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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827982

ABSTRACT

The technique of "simulative habitat cultivation" is to preserve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine by simulating the original habitat and site environment of wild Chinese medicine resources. Dendrobium nobile is the most representative variety of traditional Chinese medicine which reflects the coordinated development of medicinal material production and ecological environment. In this paper, the main technical points of the simulated cultivation model of D. nobile were summarized as follows: rapid propagation of seedling tissue technology to ensure the genetic stability of provenance; line card+fermented cow manure+live moss method to improve the survival rate; epiphytic stone cultivation to improve the quality of medicinal materials; and the integration of mycorrhizal fungi to improve the quality stability of medicinal materials. On the basis of summarizing the ecological benefits, economical and social benefits generated by the application of the technology, the paper systematically analyzes the principle of the technology for the cultivation of D. nobile to promote the excellent quality, the light, gas, heat and fertilizer resources of the undergrowth niche are in line with the wild site environment of D. nobile. The rich and complex soil microbial community in the forest laid the foundation for the species diversity needed for the growth of D. nobile.The stress effect on the growth of D. nobile resulted in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. The symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic fungi such as bryophytes and D. nobile promotes the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites. The high quality D. nobile was produced efficiently by improving and optimizing the cultivation techniques.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Female , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mycorrhizae , Symbiosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827980

ABSTRACT

In this study, the infection of root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province was investigated, and the distribution characteristics and infection regularity of AMF were found out. The AMF of P. quinquefolium roots in different habitats was examined by alkali dissociation-trypickin blue staining method to study the infection rate and infection intensity. The contents of ginsenoside(Rb_1, Re, Rg_1, Rb_2, Rd and Rh_1) in the roots of P. quinquefolium was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were SPSS 17.0 statistical software for One-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the AMF infection in roots of P. quinquefolium, and there were obvious structures such as hyphae, arbuscular branches and vesicles, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity showed obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity with the growth age and origin of P. quinquefolium. The infection rate of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium from 1 to 3 years increased significantly with the increase of growth years(P<0.05). The infection intensity and infection rate of P. quinquefolium showed a similar change trend, the AMF infection rate and infection intensity reached the highest level in the third year. Cluster analysis showed that the infection rates of roots of P. quinquefolium in similar geographical locations could be clustered together. Correlation analysis showed that the AMF infection rate of P. quinquefolium root was significantly positively correlated with the infection intensity, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity were significantly positively correlated with the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1, Re and Rb_1. This study explored the distribution characteristics and regularity of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium under the protected cultivation conditions, and provided basic data for ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium and research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Fungi , Ginsenosides , Mycorrhizae , Panax , Plant Roots
4.
Mycobiology ; : 180-190, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760541

ABSTRACT

In this study, eight-month-old ectomycorrhizae of Tuber borchii with Corylus avellana were synthesized to explore the influence of T. borchii colonization on the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with C. avellana during the early symbiotic stage. The results showed that the bacterial richness and diversity in the ectomycorrhizae were significantly higher than those in the control roots, whereas the fungal diversity was not changed in response to T. borchii colonization. Tuber was the dominant taxon (82.97%) in ectomycorrhizae. Some pathogenic fungi, including Ilyonectria and Podospora, and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Hymenochaete, had significantly lower abundance in the T. borchii inoculation treatment. It was found that the ectomycorrhizae of C. avellana contained some more abundant bacterial genera (e.g., Rhizobium, Pedomicrobium, Ilumatobacter, Streptomyces, and Geobacillus) and fungal genera (e.g., Trechispora and Humicola) than the control roots. The properties of rhizosphere soils were also changed by T. borchii colonization, like available nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable magnesium, which indicated a feedback effect of mycorrhizal synthesis on soil properties. Overall, this work highlighted the interactions between the symbionts and the microbes present in the host, which shed light on our understanding of the ecological functions of T. borchii and facilitate its commercial cultivation.


