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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552


Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.

Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.

Soil Pollutants , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Herbicides , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Trees , Brazil , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Rhizosphere
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 287-302, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927712


As a non-essential metal, cadmium (Cd) pollution poses severe threats to plant growth, environment, and human health. Phytoextraction using nursery stocks prior to their transplantation is a potential useful approach for bioremediation of Cd contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was performed to investigate the growth, Cd accumulation, profiles of transcriptome as well as root-associated microbiomes of Photinia frase in Cd-added soil, upon inoculation of two types of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Sieverdingia tortuosa and Funneliformis mosseae. Compared with the control, inoculation of F. mosseae increased Cd concentrations in root, stem and leaf by 57.2%, 44.1% and 71.1%, respectively, contributing to a total Cd content of 182 μg/plant. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that hundreds of genes involved in 'Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway', 'plant hormone signal transduction', 'biosynthesis of secondary metabolites' and 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' were enriched upon inoculation of F. mosseae. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was increased upon inoculation of S. tortuosa, while Chloroflexi and Patescibacteria were increased upon inoculation of F. mosseae, and the abundance of Glomerales increased from 23.0% to above 70%. Correlation analysis indicated that ethylene-responsive transcription factor, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, isoamylase and agmatine deiminase related genes were negatively associated with the relative abundance of Glomerales operational taxonomic units (OTUs) upon inoculation of F. mosseae. In addition, plant cysteine oxidase, heat shock protein, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and abscisic acid receptor related genes were positively associated with the relative abundance of Patescibacteria OTUs upon inoculation of F. mosseae. These finding suggested that AMF can enhance P. frase Cd uptake by modulating plant gene expression and altering the structure of the soil microbial community. This study provides a theoretical basis for better understanding the relationship between root-associated microbiomes and root transcriptomes of P. frase, from which a cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy for phytoextraction of Cd in Cd-polluted soil might be developed.

Humans , Cadmium , Microbiota , Mycorrhizae , Photinia , Soil Pollutants , Transcriptome
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387646


Resumen Introducción: El café es una planta altamente micotrófica, por lo que la interacción con los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA) se ha estudiado en distintos países tropicales. La mayoría de los trabajos publicados indican que el café se beneficia de la asociación micorrízica, donde los HMA confieren protección ante patógenos y enfermedades, incrementa la absorción de agua, así como la adaptación de la planta durante el trasplante de vivero al campo. Objetivo: Se realizó una revisión donde se resumieron y analizaron trabajos reportados por la asociación de HMA y café de los últimos 10 años, enfocada en la distribución global de especies de HMA, beneficio nutricional de la asociación y su interacción con patógenos. Métodos: Se revisaron diferentes bases de datos que reportaron trabajos realizados en los principales países productores de café. La revisión se centró principalmente en los trabajos publicados entre el 2000 y el 2019, sin embargo, en algunos casos se incluyeron artículos clásicos en el tema, que no corresponden al periodo señalado, principalmente los realizados en Brasil desde 1986. Se organizó el número de especies reportadas por país, se buscaron sinonimias y agruparon por familia, género y especie. Los trabajos donde solo se reportan géneros o las especies presentaron ambigüedad, se usaron como referencia, pero no se incluyeron en el análisis final. Se resumieron los reportes de los beneficios de la interacción de HMA con café, así como la tolerancia a patógenos. Resultados: Los datos recabados muestran que hay más de 100 especies de HMA asociadas con el café, lo cual representa más de la tercera parte del total de las especies reportadas en el mundo. En Colombia se reportó la mayor riqueza de especies de HMA, lo cual puede deberse a que es el país con más reportes en el tema. Conclusiones: Esta información muestra los beneficios de la incorporación de HMA en los programas de replantación de fincas de café, pues estos hongos son un elemento clave en la nutrición de los cafetos, sin embargo, se debe considerar la variedad de café cultivada y la introducción de HMA, pues no en todas hay una asociación exitosa.

