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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468854


The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey’s medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.

O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

Animals , Poultry/genetics , Poultry/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mycoplasma/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 29-37, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970983


Mycoplasma species (spp.) are bacteria that are difficult to detect. Currently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered the most effective diagnostic tool to detect these microorganisms in both human and veterinary medicine. There are 13 known species of human Mycoplasma and 15 species of canine Mycoplasma. Owing to the difficulties in identifying the individual species of Mycoplasma, there is a lack of information regarding which species are saprophytic and which are pathogenic. The prevalence of the individual species is also unknown. In addition, in both humans and dogs, the results of some studies on the impact of Mycoplasma are conflicting. The presence of Mycoplasma spp. on the epithelium of reproductive tract is often associated with infertility, although they are also detected in healthy individuals. The occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. is more common in dogs (even 89%) than in humans (1.3%-4%). This is probably because the pH of a dog's genital is more conducive to the growth of Mycoplasma spp. than that of humans. Phylogenetically, human and canine Mycoplasma are related, and majority of them belong to the same taxonomic group. Furthermore, 40% of canine Mycoplasma spp. are placed in common clusters with those of human. This suggests that species from the same cluster can play a similar role in the canine and human reproductive tracts. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Mycoplasma on canine and human male fertility as well as the prospects of further development in this field.

Humans , Dogs , Male , Animals , Mycoplasma/genetics , Infertility , Semen Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prevalence , Semen/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4874-4886, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008065


Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats. Inactivated vaccines and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) indirect hemagglutination reagents are available for prevention and serological detection, but high culture costs and complex antigen quantification have been plagued by production staff. In order to solve these problems in production practice, a sugar fermentation medium with an initial pH value of 7.8, which could improve the production of two antigens simultaneously, was screened out by changing the initial pH value based on previous Mccp metabolomics analysis. Since phenol red can be identified by UV absorption spectrum and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can bind to anionic capsular polysaccharide, a UV spectrum measurement method for analyzing the culture stage reached by Mccp and a CTAB precipitation test for relative quantification of capsular polysaccharide antigen content in the fermentation broth were established. The UV spectrum observation method can guide the production of Mccp according to the growth curve of Mccp, which greatly reduces the monitoring time of the traditional CCU method and improves the accuracy of the original eye-observation method. The established CTAB precipitation test can complete the monitoring of CPS content within 5 hours, which greatly reduces the time required compared with the traditional differential technique, and its accuracy was verified by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The optimized culture medium and the two correlation comparison methods established in this study can effectively reduce the production cost of Mccp and improve the production efficiency. The two assays have been used in the research at our laboratory, which provides experimental data for further improvement of the production process of CCPP inactivated vaccine and capsular polysaccharide as well as rapid quantification.

Humans , Animals , Goats , Cetrimonium , Mycoplasma , Polysaccharides
Pediatric Infectious Disease Society of the Philippines Journal ; : 62-74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962340


Introduction@#The etiology of encephalitis involves an enormous range and can be classified as infectious or immune-mediated. There are several factors influencing its prognosis and has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate the clinico-epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of infectious and immune-mediated encephalitis among pediatric patients.@*Methodology@#Retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study that included patients aged 6 months to 17 years old with encephalitis in a tertiary hospital between January 2010 to December 2020@*Results@#A total of 23 cases were reviewed and 60.87% were infectious while that of immune-mediated was 39.13%. Among those with identified infectious cause, Mycoplasma pneumonia was the most common (28.57%). Infectious encephalitis was more common among younger males (35.71%) while immune-mediated affected female adolescents more (55.56%). The most common neurologic manifestation was altered mental status and/or behavioral changes. Treatment such as antibiotics (78.26%), anticonvulsant therapy (78.26%), and steroids (43.48%) were given. All immune-mediated cases received steroids. More than half of patients had complete recovery (56.52%). @*Conclusion@#Pediatric encephalitis should be considered among patients with neurologic dysfunction with or without systemic involvement. Behavioral changes in an apparently well child should prompt clinicians to consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis, especially if viral studies are negative and with no other known cause. Viruses remain to be the most common etiology, but other possible causes should be highly considered such as anti-NMDAR and Mycoplasma. A normal CSF analysis, imaging and/or encephalography (EEG) may not totally exclude encephalitis. Prognosis is relatively good hence an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate management is important.

