestíbulo-coclear. El diagnóstico se basa en las manifestaciones clínicas y en estudios complementarios que demuestren el compromiso de los tres sistemas. Existen diferentes tratamientos que incluyen combinaciones de varios fármacos inmunosupresores como corticoides, inmunoglobulina intravenosa, micofenolato mofetilo, entre otros. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 26 años que manifestó hipoacusia izquierda, zumbidos y episodios de vértigo recurrente. Cuatro semanas después agregó visión borrosa bilateral, ataxia cerebelosa y encefalopatía. La resonancia magnética de cerebro mostró múltiples lesiones redondeadas hiperintensas en t2 y FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery), hipointensas en t1 a nivel medial del cuerpo calloso, cápsula interna, cerebelo y pedúnculo cerebeloso medio derecho. La audiometría evidenció hipoacusia perceptual bilateral a predominio del oído izquierdo y en la angiografía por tomografía de coherencia óptica se observó obstrucción de arterias de la capa profunda de la retina. Se diagnosticó síndrome de Susac y se inició tratamiento con pulsos de metilprednisolona por 5 días y mantenimiento con micofenolato, revirtiendo totalmente la encefalopatía, con persistencia de leve ataxia e hipoacusia. Es importante conocer la triada clínica característica y los estudios complementarios necesarios para arribar al diagnóstico, ya que muchas veces se puede demorar el tratamiento inmunosupresor. Nuestro caso tuvo una excelente respuesta a los corticoides.


Susac syndrome is a rare disorder caused by autoimmune-mediated occlusions of microvessels in the brain, retina and inner ear. These occlusions lead to a characteristic clinical triad of central nervous system dysfunction, visual disturbances and vestibule-cochlear deficits. The diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and complementary studies, which demonstrate the involvement of three systems. There are different treatments that include various immunosuppressive drugs combinations such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, mycophenolate mofetil, among others. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman with left hearing loss, tinnitus and episodes of recurrent vertigo, four weeks after bilateral blurred vision, cerebellar ataxia and encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed multiple rounded hyperintense lesions in t2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), hypointense in t1, at the middle level of the corpus callosum, internal capsule, cerebellum and right middle cerebellar peduncle. The audiometry evidenced bilateral perceptual hearing loss, predominantly in the left ear. Angiography by optical coherence tomography showed obstruction in the deep layer retina arteries. The Susac syndrome was diagnosed and treatment started with methylprednisolone pulses therapy, intravenously 1000 mg/ day for 5 days, followed by maintenance with mycophenolate, which completely reversed the encephalopathy, with persistence of mild ataxia and hearing loss. It is important to know the clinical triad characteristic and the complementary studies necessary to arrive at the diagnosis, since immunosuppressive treatment can often be delayed. Our case had an excellent response to corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Vertigo/diagnosis , Susac Syndrome/complications , Susac Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroprotective Agents , Diagnosis, Differential , Susac Syndrome/drug therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. cuba. med ; 57(2)abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-985556

ABSTRACT

La glomerulonefritis colapsante es una enfermedad poco frecuente que puede estar asociada a distintas causas, una de ellas son las enfermedades autoinmunes y dentro de estas el lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES). De manera frecuente se presenta con un cuadro de severas alteraciones renales que tienden a progresar la enfermedad renal terminal, con escasa respuesta a los tratamientos. Se presenta un caso de glomerulonefritis colapsante asociado a lupus eritematoso sistémico que tuvo una respuesta completa al tratamiento de inducción con la combinación de glucocorticoides, antimaláricos y mofetil micofenolato iniciado precozmente por el diagnóstico temprano realizado por biopsia renal(AU)


Collapsing glomerulonefritis is a slightly frequent disease that can be associated to different causes. Autoimmune diseases are part of those, and inside these, the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It frequently appears with manifestations of severe renal alterations that tend to develop the renal terminal disease, with scanty response to the treatments. It is presented a case of collapsing glomerulonefritis associated to systemic lupus erythematosus that had a complete response to the treatment of induction with the combination of glucocorticoids, antimalarials and mycophenolate mofetil used prematurely after the early diagnosis performed by renal biopsy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy/methods , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use
7.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(2): 76-84, 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118629