Subject(s)
Colon , Corylus , Fungi , Magnesium , Mycorrhizae , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Podospora , Rhizobium , Rhizosphere , Soil , Streptomyces
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773103

ABSTRACT

In order to reveal the relationship between the amount of soil microorganisms and the quality of Fritillaria taipaiensis, both cultivated and wild F. taipaiensis were collected from Chongqing, Wuxi at different stages of their growth as objects of the research. The mycorrhizal infection rate and colonization intensity, peimisine and total alkaloid content in bulbs, the amount of microorganisms and biomass carbon content in rhizospheric soil were all determined using common methods. The results showed that the typical arbuscular-vesicle roots were formed after the AM fungi infected the F. taipaiensis roots which were collected from different origins. The mycorrhizal infection rates were ranged from 78.74% to 98.68% and the colonization intensities were ranged from 13.29% to 37.06%. The rhizospheric microorganisms of F. taipaiensis showed abundant resources. The distribution rule of them in the rhizospheric soil was as follows: the amount of bacteria>the amount of actinomycetes>the amount of fungi. The rhizospheric bacteria, decomposition inorganic phosphorus bacteria, decomposition organic phosphorus bacteria, actinomycetes amount and the total number of microbes increased first and then decreased with the increase of years, while decomposition potassium bacteria showed decreasing trend and fungi showed gradual increasing trend. The soil microbial flora content in the soil changed from "bacterial type" with a high fertility to "fungal type" with a low fertility. The mass fraction of peimisine and total alkaloid content increased first and then decreased with the increase of over the years, the same trend of culturable rhizosphere soil bacteria and actinomycetes indicated that the growth years affected the quality of soil and medicinal materials on different levels. Therefore, the diversity of microbial communities in rhizosphere soil reduced with the increase of years leading to the continuous cropping obstacles and the destruction of medicinal quality of F. taipaiensis.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Fritillaria , Chemistry , Microbiology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170737, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycorrhizae are important components of agroecosystems and the diversification of crops stimulates the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the participation of symbiosis in plant growth. This experiment examined mycorrhizal assessment, chemical and microbiological soil attributes in a maize-forage grasses intercropping compared to a maize-monocropping system. A complete randomized block design was used with crop systems installed under no-till management with three replicates, as follow: Maize (Zea mays L.); Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana; Urochloa humidicola (Rendle.) Schweickerdt.; Maize-P. maximum intercropping and Maize-U. humidicola intercropping. In 2015/2016 season, intercropping maize with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana or Urochloa humidicola (Rendle.) Schweickerdt. promoted similar effects (Tukey test, p<0.05) to monocropped maize under no-till system on soil chemical and biochemical parameters related to carbon cycling in the soil surface layer, as well as the dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tropical soils, managed for a period of more than six years. Similar grain yield was verified among maize crop systems. This result indicates that intercropping maize-tropical forage grasses represents an alternative for monocropped grains, a very common practice that is used in intensive management, being able to guarantee equivalent productivities and to combine grain production with crop-livestock systems. As a result, intercropping promotes the diversification of the property's income source, adding environmental gains, such as more efficient land use by cultivated plants, keeping soil constantly cultivated, storing carbon and contributing to minimize the impact of climate change on agricultural systems and the sustainability of food production.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Edible Grain , Tropical Ecosystem , Zea mays , Mycorrhizae
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 240-247, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889244

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi play a crucial role in the growth of soybean; however, the planting system employed is thought to have an effect on AM fungal communities in the rhizosphere. This study was performed to explore the influence of continuous soybean cropping on the diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and to identify the dominant AM fungus during the seedling stage. Three soybean cultivars were planted under two and three years continuous cropping, respectively. The diversity of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soil at the seedling stage was subsequently analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that an increase in cropping years improved the colonization rate of AM in all three soybean cultivars. Moreover, the dominant species were found to be Funneliformis mosseae and Glomus species. The results of cluster analysis further confirmed that the number of years of continuous cropping significantly affected the composition of rhizospheric AM fungal communities in different soybean cultivars.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Seedlings/growth & development , Biodiversity , Rhizosphere , Time Factors , Cluster Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
8.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 9-20, jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904961

ABSTRACT

Chilean temperate rainforests have unique climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions, constituting pre-industrial blueprint ecosystems. Mycorrhizal associations play a central role in the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems´ functioning. Baseline forest ecology studies are necessary in order to better understand diversity patterns, specifically regarding mycorrhizal symbiosis. Therefore, here we describe the vegetation characteristics and the mycorrhizal relationships of vascular plants in a Nothofagus pumilio forest. We also describe, via morphological methods, the ectomycorrhizal diversity present in this forest. Additionally, we determined whether ectomycorrhizal inoculation confers positive growth effects on N. pumilio seedlings. We found that from 46 vascular plant species identified in this study, 42 (91%) were mycorrhizal and of these 33 (72%) were associated with arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), two (the dominant trees N. pumilio and N. dombeyi) were forming ectomycorrhizae (EM), five were associated with ericoid mycorrhizae, two with orchid mycorrhizae, and four were nonmycorrhizal. Additionally, 26 EM species were detected of which 15 belong to Cortinarius. Finally, there were clear differences in the growth of N. pumilio seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata compared to noninoculated plants. We suggest that mycorrhizal fungi play a key role in seedling colonization of harsh environments such as the Andean treeline.


Los bosques templados lluviosos de Chile tienen condiciones climáticas, edáficas y bióticas únicas, constituyendo ecosistemas preindustriales modelo. Las asociaciones micorrízicas juegan un rol central en los procesos biogeoquímicos del funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas. Por lo tanto, en este estudio describimos las características de la vegetación y las relaciones micorrízicas de las plantas vasculares de un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio. También describimos, vía métodos morfológicos, la diversidad ectomicorrízica presente en este bosque. Adicionalmente, determinamos si inoculaciones ectomicorrízicas confieren efectos de crecimiento positivos a semilleros de N. pumilio. Encontramos que, de 46 especies de plantas vasculares identificadas en este estudio, 42 (91%) son micorrízicas, y de estas, 33 (72%) están formando micorrizas arbusculares (AM), dos (los árboles dominantes N. pumilio y N. dombeyi) están asociados con ectomicorrizas (EM), cinco están asociadas con micorrizas ericoides, dos con micorrizas orquioides, y cuatro fueron nomicorrizadas. Adicionalmente, 26 especies de EM fueron detectadas, de las cuales 15 pertenecen a Cortinarius. Finalmente, hubo claras diferencias en el crecimiento de los semilleros de N. pumilio inoculados con el hongo ectomicorrízico Laccaria laccata, comparados a plantas no inoculadas. Sugerimos que los hongos micorrízicos juegan un rol clave en la colonización de ambientes severos por juveniles, como en el límite altitudinal andino.


Subject(s)
Mycorrhizae/cytology , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Rainforest , Chile , Cortinarius , Symbiosis , Temperate Climate
9.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 32-56, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-905024

ABSTRACT

El estudio de los procesos biogeoquímicos implica entender cómo los macro y micro nutrientes que componen los seres vivos se mueven de un componente a otro del ecosistema (incluyendo la atmósfera, organismos, suelo, cuerpos de agua, etc.). Usualmente, una mayor diversidad biótica y una mayor complejidad de las interacciones bióticas y abióticas, resultan en una mayor estabilidad ecosistémica. El rol de los hongos en los ciclos biogeoquímicos se suele estudiar superficialmente, no mucho más allá de sus funciones ecosistémicas generales: descomposición, simbiosis mutualista, y parasitismo. Esta revisión tiene por objetivo ilustrar los conceptos base de los roles ecológicos de los hongos del suelo, que debieran enseñarse en tres públicos objetivo: universitario, tomadores de decisiones, y estudiantes de educación secundaria/público general. En estos públicos, se propone abordar cuatro áreas temáticas: introducción al suelo, ecología de comunidades, interacciones de hongos con otros organismos, y biogeoquímica. Aunque los roles ecosistémicos de los hongos del suelo están bien documentados, su estudio debería partir de la base de que estos afectan y son afectados tanto por variables climáticas, como por características físico-químicas del suelo, y por flujos biogeoquímicos. Los roles ecológicos de los hongos del suelo debieran entenderse en un contexto holístico de integración multidisciplinar, y el nivel de especialización del conocimiento debiera darse hacia niveles superiores de la jerarquía biológica, es decir, conocer más en detalle la ecología de ecosistemas y comunidades de hongos que la de poblaciones y organismos, o que sus procesos bioquímicos y edáficos específicos.


The study of biogeochemical processes involves understanding how the macro and micro nutrients that make up living things move from one ecosystem component to another (including the atmosphere, organisms, soil, waterbodies, etc.). Usually, a greater diversity of biotic diversity and a greater complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions, result in a greater ecosystemic stability. The role of fungi in biogeochemical cycles is usually studied superficially, not much beyond their general ecosystem functions: decomposition, mutualistic symbiosis, and parasitism. The objective of this review is to illustrate the basic concepts of the ecological roles of soil fungi, which should be taught in three target audiences: university students, decision makers, and secondary school students / general public. In these audiences, it is proposed to address four thematic areas: introduction to soil, community ecology, interactions of fungi with other organisms, and biogeochemistry. Although the ecosystemic roles of soil fungi are well documented, their study should be based on the fact that they affect and are affected by climatic variables, physical-chemical soil characteristics, and biogeochemical flows. The ecological roles of soil fungi should be understood in an holistic context of multidisciplinary integration, and the level of specialization of knowledge should be given to higher levels of the biological hierarchy, that is, to know more in detail the ecology of ecosystems and communities of fungi than that of populations and organisms, or than that of their specific biochemical and edaphic processes.


Subject(s)
Ecology/education , Fungi , Mycorrhizae , Systems Biology/classification , Ecosystem , Soil Chemistry
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 45-53, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium), and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa). Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g) and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa), as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water/metabolism , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biomass , Cucurbita/growth & development , Cucurbita/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Desert Climate , Salinity , Droughts , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mexico
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 357-371, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide several ecosystem services, including increase in plant growth and nutrition. The occurrence, richness, and structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities are influenced by human activities, which may affect the functional benefits of these components of the soil biota. In this study, 13 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates originating from soils with different land uses in the Alto Solimões-Amazon region were evaluated regarding their effect on growth, nutrition, and cowpea yield in controlled conditions using two soils. Comparisons with reference isolates and a mixture of isolates were also performed. Fungal isolates exhibited a wide variability associated with colonization, sporulation, production of aboveground biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and grain yield, indicating high functional diversity within and among fungal species. A generalized effect of isolates in promoting phosphorus uptake, increase in biomass, and cowpea yield was observed in both soils. The isolates of Glomus were the most efficient and are promising isolates for practical inoculation programs. No relationship was found between the origin of fungal isolate (i.e. land use) and their symbiotic performance in cowpea.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Symbiosis/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Vigna/growth & development , Phosphorus/analysis , Time Factors , Brazil , Plant Roots/microbiology , Biodiversity , Vigna/microbiology , Nitrogen/analysis
12.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(2): 34-38, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907573

ABSTRACT

Las micorrizas son una asociación mutualista fundamental para el desarrollo tanto de las plantas como para los hongos que la establecen. Son comunes en bosques y existen muchas especies de hongos que realizan esta asociación. Las ectomicorrizas son hifas de un hongo que penetran las raíces secundarias de la planta para desarrollarse, rodeando las células de la corteza de las raices. En este trabajo se reporta el hallazgo de la ectomicorriza Scleroderma citrinum en un predio con almendros en la ciudad de Villa Alemana, Quinta región de Chile, lugar donde no había sido descrita. Tanto las condiciones ambientales, como las características del suelo del lugar no son las más favorables para el desarrollo de esta especie.


Micorrhizae are mutualistic association between plants and fungus, which is fundamental for the both of them. They are common in forest and many species of fungus are involved in this association. Ectomicorrhizae are a group of hyphae that penetrate the secondary roots of a plant, surrounding the cortex cells to develop. In the present report we inform the ectomicorrhizae Scleroderma citrinum finding in a location with almond tree plantation at Villa Alemana city V region of Chile, place where it never been found out before. Both the environmental condition and the soil characteristics are not the best for the development of this specie.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae , Prunus dulcis/microbiology , Chile , Soil Characteristics
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 680-688, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sophora tomentosa is a pantropical legume species with potential for recovery of areas degraded by salinization, and for stabilization of sand dunes. However, few studies on this species have been carried out, and none regarding its symbiotic relationship with beneficial soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of Sophora tomentosa, and to analyze the occurrence of colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of this legume in seafront soil. Thus, seeds, root nodules, and soil from the rhizosphere of Sophora tomentosa were collected. From the soil samples, trap cultures with this species were established to extract spores and to evaluate arbuscular mycorhizal fungi colonization in legume roots, as well as to capture rhizobia. Rhizobia strains were isolated from nodules collected in the field or from the trap cultures. Representative isolates of the groups obtained in the similarity dendrogram, based on phenotypic characteristics, had their 16S rRNA genes sequenced. The legume species showed nodules with indeterminate growth, and reddish color, distributed throughout the root. Fifty-one strains of these nodules were isolated, of which 21 were classified in the genus Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and especially Sinorhizobium. Strains closely related to Sinorhizobium adhaerens were the predominant bacteria in nodules. The other genera found, with the exception of Rhizobium, are probably endophytic bacteria in the nodules. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was observed colonizing the roots, but arbuscular mycorhizal fungi spores were not found in the trap cultures. Therefore Sophora tomentosa is associated with both arbuscular mycorhizal fungi and nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Sophora/microbiology , Symbiosis , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/physiology , Mycorrhizae/classification , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Sophora/physiology
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1737-1743, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886756

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make up an important ecological niche in ecosystems, and knowledge of their diversity in extreme environments is still incipient. The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, Antarctica. For that, soil and roots of Deschampsia antarctica were collected at the brazilian research station in Antarctica. The spore density, species diversity and mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were evaluated. There was a low density of spores (27.4 ± 17.7) and root mycorrhizal colonization (6 ± 5.1%), which did not present statistical difference. Four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified, distributed in two genera: three species of the genus Glomus (Glomus sp1, Glomus sp2 and Glomus sp3) and one of the genus Acaulospora, which was identified at species level (Acaulospora mellea). Greater soil diversity was verified with pH 5.9 and phosphorus concentration of 111 mg dm-3, occurring two species of genus Glomus and A. mellea. Based on literature data, this may be the first record of this species of Acaulospora mellea in Antarctic soils, colonizing D. antarctica plants.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Mycorrhizae/classification , Biodiversity , Antarctic Regions
15.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 20(1): 23-27, jan-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-849155

ABSTRACT

Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) são micro-organismos que fazem simbiose com raízes da maioria das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos FMAs Rhizophagus clarus e Claroideoglomus etunicatum em substrato sob baixa e ou alta dose de fósforo (P), na produção de biomassa e na acumulação de P na arruda (Ruta graveolens L.). O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de botânica da Universidade Paranaense - UNIPAR, município de Umuarama - PR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em fatorial 3x2, sendo os fatores: FMAs (sem FMA, com R. clarus e ou com C. etunicatum); duas doses de P (20 e 200 mg kg-1) com 8 repetições por tratamento, num total de 48 unidades experimentais (vasos de 3 L). Avaliou-se a produção de massa seca das raízes (MSR), massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), massa seca total (MST) e o acúmulo de P na parte aérea da planta (PPA). A produção de MSR, MSPA e MST pela planta não foram significativamente afetadas apenas pela adição de P ao substrato, porém sim, pela inoculação com o FMA C. etunicatum, sob baixo e ou alto P. O acúmulo de P na parte aérea da planta foi aumentado significativamente no tratamento sem a inoculação com FMAs. Conclui-se que a inoculação com C. etunicatum é indicada para aumentar a produtividade da arruda.(AU)


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are microorganisms that present symbiosis with the roots of most plants. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of AMF Rhizophagus clarus and Claroideoglomus etunicatum on low and high doses of phosphorus (P) on plant biomass and P accumulation in rue (Ruta graveolens L.). The experiment was performed in the botanical laboratory at Universidade Paranaense ­ UNIPAR in the city of Umuarama, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. It used a completely randomized 3x2 experimental design, being: AMFs (without AMF, with R. clarus and/or with C. etunicatum); two levels of P (20 and 200 mg kg-1) with 8 repetitions per treatment, totaling 48 experimental units (3 L pots). Root dry matter (RDM), shoot dry matter (SDM), total dry matter (TDM) and P accumulation in the aerial part of the plant were evaluated. The production of RDM, SDM and TDM by the plant was not significantly affected by the addition of P to the substrate, but by the inoculation with AMF C. etunicatum under low and/or high P. The accumulation of P in the aerial part of the plant significantly increased in the treatment without AMF inoculation. It was concluded that inoculation with C. etunicatum is indicated to increase the productivity of rue.(AU)


Los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA) son microorganismos que forman simbiosis con las raíces de la mayoría de las plantas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia del HMA Rhizophagus clarus y Claroideoglomus etunicatum en substrato so baja y/o alta dosis de fósforo (P), en la producción de biomasa y en la acumulación de P en la ruda (Ruta graveolens L.). El experimento se llevó a cabo en el laboratorio de botánica de la Universidad Paranaense - Unipar, municipio de Umuarama - PR. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, en un 3x2 factorial, con los factores: HMA (Sin HMA, con R. clarus y C. etunicatum); dos dosis de P (20 y 200 mg kg-1) con 8 repeticiones por tratamiento de un total de 48 unidades experimentales (vasos de 3 L). Se evaluó la producción de materia seca de las raíces (MSR), materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA), materia seca total (MST) y la acumulación de P en la parte aérea de la planta (PPA). La producción de MSR, MSPA y MST por la planta no se vieron afectados significativamente sólo mediante la adición de P al sustrato, sino por inoculación con HMA C. etunicatum so bajo y/o alto P. El acúmulo de P en parte aérea de la planta se incrementó significativamente en el tratamiento sin inoculación con HMA. Se concluye que la inoculación con C. etunicatum está indicada para aumentar la productividad de la ruda.(AU)


Subject(s)
Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Ruta/analysis , Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Symbiosis
16.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 9-12, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868819

ABSTRACT

Inocybe sindonia (Fr.) P. Karst. y Amanita rubescens Pers. son especies típicamente asociadas a bosques de Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco y Pinus radiata D. Don respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez su presencia en Argentina en bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia andina como resultado de la invasión de especies forestales introducidas como recurso maderero. I. sindonia fue colectado en bosques de N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. y A. rubescens en bosques de N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser en áreas protegidas con invasión evidente de coníferas exóticas.


Inocybe sindonia (Fr.) P. Karst. and Amanita rubescens Pers. are species typically associated to Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Pinus radiata D. Don respectively. Both species have been introduced in South America together with timber species plantations. Basidiomes of I. sindonia were found occurring under Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst., while basidiomes of A. rubescens were found under N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser in protected areas that are under invasion of exotic conifers.


Subject(s)
Agaricales/growth & development , Basidiomycota , Forests , Mycorrhizae , Agricultural Cultivation , Argentina , Lumber Industry/adverse effects
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 95-100, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839348

ABSTRACT

Abstract The family Leguminosae comprises approximately 20,000 species that mostly form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB). This study is aimed at investigating and confirming the dependence on nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in the specie Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr., which belongs to the Piptadenia group. Two consecutive experiments were performed in a greenhouse. The experiments were fully randomized with six replicates and a factorial scheme. For the treatments, the two AMF species and three NFB strains were combined to nodulate P. gonoacantha in addition to the control treatments. The results indicate this species’ capacity for nodulation without the AMF; however, the AMF + NFB combinations yielded a considerable gain in P. gonoacantha shoot weight compared with the treatments that only included inoculating with bacteria or AMF. The results also confirm that the treatment effects among the AMF + NFB combinations produced different shoot dry weight/root dry weight ratios. We conclude that AMF is not necessary for nodulation and that this dependence improves species development because plant growth increases upon co-inoculation.


Subject(s)
Mycorrhizae , Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria , Fabaceae/microbiology , Symbiosis , Root Nodules, Plant/microbiology , Plant Root Nodulation , Nitrogen Fixation
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 87-94, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839361

ABSTRACT

Abstract In order to obtain an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) native inoculum from Sierra de Moa and determine the most appropriate conditions for its big scale production, four light and temperature combinations were tested in three plant species (Calophyllum antillanum, Talipariti elatum and Paspalum notatum). Growth and development parameters, as well as the mycorrhizal functioning of the seedlings were evaluated. The natural light treatment under high temperatures (L-H) was the most suitable for the growth and development of the three plant species, showing the highest total biomass values, mainly of root, and a positive root-shoot ratio balance. This treatment also promoted higher values of root mycorrhizal colonization, external mycelium and AMF spore density. A total of 38 AMF species were identified among the plants and environmental conditions tested. Archaeospora sp.1, Glomus sp.5, Glomus brohultii and G. glomerulatum were observed in all the treatments. The L-H condition can be recommended for native inoculum production, as it promotes a better expression of the AM symbiosis and an elevated production of mycorrhizal propagules.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots/microbiology , Mycorrhizae , Environment , Soil Microbiology , Spores, Fungal , Symbiosis , Colony Count, Microbial , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/microbiology
19.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(1): 59-69, jan.-mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846607

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate three plant species native to Caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Ziziphus joazeiro and Pseudobombax simplicifolium) in response to inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (autoctone: Claroideoglomus etunicatum or exotic: Acaulospora longula) and phosphate fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design involving a factorial arrangement of three inoculation treatments (control, C. etunicatum or A. longula) and 4 levels of single superphosphate (0 - no added P2O5, 12, 24 and 48 mg dm-3) in 10 repetitions. Under the conditions of this study, the inoculum of C. etunicatum, autoctone to the semi-arid region, showed great compatibility and efficiency in promoting plant growth and nutrient intake when compared to the exotic inoculum of A. longula. Plants of A. pyrifolium were not responsive to mycorrhization and phosphate fertilization. In soil with low phosphorus content, mycorrhized plants of Z. joazeiro and P. simplicifolium presented better vegetative development with high shoot dry weight. Mycorrhized plants of Z. joazeiro had a proportional increase in the levels of macro- and micronutrients at the phosphorus doses applied. Mycorrhizal symbiosis may have a fundamental role in the development of these species from the Caatinga.


O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de três espécies vegetais nativas da Caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Ziziphus joazeiro e Pseudobombax simplicifolium) em resposta à inoculação com dois fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (autóctone: Claroideoglomus etunicatum ou exótico: Acaulospora longula) e adubação fosfatada. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial com três tratamentos de inoculação (Controle, C. etunicatum ou A. longula) e quatro doses de superfosfato simples (0 - sem adição de P2O5, 12, 24 e 48 mg dm -3), em dez repetições. Nas condições deste estudo, o inóculo de C. etunicatum, autóctone da região semiárida, demonstrou maior compatibilidade e eficiência na promoção do crescimento e nutrição das plantas quando comparado ao inóculo exótico de A. longula. Plantas de A. pyrifolium não foram responsivas à micorrização e adubação fosfatada. Em solo com menor teor de fósforo as plantas de Z. joazeiro e P. simplicifolium micorrizadas apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo, com elevada produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea. Plantas de Z. joazeiro micorrizadas tiveram aumento nos teores de macro e micronutrientes proporcional às doses de fósforo aplicadas. Conclui-se que simbiose micorrízica pode ter papel fundamental no desenvolvimento destas espécies nativas da Caatinga


Subject(s)
Fungi , Mycorrhizae , Plants , Semi-Arid Zone
20.
Mycobiology ; : 312-317, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729658

ABSTRACT

Orchidaceous plants have symbiotic relationships with endophytic fungi, including mycorrhizal fungi, which play important roles in the seed germination and growth of the host plants. In this study, endophytic fungal communities isolated from the roots of Cephalanthera longibracteata collected from three different sites in Korea were analyzed, and it was determined whether fungal communities were preferentially correlated with the sites. The fungal isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA. In total, 30 species of endophytic fungi, including two species of mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tulasnella, were identified. Leptodontidium orchidicola showed the highest frequency and was isolated from all root samples. Species diversity and richness were not significantly different among sites. However, the community structure of the endophytic fungi significantly differed among sites, suggesting that the site characteristics affected the community composition of the endophytic fungi colonizing the roots of C. longibracteata. Our findings will aid in developing methods involving the use of symbiotic fungi for orchid conservation and restoration in native habitats.


Subject(s)
Colon , DNA, Ribosomal , Ecosystem , Fungi , Germination , Korea , Mycorrhizae , Sequence Analysis
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