Encephalitis , Infectious Encephalitis , Encephalitis, Viral , Mycoplasma
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 37-43, Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153307


Abstract Contamination of primary and cell cultures by mycoplasmas is one of the main economic and biological pitfalls in basic research, diagnosis and manufacture of biotechnological products. It is a common issue which may be difficult to conduct surveillance on. Mycoplasma presence may affect several physiological parameters of the cell, besides being considered an important source of inaccurate and/or non-reproducible scientific results. Each cell type presents characteristical symptoms, mainly morphological, that indicate a contamination by mycoplasma. HEp-2 cells originate from carcinoma of the larynx and are, therefore, part of the respiratory tract, which is one of mycoplasma habitats. Despite the importance these cells in several biological research (evaluation of cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, antiviral and antitumor compounds), the alterations induced by mycoplasma contamination in HEp-2 cells have not yet been described. Here, we describe the progressive morphological alterations in culture of HEp-2 cells infected with mycoplasma, as well as the-diagnosis of the infection and its treatment. Mycoplasma contamination described within this work led to cytoplasm elongation, cell-to-cell spacing, thin plasma membrane projections, cytoplasmic vacuoles, fusion with neighboring cells, and, finally, cell death. Contamination was detected by fluorescence imaging (DAPI) and PCR reactions. The cultures were treated with BM-Cyclin antibiotic to eliminate contamination. The data presented here will be of relevance to researchers whose investigations involve cell culture, especially respiratory and HEp-2 cells.

Resumo A contaminação de culturas primárias e celulares por micoplasmas é uma das principais armadilhas econômicas e biológicas da pesquisa básica, diagnóstico e fabricação de produtos biotecnológicos. Trata-se de uma contaminação rotineira, mas de difícil acompanhamento. A presença de micoplasma pode afetar vários parâmetros fisiológicos da célula, além de ser considerada uma importante fonte de resultados científicos imprecisos e/ou não reprodutíveis. Cada tipo de célula apresenta sintomas característicos, principalmente morfológicos, que indicam uma contaminação por micoplasma. As células HEp-2 são originárias do carcinoma da laringe e, portanto, fazem parte do trato respiratório, um dos habitats do micoplasma. Apesar da importância destas células em diversas pesquisas biológicas (avaliação da proliferação e migração celular, apoptose, compostos antivirais e antitumorais), as alterações decorrentes da contaminação por micoplasma nestas células ainda não foi descrita. Aqui, descrevemos as alterações morfológicas progressivas na cultura de células HEp-2 infectadas por micoplasma, bem como o diagnóstico da infecção e seu tratamento. A contaminação por micoplasma descrita neste trabalho resultou em alongamento citoplasmático, espaçamento entre células, projeções delgadas da membrana plasmática, vacúolos citoplasmáticos, fusão de células vizinhas e, finalmente, morte celular. A contaminação foi detectada por imagens de fluorescência (DAPI) e reações de PCR. As culturas foram tratadas com antibiótico BM-Cyclin para eliminar a contaminação. Os dados aqui apresentados serão de relevância para pesquisadores cujas investigações envolvem cultura celular, principalmente células respiratórias e HEp-2.

Mycoplasma/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e009721, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341191


Abstract Hemoplasmas are epierythrocytic bacteria that infect mammals. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris' was detected in white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from southern and central-western Brazil. The present study aimed at: i) screening opossums for tick-borne (TBP) pathogens (Piroplasmida and Anaplasmataceae) and ii) detecting and characterizing hemoplasma species infecting opossums from Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu cities in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Thirty blood samples from white-eared opossums were evaluated by PCR assays. Animals were not infested by ectoparasites. The mammalian endogenous gapdh gene was consistently amplified in all samples. All opossums tested negative for Theileria/Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. by PCR based on 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. A genus-specific PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas showed that three/13 (23.08%; CI 95%: 8.18-50.26%) opossums from Foz do Iguaçu were positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. All opossums from Curitiba tested negative for hemoplasmas. Sequencing of both the 16S and 23S rRNA genes revealed that the animals were infected by 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris'. Although 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris' is prevalent in opossums in Brazil, clinical signs associated with its infection and its putative vectors remain unknown.

Resumo Hemoplasmas são bactérias epieritrocíticas que infectam mamíferos. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris' foi detectado previamente em gambás-de-orelha-branca (Didelphis albiventris) das regiões sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. O presente estudo objetivou: i) triar os gambás para as doenças transmitidas por carrapatos (Piroplasmida e Anaplasmataceae); e ii) detectar e caracterizar as espécies de hemoplasma que infectam gambás nas cidades de Curitiba e Foz do Iguaçu, no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Trinta amostras de sangue de gambás-de-orelha-branca foram analisadas por PCR. Os animais não estavam infestados por ectoparasitos. O gene endógeno de mamífero gapdh foi amplificado em todas as amostras. Todos os gambás testaram negativos para Theileria/Babesia spp. e Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. por PCR, respectivamente, para os genes 18S rRNA e 16S rRNA. Uma PCR gene-específica, baseada no gene 16S rRNA de hemoplasmas, mostrou que três/13 (23,08%; CI 95%: 8,18-50,26%) gambás de Foz do Iguaçu foram positivos para Mycoplasma sp. hemotrópico. Todos os gambás de Curitiba testaram negativos para hemoplasmas. O sequenciamento de fragmentos dos genes 16S e 23S rRNA revelou que os animais estavam infectados pelo 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris'. Embora 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris' seja prevalente em gambás no Brasil, os sinais clínicos associados à infecção e os prováveis vetores permanecem desconhecidos.