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a liver disease of unknown etiology, with a breakdown in peripheral selftolerance against hepatocytes with both genetic and environmental factors involved. It is characterized by an immune mediated liver injury, with detectable autoantibodies, elevated levels of immunoglobulin G and histological criteria including, necroinflammation, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and hepatitis interface. It can be asymptomatic or can present as acute hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Most patients (70-80%) respond to first line therapy (based on steroids ± azathioprine). In those patients not tolerating azatioprine, in steroid resistant, and those with repeated relapses (20-40%), a long-term second line therapy must be considered to avoid progression of liver disease. This last medications include other immunosuppressants like mycophenolate mophetil, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), biologic agents (infliximab and rituximab), and other immunosuppressive agents (sirolimus, everolimus), all with good overall clinical results, but not exempt of side effects. Other difficult scenarios include fulminant AIH, end-stage AIH cirrhosis and the management of post-transplant AIH. In this article we will review the literature related to second- line therapy especially of steroid resistant AIH. Future directions in the treatment of HAI should be guided to the individual patient (personalized) and may include cell therapies, such as infusion of autologous, antigen-specific, and liver-homing regulatory T cells to restore hepatic immune tolerance


La hepatitis autoinmune (HAI) es una hepatopatía de etiología desconocida, con pérdida de la tolerancia inmune contra los hepatocitos con factores genéticos y ambientales asociados. Se caracteriza por fenómenos de daño inmunológicos, con autoanticuerpos circulantes, una concentración elevada de gammaglobulina sérica y en la biopsia de hígado actividad necroinflamatoria, infiltrados linfoplasmocitarios y daño de interfase. La HAI es una entidad que se puede presentar en forma asintomática, como hepatitis aguda o como cirrosis hepática. El 70-80% de los pacientes responden adecuadamente al tratamiento inmunosupresor de primera línea (corticoides ± azatioprina). En los pacientes que no toleran azatioprina, en los corticorresistentes o en aquellos con recaídas repetidas a pesar de terapia (20-40%), es necesario recurrir a terapias de segunda línea de largo plazo, para evitar la progresión de la hepatopatía. Estas últimas incluyen micofenolato mofetil, inhibidores calcineurínicos (ciclosporina o tacrolimus), agentes biológicos (infliximab y rituximab), y otros fármacos inmunosupresores (sirolimus, everolimus), con resultados alentadores, pero no exentos de efectos colaterales. Otros escenarios complejos incluyen: la HAI de presentación aguda grave y fulminante, la cirrosis terminal autoinmune y la HAI post-trasplante. En este trabajo se revisa la literatura en relación a terapias de segunda línea especialmente en HAI corticoide resistente. El futuro del tratamiento de la HAI va encaminado a una terapia personalizada y que podría incluir terapias celulares como la infusión de células T regulatorias, antígeno específicas y autólogas, para reestablecer los mecanismos de tolerancia inmune hepática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Clinical Evolution , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 369-372, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis using the methods advocated by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group and to compare this with other studies of immunosuppression in ocular inflammation. Methods: Retrospective case series. Patients with noninfectious uveitis, followed at a tertiary Uveitis Service in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2007 to 2014 and receiving oral MMF for a minimum of 6 months, were retrospectively reviewed. After reaching an optimal dose of MMF, patients were evaluated after 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 24 months (T24). The optimal dose varied for each patient (medium 2.2 g/day, range 1.0-3.0 g/day). The main outcome measures were: 1) success on achieving complete control of inflammation in both eyes and/or oral prednisone dosage reduction to ≤10 mg per day, and 2) the length of time required to reduce oral prednisone to ≤10 mg/day, partial control of ocular inflammation, and side effects. Results: In a cohort of 16 patients with refractory noninfectious uveitis, 67% reached the ideal prednisone dose after 1 year of MMF treatment and 83% after 2 years of MMF treatment. Complete or partial inflammation control was achieved in 43.7% at T12. Two patients (14%) had disease remission after 4.7 years of MMF treatment. Adverse effects were gastrointestinal disturbances, infection, insomnia, and liver function abnormalities at a rate of 0.03 patient-year each. Conclusions: This small retrospective case series is consistent with the literature concerning the high efficacy and moderate tolerability of MMF in noninfectious uveitis. Observation of patients should be continued for at least 1 year to clearly determine MMF efficacy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e tolerância do micofenolato de mofetila (MMF) para o tratamento das uveítes não infecciosas refratárias, utilizando os métodos de análises definidos pelo "Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group." Método: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos. Foram incluídos pacientes com uveíte não infecciosa, em tratamento oral com MMF por um período mínimo de seis meses, acompanhados no Serviço de Uveítes, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 2007 a 2014. Todos os pacientes faziam uso de pelo menos um imunossupressor e apresentavam doença ocular ativa. Os pacientes foram avaliados aos seis meses (T6), 12 meses (T12) e 24 meses (T24) após atingir a dose ótima do MMF. A média da dose ótima foi 2,2g/dia (intervalo 1,0-3,0g/dia). Os principais desfechos analisados foram: 1) Sucesso no controle total da inflamação em ambos os olhos e/ou redução da dose de prednisona oral para ≤10 mg/dia; 2) Intervalo até a redução da prednisona oral para ≤10 mg/dia, controle parcial de inflamação ocular e efeitos adversos. Resultados: Na presente coorte com 16 pacientes com uveíte não infecciosa refratária, observou-se 67% e 83% de probabilidade de alcançar a dose ideal de prednisona em T12 e T24, respectivamente. Controle total ou parcial da inflamação foi observado em 43,7% dos pacientes em T12. Dois pacientes (14%) tiveram remissão da doença após 4,7 anos do início de MMF. Os efeitos adversos foram distúrbios gastrintestinais, infecção, insônia e anormalidade da função hepática com 0,03 eventos paciente-ano (PPY) respectivamente. Conclusões: Esta pequena série retrospectiva de casos ratifica os achados na literatura sobre a alta eficácia e tolerância moderada de MMF em uveítes não infecciosas. Uma importante observação é que, para melhor avaliar a eficácia do MMF, deve se esperar o intervalo mínimo de um ano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Uveitis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Visual Acuity , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage
9.
Bogotá; IETS; mayo 2016. tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-846814