Abstract Introduction: Coffee is a highly mycotrophic plant, its interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been studied among different tropical countries. The majority of the published works indicates that coffee is benefited from the mycorrhizal association, where the AMF confers protection against pathogens and diseases, increases water absorption, as well as it increases the adaptation of the plant at transplant from nurseries to the main plantation. Objective: A review was made where we summarized and analyze the research reports of AMF with coffee from at least the past 10 years, focused on AMF global species distribution, nutritional benefits of the association and interaction with pathogens. Methods: We retrieved available bibliographic data from coffee producer countries in public databases. We considered published works from 2000 to 2019, nevertheless, we included classic papers on the topic, outside that period, mainly the ones performed in Brazil since 1986. We organized the number of reported species per country, we look for synonyms, grouped them by family, genera and species. The reports that only reported genera or where ambiguous were used as reference but not considered for the final analysis. We summarized the reports of the benefits of the AMF interaction in coffee, as well as pathogen tolerance. Results: The collected data shows that there are more than 100 AMF species associated with coffee, which represents more than a third part of the total of reported species worldwide. We found that Colombia has the highest richness, but it also has the highest number of published reports. Conclusions: This information shows the benefits of the incorporation of AMF to coffee plantation programs, because these fungi are a key element in coffee plant nutrition, nevertheless, the coffee variety should be considered when introducing AMF, as not all associations has been efficient.

Coffee , Mycorrhizae , Fungi , Mexico
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e54742, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460979


This study aimed to assess the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in annatto (Bixa orellana L.) cultivars and their response to AMF inoculation using biometric parameters. The occurrence surveys were conducted in annatto fields in three municipalities from Pernambuco Forest Zone: Lagoa de Itaenga, Gloria de Goitá, and Vitoria de Santo Antão, and in four cultivars (Red Piave, Green Piave, Red Peruvian Paulista, and Green Peruvian Paulista). In a greenhouse, biometric parameters of annatto seedlings of Red Piave, Red Peruvian Paulista, Embrapa-36, and Embrapa-37 cultivars inoculated with AMF isolated from annatto fields. The Red Piave cultivar exhibited greater root colonization than the Green Peruvian Paulista in the Lagoa de Itaenga and Vitoria de Santo Antão municipalities. The cultivar Red Piave showed a more beneficial association with AMF in plants and soil than cultivar Green Peruvian Paulista did, in both Lagoa de Itaenga and Vitoria de Santo Antão. AMF inoculation was effective in promoting the growth of annatto plants, particularly those inoculants with S. heterogama and C. etunicatum.

Bixaceae/growth & development , Serial Passage , Mycorrhizae
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888068


In this study, the colonization, diversity and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) in the roots of Panax quinquefolius in different habitats of Shandong province were analyzed by staining-microscopy and high-throughput sequencing. The data were analyzed by bioinformatics tools and statistical software. The results showed that the roots of P. quinquefolius in different habitats were colonized by AMF with different rates and intensities. The AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius belong to three genera, three families, three orders, one class and one phylum. At the level of order, the AMF mainly included Paraglomerales(52.48%), Glomerales(25.60%) and Archaeosporales(3.08%). At the level of family, the AMF were dominated by Paraglomeraceae(52.48%), Glomeraceae(18.94%) and Claroideoglomeraceae(3.05%). At the level of genus, Paraglomus(51.46%), Glomus(20.01%) and Claroideoglomus(3.52%) accounted for a large proportion, of which Paraglomus and Glomus were dominant. Cluster analysis showed that the AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius with close geographical locations could be clustered together. In this study, the diversity and dominant germplasm resources of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius cultivated in the main producing areas were identified, which provi-ded basic data for revealing the quality formation mechanism of P. quinquefolius medicinal materials from the perspective of environment.

Humans , Fungi , Glomeromycota , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Panax , Plant Roots , Soil Microbiology
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3604-3621, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921451


The remediation of heavy-metal (HM) contaminated soil using hyperaccumulators is one of the important solutions to address the inorganic contamination widely occurred worldwide. Hyperaccumulators are able to hyperaccumulate HMs, but their planting, growth, and extraction capacities are greatly affected by HM stress. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the function of hyperaccumulators by combining the functional advantages of both, improving the efficiency of remediation, shortening the remediation cycle, and maintaining the stability and persistence of the remediation. Thus, the combined use of AMF with hyperaccumulators has broad prospects for application in the management of increasingly complex and severe HM pollution. This review starts by defining the concept of hyperaccumulators, followed by describing the typical hyperaccumulators that were firstly reported in China as well as those known to form symbioses with AMF. This review provides a systematic and in-depth discussion of the effects of AMF on the growth of hyperaccumulators, as well as the absorption and accumulation of HMs, the effects and mechanism on the hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis to absorb and accumulate HMs. AMF enhances the function of hyperaccumulators on the absorption and accumulation of HMs by regulating the physicochemical and biological conditions in the plant rhizosphere, the situation of elements homeostasis, the physiological metabolism and gene expression. Moreover, the symbiotic systems established by hyperaccumulators plus AMF have the potential to combine their abilities to remediate HMs-contaminated habitat. Finally, challenges for the combined use of remediation technologies for hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis and future directions were prospected.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants , Symbiosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.

Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827982


The technique of "simulative habitat cultivation" is to preserve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine by simulating the original habitat and site environment of wild Chinese medicine resources. Dendrobium nobile is the most representative variety of traditional Chinese medicine which reflects the coordinated development of medicinal material production and ecological environment. In this paper, the main technical points of the simulated cultivation model of D. nobile were summarized as follows: rapid propagation of seedling tissue technology to ensure the genetic stability of provenance; line card+fermented cow manure+live moss method to improve the survival rate; epiphytic stone cultivation to improve the quality of medicinal materials; and the integration of mycorrhizal fungi to improve the quality stability of medicinal materials. On the basis of summarizing the ecological benefits, economical and social benefits generated by the application of the technology, the paper systematically analyzes the principle of the technology for the cultivation of D. nobile to promote the excellent quality, the light, gas, heat and fertilizer resources of the undergrowth niche are in line with the wild site environment of D. nobile. The rich and complex soil microbial community in the forest laid the foundation for the species diversity needed for the growth of D. nobile.The stress effect on the growth of D. nobile resulted in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. The symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic fungi such as bryophytes and D. nobile promotes the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites. The high quality D. nobile was produced efficiently by improving and optimizing the cultivation techniques.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mycorrhizae , Symbiosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827980


In this study, the infection of root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province was investigated, and the distribution characteristics and infection regularity of AMF were found out. The AMF of P. quinquefolium roots in different habitats was examined by alkali dissociation-trypickin blue staining method to study the infection rate and infection intensity. The contents of ginsenoside(Rb_1, Re, Rg_1, Rb_2, Rd and Rh_1) in the roots of P. quinquefolium was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were SPSS 17.0 statistical software for One-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the AMF infection in roots of P. quinquefolium, and there were obvious structures such as hyphae, arbuscular branches and vesicles, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity showed obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity with the growth age and origin of P. quinquefolium. The infection rate of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium from 1 to 3 years increased significantly with the increase of growth years(P<0.05). The infection intensity and infection rate of P. quinquefolium showed a similar change trend, the AMF infection rate and infection intensity reached the highest level in the third year. Cluster analysis showed that the infection rates of roots of P. quinquefolium in similar geographical locations could be clustered together. Correlation analysis showed that the AMF infection rate of P. quinquefolium root was significantly positively correlated with the infection intensity, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity were significantly positively correlated with the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1, Re and Rb_1. This study explored the distribution characteristics and regularity of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium under the protected cultivation conditions, and provided basic data for ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium and research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.

Fertilizers , Fungi , Ginsenosides , Mycorrhizae , Panax , Plant Roots
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(2): 7256-7261, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115247


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la efectividad de hongos micorrizo-arbusculares (HMA) de suelos con diferentes usos agropecuarios, en el valle medio del río Sinú, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Bajo condiciones de invernadero se realizó el experimento, donde se utilizó como planta indicadora Leucaena leucocephala, la cual se sembró en materos con suelo de un Andisol (horizonte B) usado como sustrato. Este sustrato, se inoculó separadamente con muestras de siete suelos (horizonte Ap), como fuente de HMA, provenientes del Centro de Investigación Turipaná de Agrosavia. Como controles se incluyeron inoculación con HMA Glomus fasciculatum y uno no-inoculado El efecto de la inoculación micorrizal se evaluó mediante el monitoreo del contenido de P foliar en las plantas de L. leucocephala, en función del tiempo hasta 64 días cuando se determinó la masa seca de su parte aérea y la colonización micorrizal. Resultados. El crecimiento de L. leucocephala y el contenido de P foliar fue significativamente superior cuando el suelo se inoculó con G. fasciculatum, en comparación a aquel observado con los demás tratamientos. De igual forma, la colonización micorrizal fue muy alta en las raíces de L. leucocephala que crecieron en el suelo inoculado con G. fasciculatum e inferior en los otros tratamientos. Conclusiones. Los resultados indican que los HMA nativos de suelos con diferentes usos, provenientes del C.I Turipaná de Agrosavia, exhibieron bajo potencial para desarrollar simbiosis micorrizal, lo que limitó el crecimiento y la concentración de P foliar en la planta hospedera.

ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the effectiveness of mycorrhizal-arbuscular fungi (AMF) of soils with different agricultural uses, in the middle valley of the Sinú river, Colombia. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where Leucaena leucocephala was used as the indicator plant, which was planted in masons with an Andisol soil (horizon B) used as a substrate. This substrate was inoculated separately with samples from seven soils (Ap horizon), as a source of AMF, from the Turipaná Research Center in Agrosavia. As controls we included inoculation with HMA Glomus fasciculatum and one non-inoculated one. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation was evaluated by monitoring the foliar P content in L. leucocephala plants, as a function of time to 64 days, when the dry mass of its aerial part and mycorrhizal colonization was determined. Results. The growth of L. leucocephala and the foliar P content was significantly higher when the soil was inoculated with G. fasciculatum, in comparison to that observed with the other treatments. Likewise, mycorrhizal colonization was very high in the roots of L. leucocephala that grew in the soil inoculated with G. fasciculatum and lower in the other treatments. Conclusions. The results indicate that the native AMF of soils with different uses, from Turipaná, exhibited low potential to develop mycorrhizal symbiosis, which limited the growth and concentration of leaf P in the host plant.

Mycorrhizae , Phosphorus , Soil , Fungi
Mycobiology ; : 180-190, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760541


In this study, eight-month-old ectomycorrhizae of Tuber borchii with Corylus avellana were synthesized to explore the influence of T. borchii colonization on the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with C. avellana during the early symbiotic stage. The results showed that the bacterial richness and diversity in the ectomycorrhizae were significantly higher than those in the control roots, whereas the fungal diversity was not changed in response to T. borchii colonization. Tuber was the dominant taxon (82.97%) in ectomycorrhizae. Some pathogenic fungi, including Ilyonectria and Podospora, and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Hymenochaete, had significantly lower abundance in the T. borchii inoculation treatment. It was found that the ectomycorrhizae of C. avellana contained some more abundant bacterial genera (e.g., Rhizobium, Pedomicrobium, Ilumatobacter, Streptomyces, and Geobacillus) and fungal genera (e.g., Trechispora and Humicola) than the control roots. The properties of rhizosphere soils were also changed by T. borchii colonization, like available nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable magnesium, which indicated a feedback effect of mycorrhizal synthesis on soil properties. Overall, this work highlighted the interactions between the symbionts and the microbes present in the host, which shed light on our understanding of the ecological functions of T. borchii and facilitate its commercial cultivation.

Colon , Corylus , Fungi , Magnesium , Mycorrhizae , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Podospora , Rhizobium , Rhizosphere , Soil , Streptomyces
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773103


In order to reveal the relationship between the amount of soil microorganisms and the quality of Fritillaria taipaiensis, both cultivated and wild F. taipaiensis were collected from Chongqing, Wuxi at different stages of their growth as objects of the research. The mycorrhizal infection rate and colonization intensity, peimisine and total alkaloid content in bulbs, the amount of microorganisms and biomass carbon content in rhizospheric soil were all determined using common methods. The results showed that the typical arbuscular-vesicle roots were formed after the AM fungi infected the F. taipaiensis roots which were collected from different origins. The mycorrhizal infection rates were ranged from 78.74% to 98.68% and the colonization intensities were ranged from 13.29% to 37.06%. The rhizospheric microorganisms of F. taipaiensis showed abundant resources. The distribution rule of them in the rhizospheric soil was as follows: the amount of bacteria>the amount of actinomycetes>the amount of fungi. The rhizospheric bacteria, decomposition inorganic phosphorus bacteria, decomposition organic phosphorus bacteria, actinomycetes amount and the total number of microbes increased first and then decreased with the increase of years, while decomposition potassium bacteria showed decreasing trend and fungi showed gradual increasing trend. The soil microbial flora content in the soil changed from "bacterial type" with a high fertility to "fungal type" with a low fertility. The mass fraction of peimisine and total alkaloid content increased first and then decreased with the increase of over the years, the same trend of culturable rhizosphere soil bacteria and actinomycetes indicated that the growth years affected the quality of soil and medicinal materials on different levels. Therefore, the diversity of microbial communities in rhizosphere soil reduced with the increase of years leading to the continuous cropping obstacles and the destruction of medicinal quality of F. taipaiensis.