Animals , Ticks , Didelphis , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Cities
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 220-225, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135611


Brazil is one of the countries with the most abundant avifauna in the world. The confinement of birds associated with close contact with other animals and humans favor the spread of agents of respiratory diseases. Among them, mycoplasmas can cause asymptomatic or apparent disease that manifests in birds by coughing, sneezing, rales, conjunctivitis, ocular and nasal discharge. Several described mycoplasmas cause disease in birds, especially Mycoplasma gallisepticum(MG) andMycoplasma synoviae(MS). The diagnosis ofMycoplasmaspp. can be done by clinical observation and laboratory analysis. Molecular diagnosis by PCR was boosted by its speed, sensitivity, and low cost of agent isolation techniques that take up to 21 days to complete. This study aimed to verify the occurrence ofMycoplasmaspp. in birds of the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (Rio Zoo), by isolation and PCR. Of the total 635 birds from the Rio Zoo, 81 were studied for detection ofMycoplasmaspp., when taken for routine health assessment exams. These birds belonged to the following orders: Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) and Cariamiformes (1), all individuals already identified by microchip or leg-ring. There was no isolation of mycoplasmas in any of the samples tested, whereas, in the PCR, 62.96% (51/81) were positive, with 1.96% (1/51) identified as MG and 19.61% (10/51) as MS, representing 1.23% (1/81) and 12.34% (10/81) of the total population studied. PCR was shown to be a more effective technique than isolation in the detection ofMycoplasmaspp. in birds. It was possible to detect mycoplasmas in birds from Riozoo with no clinical respiratory signs, with higher MS prevalence than MG. The positivities forMycoplasmaspp., MS, and MG were different among the orders studied, being the highest occurrence in birds of prey, followed by Galliformes and Piciformes. The presence of MG and MS in birds of Rio de Janeiro Zoo confirms the circulation of these agents and the need for further studies on the dissemination of mycoplasmas in zoos for the epidemiological analysis of these bacteria in these places.(AU)

O Brasil é um dos países com maior avifauna do mundo. O confinamento de aves associado ao contato próximo a outros animais e seres humanos favorece a disseminação de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças respiratórias. Dentre eles, os micoplasmas podem causar doença assintomática ou aparente que se manifesta em aves por espirros, estertores, conjuntivite, corrimentos oculares e nasais. São diversos os micoplasmas descritos causadores de doença em aves, com destaque para Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) e Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). O diagnóstico de Mycoplasma spp. pode ser feito pela observação clínica e análises laboratoriais. O diagnóstico molecular pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) ganhou impulso por sua rapidez, sensibilidade e baixo custo em relação às técnicas de isolamento do agente que levam até 21 dias para conclusão do gênero Mycoplasma. Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência da infecção por Mycoplasma spp. em aves no Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio Zoo), por isolamento e PCR. Do plantel de 635 aves do Rio Zoo, foram estudadas 81 para detecção de Mycoplasma spp., quando contidas para exames rotineiros de avaliação da condição de saúde. Essas aves eram pertencentes às ordens Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) e Cariamiformes (1), todas já identificadas por microchip ou por anilha. Não houve isolamento de micoplasmas em nenhuma das amostras testadas, enquanto na PCR, 62,96% (51/81) foram positivas, sendo 1,96% (1/51) identificadas como MG e 19,61% (10/51) como MS, representando 1,23% (1/81) e 12,34% (10/81) da população total estudada. A PCR demonstrou ser uma técnica mais efetiva que o isolamento na detecção de Mycoplasma spp. em aves. Foi possível detectar micoplasmas nas aves do Riozoo sem sinal clínico respiratório, tendo MS maior prevalência do que MG. As positividades para Mycoplasma spp., MG e MS foram diferentes entre as ordens de aves estudadas, sendo a maior ocorrência nas aves de rapina, seguida dos Galliformes e dos Piciformes. A presença de MG e MS nas aves do Rio de Janeiro Zoo confirma a circulação destes agentes e a necessidade de mais estudos sobre a disseminação de micoplasmas em zoológicos para análise epidemiológica dessas bactérias nesse local.(AU)

Animals , Psittaciformes/microbiology , Raptors/microbiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolation & purification , Galliformes/microbiology , Animals, Zoo/microbiology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Birds/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 9-16, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816641


Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) continues to be a significant economic problem to the swine industry. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MH) are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against PRRSV and MH in the serum of sows and piglets from 89 domestic commercial pig farms by ELISA, and the presence of viral nucleic acids of PRRSV, including North American and European PRRS, and PCV2 was also investigated in the serum of sows and piglets from 89 domestic commercial pig farms by real-time PCR. In case of PRRSV, 78.7% (70/89) of sows were positive for PRRSV antibody, and 96.6% (86/89) of piglets were positive for PRRSV antibody. For MH, 76.4% (68/89) of sows showed positive for MH antibody. In the PRRSV viral nucleic acid detection experiment, 36.0% (32/89) of sows were positive for PRRSV nucleic acids, and virus nucleic acid was detected in 83.1% (74/89) of piglets. In case of virus type, both North American and European types were detected. In case of PCV2, 15.7% (14/89) of sows were positive for PCV2 nucleic acids. Conclusively, PCV2, PRRSV, and MH were widely distributed in pig farms in Korea. These prevalence data related with PRDC provides clinical information for vaccination strategy and development for the control of PRDC.

Agriculture , Antibodies , Circovirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Korea , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Nucleic Acids , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine , Vaccination
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e007320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138117


Abstract Although anemia has been historically linked to Haemonchus contortus infection, other infectious agents, such as hemotropic mycoplasmas and tick-borne disease pathogens, may also lead to anemic crisis in sheep. This study has aimed to investigate infections related to anemia in a sheep herd from Bandeirantes City, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Seven out of forty-two (16.6%; 95% CI: 8.32-30.6%) sheep were positive for hemoplasmas by a PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and all tested negative for A. marginale/A. ovis and Babesia/Theileria spp. by PCR based on msp4 and 18S rRNA genes, respectively. Two (4.7%; 95% CI: 1.32-15.79%) animals were infested with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. Fecal egg counting was performed in 38 sheep and 24 (63.15%; 95% CI: 47.2-76.6%) presented > 500 eggs per gram. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the detected hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed that the animals were infected with Mycoplasma ovis. Polymorphism analysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences showed three different genotypes of M. ovis infecting sheep assessed in the present study. Mycoplasma ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes occurs in sheep from the northern region of Paraná State.

Resumo Embora a principal causa de anemia seja historicamente relacionada à infecção por Haemonchus contortus, outros agentes infecciosos, como micoplasmas hemotrópicos e patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos, também podem causar quadros anêmicos em ovinos. O presente estudo objetivou investigar infecções relacionadas à anemia em um rebanho de ovinos, na cidade de Bandeirantes, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Sete (16,6%; 95% CI: 8,32-30,6%) de 42 ovinos foram positivos para hemoplasmas pela PCR do gene 16S rRNA, enquanto todos foram negativos para A. marginale/A. ovis e Babesia/Theileria spp. por ensaios da PCR baseados nos genes msp4 e 18S rRNA, respectivamente. Dois (4,7%; 95% CI: 1,32-15,79%) animais estavam infestados por carrapatos Rhipicephalus microplus. Dos 38 animais nos quais foi realizada a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), 24 (63,15%; 95% CI: 47,2-76,6%) apresentaram valores >500 para OPG. A análise filogenética das sequências parciais dos genes 16S rRNA e 23S rRNA de hemoplasmas confirmou a infecção por Mycoplasma ovis. A análise de polimorfismos de um fragmento do gene 16S rRNA mostrou a ocorrência de três genótipos diferentes de M. ovis nos animais. Mycoplasma ovis e nematódeos gastrointestinais ocorrem em ovinos da região nordeste do Estado do Paraná.

Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Parasites/classification , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/complications , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/microbiology , Anemia/veterinary , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Phylogeny , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Brazil , Sheep , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anemia/complications , Anemia/parasitology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 31(4): 131-137, dez. 31, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122030


Introduction: Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are frequently found at many women's and men's urogenital tract, and have been associated with non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, infertility, chorioaminionitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Some studies show high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis, while also presenting high frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection in women with cervicalcytology abnormalities and men with genital warts. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and HPV coinfection in people attending a sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV reference centre and to identify the risk factors associated. Methods: A cross-sectional study with patients aged >18 years, carried out for Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis from July 1st to December 31, 2015, in a STI/HIV reference centre from the State of Bahia, Brazil. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from secondary data from patients' charts and laboratory findings, and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Pearson's χ2 test or Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate categorical variables. HPV clinical diagnosis was considered positive as the presence of genital warts. Results: In this study, 849 patients were included ­ 196 men and 653 women. Of the sample, 51.4% was diagnosed with at least one of the two bacteria. The prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis infection was higher in coinfection (16.7%) than in isolated infection (2.2%). The prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated infection was 32.4%. A strong association was found between the presence of genital warts and Ureaplasma urealyticum infection, with an estimated risk of 1.230 (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our findings suggest the need for further investigation for Ureaplasma urealyticum infection in patients presenting genital warts on physical examination. In addition, in this context, greater attention should be given to women and pregnant women.