ABSTRACT

Tecnologías evaluadas: Intervención: Everolimus más ciclosporina y corticoesteroide en pacientes con trasplante de riñón. Comparador: Micofenolato más ciclosporina y prednisona. Población: Adultos receptores trasplante de riñón por primera vez. Perspectiva: Tercer pagador, que en el caso colombiano corresponde al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS). Horizonte temporal: El horizonte temporal de este AIP en el caso base corresponde a un año. Adicionalmente se reportan las estimaciones del impacto presupuestal para los años 2 y 3, bajo el supuesto de la inclusión en el POS en el año 1. Costos incluidos: Costos de los medicamentos incluidos en la terapia de mantenimiento. Fuente de costos: SISMED. Escenarios: Se realizaron análisis de escenarios que contemplaron una tasa de inserción del nuevo tratamiento inferior al 100% como terapia de conversión más no de tratamiento de primera línea y diferentes tasas de crecimiento para los años 2 y 3. Resultados: En un escenario con tasa de inserción del 100% del nuevo tratamiento, el impacto presupuestal es de $14.045.896.237para el año 1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Transplant Recipients , Biomedical Technology , Colombia , Costs and Cost Analysis/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Clinics ; 71(4): 216-220, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation. METHODS: Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups. RESULTS: Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Chronic Disease , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/pathology , Graft Survival/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Multivariate Analysis , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Survival Rate , Tacrolimus/blood
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56139

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated chronic liver disease characterized by hepatocellular inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and fulminant hepatic failure. The standard treatment for AIH includes corticosteroids alone or in combination with azathioprine. Although most patients achieve remission using the standard regimen, some patients do not respond due to either drug intolerance or refractory disease; in such cases alternative immunosuppressive agents should be explored. The second-line therapies are cyclophilin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A or tacrolimus, and nowadays mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is widely used if azathioprine-based therapies are not tolerated. Although these are recommended as an alternative to the first-line regimen, there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of second-line therapies, with the evidence based mainly on expert opinion. Therefore, we report an AIH patient receiving the standard regimen in whom remission did not occur due to side effects to azathioprine, but was successfully treated with MMF in combination with corticosteroids as an alternative to the standard regimen.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alopecia/etiology , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Humans , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pancytopenia/etiology , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(6): 980-984, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727637

ABSTRACT

The main treatment for pemphigus vulgaris are systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, but due to adverse reactions and therapeutic failure, new drugs such as rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil have been used. In this case report are described two cases of severe pemphigus vulgaris refractory to various treatments, with resolution after use of rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil, associated with corticosteroids. A higher-than-usual dose of rituximab was employed, without the occurrence of serious adverse reactions. Mycophenolate mofetil was added as adjunctive therapy due to lack of response to azathioprine.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Pemphigus/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(2): 257-265, Mar-Apr/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711695

ABSTRACT

PurposeTo evaluate the synthesis of type I (mature) and type III (immature) collagen in bladder suture of rats treated with a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for 15 days.Materials and MethodsThirty rats were divided into 3 groups: the sham, control and experimental groups. All the animals underwent laparotomy, cystotomy and bladder suture in two planes with surgical PDS 5-0 thread. The sham group did not receive treatment. The control group received saline solution, and the experimental group received 0.1mg/kg/day of tacrolimus with 20mg/kg/day of mycophenolate mofetil, for 15 days. From then on, the tacrolimus was dosed. The surgical specimens of the bladder suture area were processed so that the total type I and type III collagen could be measured by the picrosirius red technique.ResultsThere was a predominance of type I collagen production in the sham and control groups compared to the experimental group, in which type III collagen was predominant. The production of total collagen did not change.ConclusionThe association of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in animals qualitatively changes the production of collagen after 15 days with a predominance of type III collagen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen Type I/biosynthesis , Collagen Type III/biosynthesis , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Sutures , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Collagen Type I/drug effects , Collagen Type III/drug effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Suture Techniques , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing/drug effects
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 35(3): 200-205, jul.-set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687821

ABSTRACT

INTODUCTION: Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most frequent glomerular diseases among children, and steroid therapy remains as the treatment choice. In spite of this, 10 to 15% of the patients are steroidresistant, and the best therapy for such cases has never been defined. Mycophenolate acid (MA) is one of the treatments used in such situations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical behavior of children diagnosed with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and to assess the therapeutic response to MA. METHODS: This was a retrospective and descriptive study. RESULTS: 26 clinical records of patients with SRNS; 70% male and 30% female. All patients underwent kidney biopsies, which showed a predominance of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The immunosuppresive drugs used were: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 100%, Cyclosporine 69.2%, Cyclophosphamide 23.1%, and Rituximab 23%. One month after treatment initiation with MMF 61.5% achieved remission. The median of relapses per year for the patients was 3 (p25: 2.75 - p75: 4). This median became 1 (p25: 1 - p75: 3.25) after using this medication (p = 0.08). Furthermore, prior to the start of the MMF treatment, the median of the steroid dose was 1 (p25: 0.5- p75: 1.62) mg/k/day. After using MMF, this median became 0.07 (p25: 0 - p75: 0.55) mg/k/day (p < 0.001), in 8 patients prednisolone was stopped. CONCLUSION: In our experience, treatment with MMF showed positive results such as decrease in the frequency of relapses, less proteinuria, and reduction in the dose of steroids administered without deterioration of glomerular filtration rates. However, more studies are needed to assess efficacy, safety, and optimal dosage.


INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome nefrótica é uma das mais frequentes doenças glomerulares em crianças e o tratamento com corticosteróides ainda é o tratamento de escolha. Apesar disso, 10 a 15% dos pacientes são resistentes a corticosteróides, e o melhor tratamento para tais casos ainda não foi definido. O ácido micofenólico (AM) é um dos tratamentos usados em tais situações. OBJETIVO: Descrever o comportamento clínico de crianças diagnosticadas com síndrome nefrótica resistente a corticosteróide (SNRC) e avaliar a resposta terapêutica ao AM. MÉTODOS: Esse foi um estudo retrospectivo e descritivo. RESULTADOS: 26 registros de pacientes com SNRC; 70% homens e 30% mulheres. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a biópsias renais, o que mostrou predominância de glomeruloesclerose segmentar focal (GESF). Os medicamentos imunossupressores utilizados foram: Mofetil Micofenolato (MMF) 100%; Ciclosporina 69,2%; Ciclosfosfamida 23,1%; e Rituximabe 23%. Um mês após início do tratamento com MMF, 61,5% tiveram remissão. A mediana das recidivas por ano para os pacientes foi de 3 (p25: 2,75 - p75: 4). Essa mediana se tornou 1 (p25: 1 - p75: 3,25) após o uso da medicação (p = 0,08). Além disso, antes do início do tratamento com MMF, a mediana da dose de corticosteróide foi de 1 (p25: 0.5 - p75: 1.62) mg/k/ dia. Após a utilização do MMF, essa mediana se tornou 0,07 (p25: 0 - p75: 0,55) mg/k/dia (p < 0,001), em 8 pacientes a prednisolona foi interrompida. CONCLUSÃO: em nossa casuística, o tratamento com MMF mostrou resultados positivos, tais como a redução na frequência de recidivas, menos proteinúria, e redução da dose de corticosteróide administrada sem deterioração nas taxas de filtração glomerular. Entretanto, mais estudos são necessários para se avaliar a eficácia, segurança e otimização da dosagem.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Nephrotic Syndrome/congenital , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
15.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 52(2): 297-299, mar.-abr. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618383

ABSTRACT

A síndrome de Sjögren (SS) é uma doença autoimune caracterizada pela presença de infiltrado linfocítico nas glândulas salivares e lacrimais. Manifestações hematológicas da síndrome de Sjögren primária (SSp) geralmente consistem em anemia leve, trombocitopenia, neutropenia moderada e linfopenia. Agranulocitose é raramente descrita e, em geral, responde bem ao tratamento de imunossupressão. Neste trabalho, descrevemos o caso de uma paciente portadora de SSp que apresentou quadro de agranulocitose refratária ao tratamento. A biópsia de medula revelou medula óssea hipocelular com maturação normal da série granulocítica. A paciente foi sucessivamente tratada com prednisona em altas doses, fator estimulador de colônia de macrófagos e ciclosporina, todos sem resposta hematológica. Micofenolato mofetil (MMF) foi iniciado, e após dois meses houve aumento na contagem das células brancas. Após um ano de seguimento a paciente não apresentou novos episódios de neutropenia, nem complicações infecciosas. Concluímos que, na agranulocitose refratária associada à SSp, o tratamento com MMF pode ser uma opção eficaz e bem tolerada.


The Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands. Hematological manifestations of primary SS (pSS) usually consist of mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, moderate neutropenia, and lymphopenia. Agranulocytosis is rarely reported and usually responds to immunosuppression. We report the case of a pSS patient who presented with refractory agranulocytosis. Bone marrow biopsy disclosed a hypocellular bone marrow with normal maturation of the granulocytic series. The patient was successively treated with high-dose prednisone, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulation factor, and cyclosporine, with no hematological response. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was initiated and after two months there was a rise on the white blood cell count. After one year of follow-up, she had neither further neutropenia episodes, nor infectious complications. We conclude that, in pSS refractory agranulocytosis, MMF can be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Agranulocytosis/drug therapy , Agranulocytosis/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(1): 59-66, Jan. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612665

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, usually with a relapsing course. Aquaporin-4 antibody is positive in a high percentage of NMO patients and it is directed against this water channel richly expressed on foot processes of astrocytes. Due to the severity of NMO attacks and the high risk for disability, treatment should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed. There is increasing evidence that NMO patients respond differently from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and, therefore, treatments for MS may not be suitable for NMO. Acute NMO attacks usually are treated with high dose intravenous corticosteroid pulse and plasmapheresis. Maintenance therapy is also required to avoid further attacks and it is based on low-dose oral corticosteroids and non-specific immunosuppressant drugs, like azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil. New therapy strategies using monoclonal antibodies like rituximab have been tested in NMO, with positive results in open label studies. However, there is no controlled randomized trial to confirm the safety and efficacy for the drugs currently used in NMO.


Neuromielite óptica (NMO) é uma doença inflamatória do sistema nervoso central caracterizada por grave neurite óptica e mielite transversa, com um curso usualmente recorrente. O anticorpo contra aquaporina-4 é positivo em grande porcentagem dos pacientes com NMO e se liga a este canal de água altamente expresso nos processos pediosos dos astrócitos. Devido à gravidade dos ataques de NMO e ao elevado risco de incapacidade, o tratamento deve ser instituído tão logo o diagnostico seja confirmado. Existem evidências crescentes de que pacientes com NMO respondem de forma diferente dos pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM) e, portanto, os tratamentos utilizados na EM podem não ser adequados para NMO. Os quadros agudos de NMO são tratados com pulsos de corticosteroides em altas doses e plasmaférese. O tratamento de manutenção também deve ser instituído para evitar ataques subsequentes e é baseado em corticosteroides orais em baixas doses ou imunossupressores, como a azatioprina e o micofenolato mofetil. Novas estratégias de tratamento utilizando anticorpos monoclonais como rituximab têm sido avaliadas para NMO, com resultados positivos em estudos abertos. Entretanto, não existem estudos clínicos controlados, randomizados, para confirmar a segurança e eficácia dos tratamentos atualmente utilizados na NMO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4): 747-750, jul.-ago. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600618

ABSTRACT

Relata-se o caso de paciente feminina, de 21 anos, com dermatose por IgA e IgG linear. Inicialmente, a resposta clínica foi favorável à dapsona. Após a interrupção desta medicação, por crise de anemia sintomática, precipitada por malária, houve piora da doença, apesar da utilização da prednisona e pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona. A reintrodução da dapsona, associada ao micofenolato mofetil, possibilitou o controle da enfermidade.


A 21-year-old female presenting linear IgA and IgG disease initially responded well to dapsone therapy. However, the treatment with dapsone was withdrawn due to severe anemia induced by malaria, which led to worsening of the clinical picture. Although prednisone and methylprednisolone were tried, the patient responded only to the association of dapsone and mycophenolate mofetil.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(supl.2): 1-26, mayo 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633928

ABSTRACT

La nefropatía por Inmunoglobulina A (N.IgA) es la causa más frecuente de enfermedad glomerular a nivel mundial, 15-50% de los pacientes presentan pérdida progresiva de la función renal en 10-20 años; el resto remisión clínica o hematuria/ proteinuria persistente. Su tratamiento óptimo es incierto. Nuestro objetivo fue desarrollar recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia a través de búsqueda en bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Trials Register. Los investigadores analizaron la calidad de los estudios independientemente, usando la Cochrane Renal Group checklist: aleatorización, carácter ciego, intención de tratar y pérdidas en el seguimiento. La evidencia se clasificó en niveles y la recomendación en grados, según el Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, con dos enfoques principales: Terapia inmunosupresora (corticoides, citostáticos, ciclosporina A y micofenolato mofetilo): Nivel I a, grado A. Terapia combinada con inmunosupresores en adultos: Nivel II b, grado B. Corticoides más ciclofosfamida o azatioprina en niños: Nivel II b, grado C. Ciclosporina y micofenolato-mofetilo: Nivel II b, grado B. Terapia no inmunosupresora: inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina (IEAC) y/o bloqueantes del receptor de angiotensina II (BRAII), aceite de pescado, estatinas, antiplaquetarios y tonsilectomía: Nivel I a, grado A. Niños: IECA y BRAII con monitoreo de función renal y de nivel sérico de potasio: Nivel I b, grado B. En nefropatía progresiva, antiplaquetarios como tratamiento coadyuvante: Nivel I, grado C. Aceite de pescado como soporte adicionado de BRAII e IECA en pacientes con lesiones histológicas leves y baja reducción de la filtración glomerular: Nivel II b, grado B (no en niños). No hay evidencias para recomendar estatinas en niños; en mayores de 5 años con síndrome nefrótico e hipercolesterolemia usar sólo con monitoreo de fosfocreatin-kinasa sérica. No hay evidencias para recomendar la tonsilectomía.


Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (N.IgA) is the world most common glomerular disease; 15-50% of patients develop loss of renal function in 10-20 years, and the rest remission or mild proteinuria/ hematuria. The optimal treatment is uncertain. Our aim was to develop evidence-based recommendations through research in Medline, Embasse, Lilacs and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The study-quality was independently assessed by the reviewers following the Cochrane Renal Group checklist: randomization, blinding, intention-to-treat analysis and follow-up period. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation were assigned according to Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. Two approaches were considered: Immunosuppressive therapy (corticosteroids, cytostatics, cyclosporine A, mycophenolate-mofetil): Level I a, grade A. -Combined suppressive therapy in adults. Corticosteroids plus cytotoxics drugs (cyclophosphamide/azathioprine): Level II b, grade B. In children with severe IgA nephropathy: Level II b, grade D. Cyclosporine and mycophenolate- mophetil: Level II b, grade C. Cyclosporine and mycophenolate-mophetil: Level ll b, grade C. -Non immunosuppressive therapy: reninangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), fish oil, statins, antiplatelets and tonsillectomy. ACEI and/or ARB, in patients with proteinuria =1 g: Level I a, grade A. In children with moderate proteinuria: ACEI and/or ARB with close monitoring of renal function and serum potassium level: Level II b, grade B. Antiplatelet as supportive treatment: Level I a, grade C. Fish oil in addition to ACEI or ARB in patients with mild histological lesions: Level II b, grade B (Not in children). Statins: no evidence to recommend these drugs in children. In patients > 5 years with nephrotic syndrome and hyper-cholesterolemia, use statins with close monitoring of serum creatine-kinase. There is no evidence to recommend tonsillectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Evidence-Based Medicine , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Fish Oils/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Renin-Angiotensin System , Tonsillectomy
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