Alkaloids , Fritillaria , Chemistry , Microbiology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170737, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011537


Abstract Mycorrhizae are important components of agroecosystems and the diversification of crops stimulates the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the participation of symbiosis in plant growth. This experiment examined mycorrhizal assessment, chemical and microbiological soil attributes in a maize-forage grasses intercropping compared to a maize-monocropping system. A complete randomized block design was used with crop systems installed under no-till management with three replicates, as follow: Maize (Zea mays L.); Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana; Urochloa humidicola (Rendle.) Schweickerdt.; Maize-P. maximum intercropping and Maize-U. humidicola intercropping. In 2015/2016 season, intercropping maize with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana or Urochloa humidicola (Rendle.) Schweickerdt. promoted similar effects (Tukey test, p<0.05) to monocropped maize under no-till system on soil chemical and biochemical parameters related to carbon cycling in the soil surface layer, as well as the dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tropical soils, managed for a period of more than six years. Similar grain yield was verified among maize crop systems. This result indicates that intercropping maize-tropical forage grasses represents an alternative for monocropped grains, a very common practice that is used in intensive management, being able to guarantee equivalent productivities and to combine grain production with crop-livestock systems. As a result, intercropping promotes the diversification of the property's income source, adding environmental gains, such as more efficient land use by cultivated plants, keeping soil constantly cultivated, storing carbon and contributing to minimize the impact of climate change on agricultural systems and the sustainability of food production.

Agricultural Cultivation , Edible Grain , Tropical Ecosystem , Zea mays , Mycorrhizae
Acta amaz ; 48(4): 321-329, Oct.-Dec. 2018. map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1455376


Babassu, Attalea speciosa (Arecaceae) is a ruderal palm native to Amazonia, which turned dominant in frequently burned lands throughout the arc of deforestation and other degraded lands, in extreme cases attaining complete dominance. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as one possible explanation for the outstanding ecological success of this exceptional palm. We explored the relationships between the babassu palm and native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and babassu effects on the AMF richness and mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) in the eastern periphery of Amazonia. For this purpose, we sampled topsoil (0-20 cm) at the onset of the rainy season from a 5-year-old secondary forest regrowth (SEC) area with three levels of babassu dominance (sites with 10, 50 and 70% babassu biomass shares), and at three distances (0, 2.5 and 4 m) from isolated babassu patches within a degraded pasture (PAS), both with five replications per treatment. Glomerospore density varied from 100 to 302 per gram of soil, 56% higher in SEC than PAS. We identified a total of 16 AMF species, with dominance of Acaulospora (six species) followed by Glomus (three species). AMF richness increased with babassu dominance in SEC sites, and reduced with distance from babassu patches within the PAS. The colonization rate of babassu roots was higher in SEC than in PAS, whereas MIP was similar in both areas and without treatment differences. Our study points to strong mycorrhizal association of the babassu palm as a potential mechanism for its outstanding ecological success in degraded lands.

Babaçu, Attalea speciosa (Arecaceae) é uma palmeira ruderal nativa da Amazônia, dominante em terras frequentemente queimadas ao longo do arco de desmatamento e outras áreas degradadas, em casos extremos atingindo domínio completo. Este estudo investigou os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) como possível explicação do sucesso ecológico desta palmeira. Nós exploramos as relações entre o babaçu e glomerosporos, efeitos do babaçu na riqueza destes fungos e o potencial do inóculo micorrízico (PIM) na periferia oriental da Amazônia. Amostras de solo (0-20 cm) foram coletadas no início da estação chuvosa em uma área de floresta secundária (SEC) de cinco anos de idade e três níveis de dominância do babaçu (10, 50 e 70% de biomassa de babaçu) e a três distâncias (0; 2,5 e 4 m) de ilhas de babaçu isoladas em uma pastagem degradada (PAS), ambas com cinco repetições por tratamento. A densidade de esporos de FMA variou de 100 a 302 por grama de solo, sendo 56% maior em SEC do que em PAS. Dezesseis espécies de FMA foram identificadas, com predominância de Acaulospora (seis espécies) seguidos do gênero Glomus (três espécies). A riqueza destes fungos aumentou com o domínio da palmeira em SEC e reduziu com a distância das ilhas de babaçu em PAS. A taxa de colonização das raízes de babaçu foi superior nas áreas de SEC enquanto o PIM não apresentou diferenças entre os tratamentos. Nosso estudo aponta a uma forte associação micorrhízica da palmeira babaçu, um possível mecanismo central no seu sucesso ecológico em áreas degradadas.

Arecaceae/growth & development , Biodiversity , Microbial Interactions , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Brazil , Amazonian Ecosystem
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(3): 301-310, set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-977248


Los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA) de los ambientes áridos y semiáridos son importantes para el desarrollo de las plantas que crecen bajo estrés biótico y abiótico en áreas naturales o en agroecosistemas. Existe poca información sobre la diversidad temporal de los HMA en plantas perennes de ecosistemas áridos en el norte de México. En este estudiose evaluaron la colonización micorrícica y la diversidad temporal de los HMA en la rizosfera de Larrea tridentata, planta perenne de amplia distribución en el Desierto Chihuahuense. Se obtuvieron muestras de la rizosfera y de raíces de 15 plantas, en 3 fechas de muestreo del año 2015. Se encontró un total de 17 especies de HMA, distribuidas en 12 géneros y 7 familias dentro del phylum Glomeromycota. La especie más abundante fue Funneliformis geosporum. Esta especie pertenece a la familia Glomeraceae, la única que estuvo representada con varios géneros en L. tridentata. El mayor porcentaje de micorrización se presentó en febrero, con un 83,22%, en septiembre fue del 75,27% y en mayo del 65,27%. El muestreo realizado en febrero presentó el mayor número de especies (16), seguido por el de mayo (15) y el de septiembre (12). El análisis estadístico mostró diferencias significativas en el número de esporas entre los muestreos de febrero y los de mayo y septiembre.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of arid and semiarid ecosystems are important for the development of plants that grow under biotic stress in wild or in agro-ecosystems. There is little information on the temporal diversity of these organisms in perennial plants from arid ecosystems in northern Mexico. On this study, the mycorrhizal colonization and the temporal diversity of AMF in the rhizosphere of Larrea tridentata, perennial plant abundant in the Chihuahuan Desert region were explored. Samples of the rhizosphere and roots of fifteen plants in each of the three sampling dates during the 2015 year were obtained. A total of 17 species of HMA belonging to 12 genera and 7 families within the phylum Glomeromycota in all three sampling dates were found. Funneliformis geosporum was the dominant species belonging to the family Glomeraceae which possess the highest genera number on L. tridentata.The highest mycorrhization percentage was in February with 83.22, followed by September and May with 75.27 and 65.27%, respectively. A maximum of 16 AM fungal species were isolated and identified from L. tridentata rhizosphere in February, 15 species in May and 12 species in September. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between sampling dates in the spores number.

Soil Microbiology , Mycorrhizae , Larrea , Biodiversity , Spores, Fungal , Ecosystem , Plant Roots , Mexico
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 240-247, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889244


Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi play a crucial role in the growth of soybean; however, the planting system employed is thought to have an effect on AM fungal communities in the rhizosphere. This study was performed to explore the influence of continuous soybean cropping on the diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and to identify the dominant AM fungus during the seedling stage. Three soybean cultivars were planted under two and three years continuous cropping, respectively. The diversity of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soil at the seedling stage was subsequently analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that an increase in cropping years improved the colonization rate of AM in all three soybean cultivars. Moreover, the dominant species were found to be Funneliformis mosseae and Glomus species. The results of cluster analysis further confirmed that the number of years of continuous cropping significantly affected the composition of rhizospheric AM fungal communities in different soybean cultivars.

Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Seedlings/growth & development , Biodiversity , Rhizosphere , Time Factors , Cluster Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(2): 178-188, jun. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-977233


Una alternativa para el manejo sustentable en el cultivo de Capsicum annuum L. se ha enfocado en el uso de bacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (BPCV) y hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA). Esta investigación seleccionó BPCV y HMA sobre la base de su efecto en plantas de chile Bell Pepper y jalapeño. Se utilizaron 5 cepas bacterianas aisladas de diferentes localidades del estado de México (P61 [Pseudomonas tolaasii], A46 [P. tolaasii], R44 [Bacillus pumilus], BSP1.1 [Paenibacillus sp.] y OLs-Sf5 [Pseudomonas sp.]) y 3 tratamientos con HMA (H1 [consorcio aislado de la rizosfera de chile en el estado de Puebla], H2 [Rhizophagus intraradices]y H3 [consorcio aislado de la rizosfera de limón del estado de Tabasco]). Además, se incluyó un tratamiento fertilizado (solución Steiner 25%) y un testigo absoluto. Plántulas de chile jalapeño «Caloro¼ y pimiento Bell Pepper «California Wonder¼ fueron inoculadas con HMA en el momento de la siembra y con BPCV 15 días después de emerger, y crecidas bajo condiciones de cámara de ambiente controlado. En chile jalapenño, la mejor cepa bacteriana fue P61 y el mejor tratamiento de HMA fue el H1; en Bell Pepper la mejor cepa fue R44 y los mejores HMA fueron el H3 y el H1. Estos microorganismos incrementaron el crecimiento de plántulas de chile jalapenño y Bell Pepper en comparación con el testigo sin fertilizar. Asimismo, P61 y R44 beneficiaron positivamente la capacidad fotosintética del PSII.

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a biological alternative for the sustainable management of Capsicum annuum L. This research work evaluated the effects of both PGPR and AMF on bell pepper and jalapeno pepper plants. Five bacterial strains isolated from several locations in Estado de Mexico were used: [P61 (Pseudomonas tolaasii), A46 (P. tolaasii), R44 (Bacillus pumilus), BSP1.1 (Paenibacillus sp.), and OLs-Sf5 (Pseudomonas sp.)], and three treatments with AMF [H1 (consortium isolated from pepper crops in the State of Puebla), H2 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and H3 (consortium isolated from the rhizosphere of lemon trees, State of Tabasco)]. In addition, a fertilized treatment (Steiner nutrient solution at 25%) and an unfertilized control were included. Seedlings of "Caloro" jalapeno pepper and "California Wonder" bell pepper were inoculated with AMF at seed sowing, and PGPR were inoculated after 15 days of seedling emergence; seedlings were grown under plant growth chamber conditions. P61 bacterium and H1 AMF consortia were the most effective microorganisms for jalapeno pepper whereas R44 bacterium and AMF H3 and H1 were the most effective for bell peppers, when compared to the unfertilized control. Furthermore, P61 and R44 bacteria showed beneficial effects on PSII efficiency.

Capsicum , Mycorrhizae , Photosystem II Protein Complex , Capsicum/physiology , Capsicum/growth & development , Plant Roots , Seedlings , Photosystem II Protein Complex/physiology , Mexico
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 9-20, jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904961


Chilean temperate rainforests have unique climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions, constituting pre-industrial blueprint ecosystems. Mycorrhizal associations play a central role in the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems´ functioning. Baseline forest ecology studies are necessary in order to better understand diversity patterns, specifically regarding mycorrhizal symbiosis. Therefore, here we describe the vegetation characteristics and the mycorrhizal relationships of vascular plants in a Nothofagus pumilio forest. We also describe, via morphological methods, the ectomycorrhizal diversity present in this forest. Additionally, we determined whether ectomycorrhizal inoculation confers positive growth effects on N. pumilio seedlings. We found that from 46 vascular plant species identified in this study, 42 (91%) were mycorrhizal and of these 33 (72%) were associated with arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), two (the dominant trees N. pumilio and N. dombeyi) were forming ectomycorrhizae (EM), five were associated with ericoid mycorrhizae, two with orchid mycorrhizae, and four were nonmycorrhizal. Additionally, 26 EM species were detected of which 15 belong to Cortinarius. Finally, there were clear differences in the growth of N. pumilio seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata compared to noninoculated plants. We suggest that mycorrhizal fungi play a key role in seedling colonization of harsh environments such as the Andean treeline.

Los bosques templados lluviosos de Chile tienen condiciones climáticas, edáficas y bióticas únicas, constituyendo ecosistemas preindustriales modelo. Las asociaciones micorrízicas juegan un rol central en los procesos biogeoquímicos del funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas. Por lo tanto, en este estudio describimos las características de la vegetación y las relaciones micorrízicas de las plantas vasculares de un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio. También describimos, vía métodos morfológicos, la diversidad ectomicorrízica presente en este bosque. Adicionalmente, determinamos si inoculaciones ectomicorrízicas confieren efectos de crecimiento positivos a semilleros de N. pumilio. Encontramos que, de 46 especies de plantas vasculares identificadas en este estudio, 42 (91%) son micorrízicas, y de estas, 33 (72%) están formando micorrizas arbusculares (AM), dos (los árboles dominantes N. pumilio y N. dombeyi) están asociados con ectomicorrizas (EM), cinco están asociadas con micorrizas ericoides, dos con micorrizas orquioides, y cuatro fueron nomicorrizadas. Adicionalmente, 26 especies de EM fueron detectadas, de las cuales 15 pertenecen a Cortinarius. Finalmente, hubo claras diferencias en el crecimiento de los semilleros de N. pumilio inoculados con el hongo ectomicorrízico Laccaria laccata, comparados a plantas no inoculadas. Sugerimos que los hongos micorrízicos juegan un rol clave en la colonización de ambientes severos por juveniles, como en el límite altitudinal andino.

Mycorrhizae/cytology , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Rainforest , Chile , Cortinarius , Symbiosis , Temperate Climate
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 32-56, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-905024


El estudio de los procesos biogeoquímicos implica entender cómo los macro y micro nutrientes que componen los seres vivos se mueven de un componente a otro del ecosistema (incluyendo la atmósfera, organismos, suelo, cuerpos de agua, etc.). Usualmente, una mayor diversidad biótica y una mayor complejidad de las interacciones bióticas y abióticas, resultan en una mayor estabilidad ecosistémica. El rol de los hongos en los ciclos biogeoquímicos se suele estudiar superficialmente, no mucho más allá de sus funciones ecosistémicas generales: descomposición, simbiosis mutualista, y parasitismo. Esta revisión tiene por objetivo ilustrar los conceptos base de los roles ecológicos de los hongos del suelo, que debieran enseñarse en tres públicos objetivo: universitario, tomadores de decisiones, y estudiantes de educación secundaria/público general. En estos públicos, se propone abordar cuatro áreas temáticas: introducción al suelo, ecología de comunidades, interacciones de hongos con otros organismos, y biogeoquímica. Aunque los roles ecosistémicos de los hongos del suelo están bien documentados, su estudio debería partir de la base de que estos afectan y son afectados tanto por variables climáticas, como por características físico-químicas del suelo, y por flujos biogeoquímicos. Los roles ecológicos de los hongos del suelo debieran entenderse en un contexto holístico de integración multidisciplinar, y el nivel de especialización del conocimiento debiera darse hacia niveles superiores de la jerarquía biológica, es decir, conocer más en detalle la ecología de ecosistemas y comunidades de hongos que la de poblaciones y organismos, o que sus procesos bioquímicos y edáficos específicos.

The study of biogeochemical processes involves understanding how the macro and micro nutrients that make up living things move from one ecosystem component to another (including the atmosphere, organisms, soil, waterbodies, etc.). Usually, a greater diversity of biotic diversity and a greater complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions, result in a greater ecosystemic stability. The role of fungi in biogeochemical cycles is usually studied superficially, not much beyond their general ecosystem functions: decomposition, mutualistic symbiosis, and parasitism. The objective of this review is to illustrate the basic concepts of the ecological roles of soil fungi, which should be taught in three target audiences: university students, decision makers, and secondary school students / general public. In these audiences, it is proposed to address four thematic areas: introduction to soil, community ecology, interactions of fungi with other organisms, and biogeochemistry. Although the ecosystemic roles of soil fungi are well documented, their study should be based on the fact that they affect and are affected by climatic variables, physical-chemical soil characteristics, and biogeochemical flows. The ecological roles of soil fungi should be understood in an holistic context of multidisciplinary integration, and the level of specialization of knowledge should be given to higher levels of the biological hierarchy, that is, to know more in detail the ecology of ecosystems and communities of fungi than that of populations and organisms, or than that of their specific biochemical and edaphic processes.

Ecology/education , Fungi , Mycorrhizae , Systems Biology/classification , Ecosystem , Soil Chemistry