Introdução: Ureaplasma urealyticum e Mycoplasma hominis são frequentemente encontrados no trato urogenital de homens e mulheres, e têm sido associados à ocorrência de uretrites não gonocócicas, cervicites, infertilidade, corioamnionite e outras patologias obstétricas. Alguns estudos mostraram alta prevalência de papilomavírus humano (HPV) em pacientes com uretrites não gonocócicas, bem como alta frequência de infecção por Ureaplasma urealyticum em mulheres com anormalidades na citologia cervical e homens apresentando verruga genital. Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência da coinfecção por Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis e HPV em pessoas atendidas em um centro de referência de DST/HIV e identificar os fatores de risco associados. Métodos: Estudo transversal com pacientes maiores de 18 anos, testados para Ureaplasma urealyticum e Mycoplasma hominis entre 1º de julho e 31 de dezembro de 2015, em um centro de referência de DST/HIV da Bahia, Brasil. Os dados clínicos e sociodemográficos foram obtidos por coleta de dados secundários a partir dos prontuários e achados laboratoriais dos pacientes e analisados usando SPSS 20.0. O teste de χ2 Pearson ou teste exato de Fisher foram usados para avaliar as variáveis categóricas. O diagnóstico clínico do HPV foi considerado positivo quando houve presença de verruga genital. Resultados: Foram incluídos neste estudo, 849 pacientes, sendo 196 homens e 653 mulheres. Da amostra, 51,4% foi diagnosticada com infecção por pelo menos uma das duas bactérias. A prevalência de infecção por Mycoplasma hominis foi maior na coinfecção (16,7%) do que isoladamente (2,2%). A prevalência da infecção isolada por Ureaplasma urealyticum foi de 32,4%. Houve forte associação entre a presença de verruga genital e infecção por Ureaplasma urealyticum, com estimativa de risco de 1,230 (p=0,014). Conclusão: Nossos achados sugerem a necessidade de investigação adicional para a infecção por Ureaplasma urealyticum nos pacientes apresentando verruga genital ao exame físico. Além disso, nesse contexto, maior atenção deve ser dada a mulheres e gestantes.

Humans , Papillomaviridae , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Mycoplasma hominis , Urethritis , Warts , Mycoplasma
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 632-643, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057984


Abstract This study used serological and molecular methods to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) with zoonotic potential in cats neutered at the University Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, Santa Catarina. The combined PCR and serological results revealed that 17 (56.6%) cats were positive for one or more pathogens. The sampled cats had antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. (7/30), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (3/30) and Leishmania infantum (2/30). The PCR assay detected DNA closely related to Ehrlichia canis in 6/30 cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis in 2/30 cats, A. phagocytophilum and Cytauxzoon sp. in one cat each. While Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae were detected in two cats each, and B. koehlerae was detected in one cat.

Resumo Como os felinos podem ser parasitados por diversos patógenos transmitidos por vetores (PTV), alguns com caráter zoonótico, este estudo objetivou detectar por métodos sorológicos e moleculares, patógenos transmitidos por vetores hematófagos, em gatos atendidos em um Hospital Veterinário Universitário em Santa Catarina. Os resultados da PCR e da sorologia combinados, revelaram que 17 (56,6%) gatos foram positivos para um ou mais patógenos. Na sorologia, foram positivos 7/30 gatos para Ehrlichia, 3/30 para Anaplasma phagocytophilum e 2/30 para Leishmania infantum. Na PCR foi detectado DNA filogeneticamente associado a: Ehrlichia canis em 6/30 gatos; Mycoplasma haemofelis, em 2/30 gatos; A. phagocytophilum e Cytauxzoon sp. em 1/30 gatos cada. Enquanto Bartonella clarridgeiae e B. henselae foram detectadas, cada uma, em dois gatos, B. koehlerae foi detectada em um gato.

Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Babesia/isolation & purification , Babesia/genetics , Babesia/immunology , Babesiosis/transmission , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Bartonella/genetics , Bartonella/immunology , Brazil , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/transmission , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Ehrlichia/genetics , Ehrlichia/immunology , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/genetics , Anaplasma/immunology , Insect Vectors , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma/immunology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 728-734, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057990


Abstract Free-ranging and feral dogs represent a group of unattended companion animals. They impact wild animal populations by predating native species, displacing predators and introducing exotic pathogens. The aim of this work was to describe the molecular occurrence of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Mycoplasma and Bartonella in feral dogs. The study was carried out in the last relict of a protected area in Mexico City. Blood clots samples from 19 dogs were obtained and analyzed for detection of specific fragments of the 16S-rRNA gene for Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Mycoplasma and citrate synthase (gltA) for Bartonella and Rickettsia. Our results showed that DNA from three bacteria species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis and Mycoplasma haemocanis) was present with frequencies ranging from 5.3 to 15.8%. This is the first record of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and M. haemocanis in dogs from México, and also the first finding of Ehrlichia canis in Mexico City. It is important to perform surveillance of feral dog populations in order to identify the impact of these pathogens on wild animal populations and Public Health in order to establish prevention and protection programs.

Resumo Cães errantes e selvagens representam um grupo de animais de companhia livres. Eles impactam as populações de animais selvagens pela predação de espécies nativas, deslocando predadores e introduzindo patógenos exóticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a ocorrência molecular de Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Mycoplasma e Bartonella em cães selvagens. O estudo foi realizado no último ecossistema de uma área protegida na Cidade do México. Amostras de coágulos sanguíneos de 19 cães foram obtidas e analisadas para detecção de fragmentos específicos do gene 16S-rRNA para Anaplasma, Ehrlichia e Mycoplasma e citrato sintase (gltA) para Bartonella e Rickettsia. Nossos resultados mostraram que o DNA de três espécies de bactérias (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis e Mycoplasma haemocanis) estava presente com frequências variando de 5,3 a 15,8%. Este é o primeiro registro de B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii e M. haemocanis em cães do México, e também a primeira descrição de Ehrlichia canis na Cidade do México. É importante realizar a vigilância das populações de cães selvagens para identificar o impacto desses patógenos nas populações de animais silvestres e na Saúde Pública, a fim de estabelecer programas de prevenção e proteção.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Ehrlichia/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Rickettsia/genetics , Bartonella/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichia/genetics , Anaplasma/genetics , Animals, Wild , Mexico/epidemiology , Mycoplasma/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 797-801, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057996


Abstract Opossums are marsupials from the New World of the genus Didelphis and known as synanthropic animals due to their proximity with human beings. To date, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphis' has been solely found infecting the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Accordingly, the aim of this study was to screen eight white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from a public park in Maringa city, Paraná State, southern Brazil, for hemoplasma infection. Blood samples were taken from caudal venipuncture, and DNA was extracted and further screened by a pan-hemoplasma PCR assay. Seven out of eight (87.50%; CI 95%: 47.35-99.68%) white-eared opossums were positive for Mycoplasma spp. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA fragment showed 98,97% identity with 'Ca. M. haemodidelphis' detected in the USA. Three out of eight (37.50%; CI 95%: 8.52-75.51%) white-eared opossums were infested by Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. This is the first report on detection of a potentially novel hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. infecting opossums from South America.

Resumo Gambás são marsupiais do Novo Mundo, pertencentes ao gênero Didelphis, e considerados animais sinantrópicos devido à sua proximidade com seres humanos. Atualmente, a espécie 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphis' só foi encontrada infectando gambá norte americano (Didelphis virginiana). O objetivo do presente estudo foi detectar a infecção por hemoplasmas em oito gambás-de-orelha-branca (Didelphis albiventris) capturados em um parque público da cidade de Maringá, no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por venopunção caudal para a extração do DNA e posterior análise pela PCR para espécies de hemoplasmas. Sete de oito animais (87,50%; CI 95%: 47,35-99,68%) foram considerados positivos para Mycoplasma spp. O sequenciamento do fragmento do gene 16S rRNA obtido apresentou 98.97% de similaridade com sequências de 'Ca. M. haemodidelphis' detectadas nos Estados Unidos. Três gambás (37,50%; CI 95%: 8,52-75,51%) estavam infestados por carrapatos da espécie Amblyomma dubitatum. Esse é o primeiro relato de detecção de uma potencial nova espécie de Mycoplasma hemotrópico infectando gambás na América do Sul.

Animals , Male , Female , Opossums/microbiology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma/genetics
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 796-801, Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1056903


Respiratory diseases are among the most important diseases in sheep flocks. Herein was studied the bacterial etiology of respiratory disease and the clinical signs of 99 female and male sheep breed in the states of São Paulo (SP) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil. After physical examination of animals, tracheobronchial flushing samples were obtained. The usual bacteria and Mycoplasma spp. were searched, as well as their association with the clinical status and clinical signs of sheep with respiratory disease. The main observed signs were: tachypnea (75%), increase of rectal temperature (09.4%), mucopurulent/purulent nasal discharge (21.9%), cough (25%), dyspnea (31.2%), changes of lung sounds at auscultation (87.5%) and chest percussion (28.1%) in pneumonic sheep. Non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus sp. were the most isolated bacteria. Microorganisms of the Mollicutes class were molecularly (PCR) detected in 33.3% of the animals. In addition, the specific detection of M. mycoides subsp. capri was described for the first time in sheep from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.(AU)

A doença respiratória é uma das doenças mais importantes em rebanhos ovinos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a etiologia bacteriana da doença respiratória e sua relação com sinais clínicos em ovinos criados nos estados de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Noventa e nove ovelhas machos e fêmeas dos Estados de São Paulo (SP) e Rio de Janeiro (RJ) foram estudadas. Após o exame físico, amostras de lavagem traqueobrônquica foram obtidas. A presença de bactérias aeróbias e Mycoplasmaspp. foram estudados, assim como a associação entre os microrganismos e estado clínico e sinais clínicos de doença respiratória em ovinos. As principais manifestações clínicas observadas foram: taquipneia (75%), alta temperatura retal (09,4%), secreção nasal mucopurulenta/purulenta (21,9%), tosse (25%), dispneia (31,2%), sons pulmonares alterados na ausculta (87,5%) e na percussão torácica (28,1%) em ovelhas pneumônicas. Bactérias gram-negativas não fermentadoras e Bacillus sp. foram as bactérias mais isoladas. Microrganismos da classe Mollicutes foram detectados molecularmente (PCR) em 33,3% dos ovinos. Além disso, descreve-se pela primeira vez no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, a detecção do M. mycoides subsp. capri na espécie ovina utilizando a reação de polimerase em cadeia.(AU)

Animals , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/veterinary , Sheep , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Pasteurella/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 360-366, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042528


Abstract Mycoplasma ovis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution and can cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia, icterus, and poor weight gain in animals. Although M. ovis has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in sheep in Brazil is unknown. The objective of the present study was to present the first report of hemotropic mycoplasma (HM) in sheep from Brazil. We evaluated factors associated with this infection, such age group, tick presence, and anemia. Blood samples were collected from 33 sheep from a farm in southern Brazil and screened for hemoplasmas using PCR. Out of 33 samples, 26 (78.8%) tested positive for M. ovis. The sequencing of positive samples showed 100% identity with multiple M. ovis 16S rDNA sequences. No association was observed between the presence of M. ovis and the FAMACHA© score (p = 0.620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45.4%) was the tick species found on the animals. No significant association between M. ovis infection and presence of ticks (p = 0.4134) and age group (p = 0.4221) was observed. This is the first report of M. ovis infection in sheep from Brazil and only the second report of this pathogen in sheep in Latin America.

Resumo Mycoplasma ovis é um patógeno zoonótico emergente com distribuição mundial e pode causar anemia hemolítica de leve a grave, icterícia e baixo ganho de peso em animais. Embora M. ovis tenha sido descrito em pequenos ruminantes em todo o mundo, os dados sobre M. ovis em ovinos no Brasil são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar o primeiro relato de micoplasmas hemotrópicos em ovinos no Brasil. Avaliamos os fatores associados a essa infecção, como faixa etária, presença de carrapatos e anemia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 33 ovelhas de uma fazenda no sul do Brasil e testadas para hemoplasmas usando a PCR. Das 33 amostras, 26 (78,8%) apresentaram resultado positivo. O sequenciamento das amostras positivas mostrou 100% de identidade com múltiplas sequências de M. ovis 16S rDNA. Não foi observada associação entre a presença de M. ovis e o escore FAMACHA© (p = 0,620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45,4%) foi a espécie de carrapato encontrada nos animais. Não houve associação significativa entre infecção por M. ovis e presença de carrapatos (p = 0,4134) e faixa etária (p = 0,4221). Este é o primeiro relato de infecção por M. ovis em ovinos no Brasil e o segundo relato deste patógeno em ovinos na América Latina.

Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sheep , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Rhipicephalus/microbiology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 306-309, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042510


Abstract Mycoplasma suis is a bacterium that causes hemoplasmosis in pigs. This agent is capable of adhering to the surface of porcine erythrocytes, inducing structural changes on these cells. In Brazil, there are few reports about the disease, its causal agent, and the economic impact of this pathogen on pig production systems and farm sanitation. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of M. suis in extensive swine farms located in the counties of Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita and Rosario, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil. For such purpose, 64 blood samples of pigs from these facilities were tested for M. suis using a 16S rRNA gene-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR); 82.3%, 65.2% and 25% of blood samples of swine from farms in the cities of Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita and Rosario were positive for M. suis by qPCR, respectively. This study shows, for the first time, that M. suis circulates in pig populations from the state of Maranhão, Northeast Brazil.

Resumo Mycoplasma suis é uma bactéria que causa a hemoplasmose em suínos. Este agente é capaz de se aderir à superfície dos eritrócitos de suínos, ocasionando deformações estruturais nestas células. No Brasil, poucos são os relatos acerca do parasita, da infecção e de seus impactos econômicos nas esferas produtiva e sanitária. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio da PCR em tempo real quantitativa (qPCR) baseada no gene 16S rRNA, a ocorrência de M. suis em 64 amostras de sangue de suínos de criações extensivas dos municípios de Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita e Rosário, localizados no estado do Maranhão. Foram obtidos um percentual de 82,3%, 65,2% e 25% de amostras positivas na qPCR para M. suis nos municípios de Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita e Rosário, respectivamente. Este estudo mostra que M. suis circula entre os suínos de criações extensivas no estado do Maranhão.

Animals , Male , Female , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 18-21, mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041814


There are few reports about the isolation of Mycoplasma species associated with cattle disease in Argentina. In this work we describe the detection of Mycoplasma leachii associated with disease in dairy calves in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Samples obtained from a 4 day-old dairy calf suffering from polyarthritis and from two other calves, one with arthritis and the other one with a mandibular abscess, were subjected to microbiological culture. Classical culture and generic PCR confirmed the presence of Mycoplasma spp. The spacer region between the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA gene from the first isolate was amplified and sequenced. The sequence obtained showed 99% identity with M. leachii. A PCR was developed to amplify a specific fragment of the 16S-23S ITS region corresponding to M. leachii, which allowed to identify the isolates associated with disease in calves.

Existen pocos informes acerca del aislamiento de especies de Mycoplasma asociadas con enfermedades del ganado en Argentina. En esta comunicación se describe el aislamiento de Mycoplasma leachii asociado a enfermedad en terneros de tambo en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Se obtuvieron muestras de un ternero de 4 días de vida con poliartritis, de un ternero con artritis y uno con un absceso mandibular. A partir del cultivo clásico se detectó la presencia de Mycoplasma, lo cual fue confirmado por PCR genérica. Se amplificó y secuenció la región ITS 16S-23S a partir del primer aislamiento, mostrando una identidad del 99% con Mycoplasma leachii. Se desarrolló una PCR para amplificar un fragmento específico de la región ITS 16S-23S correspondiente a M. leachii, que permitió identificar los aislamientos asociados con enfermedad en terneros.

Arthritis/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Mycoplasma bovis/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Diagnosis/analysis
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 605-614, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786674


BACKGROUND: In this study, we manufactured a complex of human nasal septal cartilage (hNC) with polycaprolactone (PCL) for transplantation into cartilaginous skeletal defects and evaluated their characteristics.METHODS: Nasal septum tissue was obtained from five patients aged ≥ 20 years who were undergoing septoplasty. hNCs were isolated and subcultured for three passages in vitro. To formulate the cell–PCL complex, we used type I collagen as an adhesive between chondrocyte and PCL. Immunofluorescence staining, cell viability and growth in the hNC–PCL complex, and mycoplasma contamination were assessed.RESULTS: hNCs in PCL showed viability ≥ 70% and remained at these levels for 9 h of incubation at 4 ℃. Immunostaining of the hNC–PCL complex also showed high expression levels of chondrocyte-specific protein, COL2A1, SOX9, and aggrecan during 24 h of clinically applicable conditions.CONCLUSION: The hNC–PCL complex may be a valuable therapeutic agent for implantation into injured cartilage tissue, and can be used clinically to repair cartilaginous skeletal defects. From a clinical perspective, it is important to set the short duration of the implantation process to achieve effective functional implantation.

Humans , Adhesives , Aggrecans , Cartilage , Cell Survival , Chondrocytes , Collagen , Collagen Type I , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , In Vitro Techniques , Mycoplasma , Nasal Septum , Tissue Engineering
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 51-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741870


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between cytokine and chemokine levels and the clinical severity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters were performed. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured. The severity of patients' clinical course and radiologic findings were also assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients (35 males and 37 females) with a median age of 3.9 years (range, 1–16 years) were enrolled. Patients with lobar pneumonia (n=29) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and IL-18 values than those with broncho-interstitial pneumonia (n=43). However, the cytokine and chemokine values did not differ between the group that was treated with corticosteroids (n=31) and the one that was not (n=41). The CRP, ESR, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), IL-18, and IP-10 values showed positive correlations with fever duration prior to admission. The CRP and ESR values were positively correlated with IL-18, and LDH, with IP-10 levels. CONCLUSIONS: CRP, ESR, LDH, IL-18, and IP-10 values were associated with the severity of the disease, manifesting lobar pneumonia or prolonged fever duration prior to admission.

Child , Humans , Male , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Chemokines , Cytokines , Fever , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Macrophages , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Necrosis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies