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2.
Caracas; s.n; dic. 2019. 125 p. ^e1 CD-ROM^c30 cmtab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1179534

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa, producida por hongos dimorfos del género Histoplasma. Se observa en casi todos los países del mundo. En América Latina, en Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay y Uruguay, entre otros. Datos epidemiológicos recienteshanmostrado un aumento de histoplasmosis en Venezuela y otros países.Los clínicos no están conscientes de su importancia en nuestro medio. Objetivo: Dar a conocer la situación actual de esta enfermedad en el Area Metropolitana de Caracas y en otras áreas endémicas, con la intención de crear la inquietud de investigar su incidencia y otras características relevantes en el resto del país. Métodos: Se analizaron las características de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de certeza de histoplasmosis registrados y realizados por la Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖ del Instituto de Medicina Tropical de la UCV, referidos de los diferentes hospitales del Distrito Capital y otros estados del país, con énfasis en los datos epidemiológicos, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y evolución entre 1994 y 2012. Resultados: se encontraron 553 pacientes. La mayoría estaban entre los 20 y 49 años, relacionado con un alto número de pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Hubo más casos en hombres que en mujeres en todos los grupos etarios, menos en los pacientes mayores de 60 años, posiblemente debido a la disminución de los estrógenos, que son protectores en la mujer. Casi todos los pacientes con VIH/SIDA mostraron la forma diseminada, solo uno presentó una forma pulmonar. De los pacientes VIH negativos, 54,62% presentaron infección diseminada y 44,47%, formas pulmonares. 93 de los de enfermedad diseminada tenían estados de inmunocompromiso. El examen directo fue el método más fácil y eficaz para diagnosticar la histoplasmosis. La anfotericina B (AMB) fue el tratamiento para la histoplasmosis en pacientes con o sin SIDA, que requirieron hospitalización, seguido por itraconazol (ITC). Esta droga se utilizó en pacientes que no se encontraban severamente enfermos o con afectación del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones: histoplasmosis se encuentra en aumento en nuestro país. Se observa con más frecuencia en pacientes con SIDA, inmunosuprimidos y pacientes que han recibido un inóculo abundante. El examen directo con coloraciones especiales es el método de mayor rendimiento para el diagnóstico. Este debe ser realizado por personal con experiencia.Es conveniente utilizar diferentes técnicas para aumentar la probabilidad de obtener un diagnóstico correcto. AMB e ITC son los tratamientos de elección. Los médicos deben estar alertas de los signos y síntomas, correlacionándolos con los antecedentes epidemiológicos, para evitar el retraso del diagnóstico y mejorar la evolución de los pacientes.


Histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, caused by dimorphic fungi from the genus Histoplasma. It is described worldwide.In Latin America, Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay and Uruguay among others are affected. Recent epidemiological data have shown an increase of histoplasmosis in Venezuela and other countries. Clinicians are nor aware of the importance of this mycosis. Objective: analyze the current situation of this disease in the Caracas Metropolitan Area and other endemic areas, with intention to create awareness of its incidence and other relevant characteristics in our country. Methods: characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of histoplasmosis, performed and registered at the Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, UCV, referred from different hospitals at Distrito Capital and other states of the country, with emphasis on epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, between 1994 and 2012 are analized. Results: 553 patients were found. Most of them were between 20 and 49 years old, possibly due to a high number of HIV/AIDS patients. There were more male than female patients in all age groups, except in 60 years and older, possibly due to the lack of estrogenic hormones, which protect women from infection. All HIV/AIDS patients but one, presented with a disseminated form of the disease, and one, a pulmonary form. Of the HIV negative patients, 54,62% showed disseminated infection and 44,47%, pulmonary presentation. 93 of the disseminated infection patients had immunocompromising conditions. Direct examination was the easiest and most efficacious diagnostic method. Amphotericin B (AMB) was the drug of choice for the treatment of hospitalized patients, followed by Itraconazole (ITC). This was the preferred treatment for mild to moderate disease or non CNS infection. Conclusions: Histoplasmosis is rising in our country. It is more frequent in HIV/AIDS patients and immune suppression. It is also seen in patients who have inhaled a large inoculum. Direct examination with special stains is the diagnostic method with better results. It must be performed by experienced personnel in fungal diagnosis. The use of different techniques is recommended to improve early and correct diagnosis. AMB and ITC are drugs of choice for the treatment of histoplasmosis. Clinicians should be aware of suggestive symptoms and signs, correlating them with epidemiological data, to avoid diagnostic delay and improve the outcome of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/therapy , Signs and Symptoms , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Probability , Risk Factors , Fungi/pathogenicity , Histoplasma/drug effects , Histoplasmosis/therapy , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology , Infections , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Age Groups
4.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 55-60, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1121303

ABSTRACT

Background: The number of fungal infections has increased in recent years in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Epidemiological studies are important for proper control of infections. Aims: To evaluate the etiology of fungal infections in patients in RS, from 2003 to 2015. Methods: This is a retrospective and longitudinal study carried out at Mycology Department of Central Laboratory of RS; 13,707 samples were evaluated. The variables sex, age, site of infection, and etiologic agent were analyzed. Susceptibility of Candida to fluconazole was tested in samples collected in 2015from 51 outpatients. Results: Of the 13,707 samples, 840 cases (6.12%) of fungal infections were found and included in the analyses; female gender accounted for the 55.9% of the cases. The main fungus was Candida albicans (450 cases, 53.38%; p < 0.001). Onychomycosis was the most frequent infection in superficial mycoses. Systemic mycoses accounted for 54.05% of the cases, from which 68.8% occurred in males, mainly HIVpositive (33.11%), and the main etiologic agent in these cases was Cryptococcus neoformans (73.13%). Among 51 samples tested for susceptibility to fluconazole, 78.43% of Candida isolates were susceptible; 5.88% were susceptible in a dose-dependent manner, and 15.69% were resistant. Conclusions: C. albicans is a common cause of fungal infections in RS, accounting for half of the cases;resistance to antifungals was found in non-hospitalized patients. In addition, women seem to be moresusceptible to fungal infections than men, however men show more systemic mycoses than women. Thenails are the most common site of infection. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1110-1116, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-955429

ABSTRACT

Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos das doenças causadas por fungos e oomicetos na população de equinos na região sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul, estabelecendo as taxas epidemiológicas, suas causas e sua importância sanitária na região. Foi realizada a epidemiologia descritiva por meio do cálculo da incidência das doenças encontradas ao longo dos anos e verificada a existência de associação entre a ocorrência dessas enfermidades e o sexo, a raça e a estação do ano. Entre os anos de 1978 e 2014 a pitiose teve prevalência de 49,71% (86/173), as micotoxicoses 30,05% (52/173), sendo 45 casos de leucoencefalomalácia e sete de ergotismo. As micoses tiveram prevalência de 19,65% (34/173), sendo as dermatofitoses as mais prevalentes com 58,82% (20/34) dos casos. As espécies de dermatófitos mais frequentemente isoladas foram Trichophyton mentagrophytes 60% (12/20), Trichophyton equinum 25% (5/20) e Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis e Trichophyton verrucosum ambos responsáveis por 5% (1/20) das infecções. Rinosporidiose foi diagnosticada em 35,29% (12/34) dos casos. Micoses uterinas causadas por Candida albicans e Cryptococcus laurentii foram observadas em 5,88% (2/34) dos casos. Alergia por Cladosporium sp. teve um registro. De acordo com as incidências calculadas entre 1990 e 2014 a pitiose teve incidência mediana (IM) 2,98 e distância interquartil (DI) =3,82, as fêmeas tiveram chance 4,18 vezes maiores de desenvolver a doença, a enfermidade ocorre independente das estações climáticas. A leucoencefalomalácia teve IM=0,0; DI 1,00 e equinos machos tiveram 3,4 vezes mais chance de desenvolver a doença que fêmeas, no inverno a possibilidade de ocorrência dessa enfermidade foi seis vezes maior. O ergotismo teve IM = 0,00; DI = 0,000, rinosporidiose IM=0,00; DI=0,088 e dermatofitose IM=0,00; DI=0,935. A pitiose foi mais prevalente entre as doenças encontradas, podendo ser considerada endêmica na região. Considera-se que a magnitude das doenças possa ser ainda maior dentro do rebanho equino, uma vez que as doenças descritas não são de notificação obrigatória e algumas são bem conhecidas por veterinários e proprietários, que muitas vezes não fazem a confirmação laboratorial do diagnóstico.(AU)


The epidemiological aspects of diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes in horses in southeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described. The epidemiological rates, their causes, and health importance in the region were established. A descriptive epidemiology study was carried out in relation of potential risk factors. The impact on these diseases in the region was measured. From 1978 to 2014, pythiosis had a prevalence of 49.71% (86/173), and mycotoxicoses of 30.05% (52/173), with 45 cases of leukoencephalomalacia and 7 of ergotism. The prevalence of fungal infections was 19.65% (34/173) of cases. Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent fungal infection with 58.82% (20/34) of cases. The most isolated dermatophyte species were Trichophyton mentagrophytes 60% (12/20), Trichophyton equinum 25% (5/20) and Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton verrucosum, both responsible for 5% (1/20) of infections. Rhinosporidose was diagnosed in 35.29% (12/34) of cases. Uterine mycosis caused by Candida albicans and Cryptococcus laurentii was observed at 5.88% (2/34) of cases. Cladosporium sp. allergy was noted in one record. According to the incidence from 1990 to 2014, pythiosis had median incidence (MI) of 2.98 and interquartile range (DI) of 3.82. Mares were 4.18 times likely to develop the disease then males. The disease occurs in the region in every season. Leukoencephalomalacia had MI of 0.0; DI 1.00 and male horses were 3.4 times more likely than mares to develop the disease. Leukoencephalomalacia was 6 times more likely to occur during winter. Ergotism had MI of 0.00; DI of 0.000, rhinosporidiosis MI of 0.00, DI of 0.088 and ringworm MI of 0.00, and DI of 0.935. In the study pythiosis had the highest prevalence among the diseases observed, and may be considered endemic in the region. The magnitude of the diseases observed may be even greater within the equine herd, since these diseases are not of obligatory notification and some are well known by veterinarians and owners, who often do not obtain a laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mycotoxicosis/epidemiology , Pythiosis/epidemiology , Horses/microbiology , Mycoses/epidemiology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 401-406, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. Methodology A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 289 isolates were obtained from 178 tissue samples from 261 patients, 156 (59.7%) males and 105 (40.2%) females, with a mean age of 58 years (-15 years), having diabetic foot infection. No growth was seen in thirty eight (17.6%) tissue samples. Out of the total samples, 44.3% were monomicrobial and 55.7% were polymicrobial. Gram negative pathogens were predominant (58.5%). Seven of the total isolates were fungal; 0.7% showed pure fungal growth and 1.7% were mixed, grown along with some bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (26.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.9%). Of the 58.5% gram negative pathogens, 16.5% were Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems. Among these isolates, 4 (25%) were positive for blaNDM-like gene. Among the rest, 18.6% were carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, among which 4 (36.3%) were blaNDM. Among the Staphylococci, 23.7% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our results support the recent view that gram negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may be predominant in DFIs. There is an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially carbapenem resistance and this is creeping rapidly. We need to be more judicious while using empiric antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Methicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/microbiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 25(3): 92-99, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-972518

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir la investigación epidemiológica de osteomielitis por Mucorales (OMM) post reparación artroscópica de LCA (RA-LCA) en Argentina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: 1) Revisión de los casos; 2) Relevamiento de 3 instituciones; 3) Cultivo micológico de materiales quirúrgicos; 4) Encuesta a instrumentadoras; 5) Secuenciación de las cepas de Rhizopus y 6) Redacción de recomendaciones. RESULTADOS: Del 2005 al 2017 se identificaron 40 casos de OMM (Rhizopus sp.) post reparación artroscópica de LCA en pacientes inmunocompetentes de 12 jurisdicciones de Argentina. El diagnóstico fue por cultivo (22/31), y por anatomía patológica (9). La edad promedio fue 29 años. El 84% de 38 casos eran varones. Intervinieron 13 ortopedias. El implante fue importado en 8/20 casos y nacional en 12. En las 3 instituciones se observó: manejo inadecuado del aire de quirófano, variabilidad en la limpieza del artroscopio, en el taladro utilizado, y en el manejo de materiales que llegan de las ortopedias y falta de trazabilidad de los implantes. Los cultivos micológicos de los materiales fueron negativos. La encuesta a instrumentadores confirmó los hallazgos de los relevamientos. La secuenciación de las cepas de Rhizopus demostró predominio de policlonalidad. CONCLUSIÓN: La OMM es una complicación posible luego de la RA-LCA en instituciones privadas de Argentina. No se identificó un origen único. Se detectaron múltiples prácticas que favorecen la contaminación de la cirugía con hongos filamentosos (manejo del aire de quirófano, del artroscopio, de los materiales provenientes de ortopedia, etc.). En base a estos hallazgos la Asociación Argentina de Artroscopía sugiere medidas de prevención. Implicancia clínica: Prevención de osteomielitis por Mucorales post- cirugía artroscópica para ligamento cruzado anterior. Tipo de estudio: Serie de casos. Nivel de Evidencia: IV.


OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological investigation of Mucor osteomyelitis (MO) after arthroscopic repair of ACL (ARACL) in Argentina. MATERIAL Y METHODS: 1) Review of cases; 2) Survey of 3 institutions; 3) Mycological culture of surgical materials; 4) Survey of instrumentists; 5) Sequencing of Rhizopus strains and 6) Writing of recommendations. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2017, 40 cases of MO (Rhizopus sp.) Post AR-ACL were identified in immunocompetent patients from 12 jurisdictions of Argentina. The diagnosis was made by culture (22/31), and by pathology (9). The average age was 29 years. 84% of 38 cases were male. Thirteen orthopedics intervened. The implant was imported in 8/20 cases and national in 12. In the 3 institutions it was observed: inadequate handling of the operating room air, variability in the cleaning of the arthroscope, in the drill used, and in the handling of materials that come from the orthopedics and lack of traceability of the implants. The mycological cultures of the materials were negative. The survey of instrumentists confirmed the findings of the surveys. The sequencing of Rhizopus strains showed a predominance of polyclonality. CONCLUSION: MO is a possible complication after AR-ACL in private institutions in Argentina. A unique origin was not identified. Multiple practices that favor the contamination of surgery with filamentous fungi (handling of operating room air, arthroscope, materials from orthopedics, etc.) were detected. Based on these findings, the Argentine Association of Arthroscopy suggests prevention measures. Clinical relevance: Prevention of Mucor osteomyelitis after arthroscopic surgery for anterior cruciate ligament. Type study: Cases series. Level of evidence: IV.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/adverse effects , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/prevention & control , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/prevention & control , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Argentina , Risk Factors
8.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(2): 8-14, dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907570

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En las últimas décadas, la frecuencia de infecciones fúngicas invasivas causadas por levaduras ha aumentado en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), especialmente en pacientes graves con estadías prolongadas y en inmunocomprometidos. En ocasiones pueden presentarse como infecciones asociadas a la atención de salud (IAAS) por incumplimiento de medidas efectivas en prevención. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuentemente aislada, aunque el número de especies no albicans resistentes a fluconazol ha aumentado y la mortalidad asociada es mayor en los pacientes infectados con estas especies, motivo de preocupación puesto de manifiesto por los datos de vigilancia recientes. Objetivo: establecer la frecuencia de portación de levaduras de importancia clínica aisladas de las manos de estudiantes de las carreras de Medicina y Enfermería de la Universidad de Talca. Métodos: se tomaron 208 muestras de las manos de estudiantes, estas se dividieron en dos categorías: la primera es el ciclo básico de los estudiantes sin contacto con hospitales, la segunda es el pre-clínico y clínico de los estudiantes que tienen contacto con hospitales. Resultados: hubo 11.2 por ciento de portación en manos de estudiantes de Medicina y 9.9 por ciento para los de Enfermería. En los aislamientos predominó la Candida parapsilosis (45.5 por ciento); Candida guillermondii (18.2 por ciento); Candida famata (9.1 por ciento), y Candida albicans (4.5 por ciento) Schwanniomyces etchellsii (18.2 por ciento) y Cryptococcus humícola (4.5 por ciento). Conclusión: la portación de levaduras en manos de estudiantes de carreras de salud, aumenta significativamente en aquellos que tienen mayor contacto con las unidades hospitalarias, así como la diversidad de especies y la cantidad de unidades formadoras de colonias.


Introduction: In the last decades, the frequency of invasive fungal infections caused by yeast has increased in the Intensive Care Units (ICU), especially in severe patients with prolonged stays and in immunocompromised patients. Sometimes they can present as infections associated with health care (IAAS) due to non-compliance with effective prevention measures. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species, although the number of non-albicans species resistant to fluconazole has increased and the associated mortality is higher in patients infected with these species, a concern highlighted by recent surveillance data. Objective: to establish the frequency of carrying of yeasts of clinical importance isolated from the hands of students of the careers of Medicine and Nursing of the University of Talca. Methods: 208 samples were taken from the hands of students, these were divided into two categories: the first is the basic cycle of students without contact with hospitals, the second is the pre-clinical and clinical students who have contact with hospitals. Results: there was a: 11.2 percent portation in the hands of medical students and 9.9 percent for Nursing students. In the isolates Candida parapsilosis prevailed (45.5 percent); Candida guillermondii (18.2 percent); Candida famata (9.1 percent), and Candida albicans (4.5 percent) Schwanniomyces etchellsii (18.2 percent) and Cryptococcus humicola (4.5 percent). Conclusion: the carrying of yeasts in the hands of students of health careers increases significantly in those who have greater contact with hospital units, as well as the diversity of species and the number of colony forming units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Hand Disinfection , Hand/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Mycoses/epidemiology , Students, Medical , Students, Nursing , Ascomycota , Basidiomycota , Chile , Culture Techniques/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Specimen Handling/methods
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 69(3): 1-18, set.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901257

ABSTRACT

En el marco del 80 aniversario del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, se exponen en apretada síntesis, las actividades más relevantes en el campo del diagnóstico, la investigación y la docencia desarrolladas hasta el momento por el Laboratorio de Micología de la referida institución. A 38 años de su creación, este sigue siendo uno de los pocos lugares en Cuba que se desempeña en este campo y que se reconoce por los logros científico-técnicos alcanzados. Sin lugar a duda, estos responden básicamente al cuadro de salud nacional, sin descuidar el entorno regional y mundial. Todos los resultados que se exponen, se encuentran sustentados por más de 100 publicaciones y otras obras científicas, lo que avala la calidad y rigor del trabajo desplegado. Sirva este artículo para homenajear al fundador del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí y a todos los científicos que en el transcurso de estos años contribuyeron a engrandecer su nombre(AU)


In the framework of the 80th anniversary of Pedro Kouri Tropical Medicine Institute, a succinct presentation is provided of the most relevant activities in the fields of diagnosis, research and teaching so far performed by the Mycology Laboratory at the Institute. Thirty-eight years after its founding, the Laboratory continues to be one of the few places in Cuba devoted to this field and recognized for its scientific and technical achievements, which no doubt essentially respond to the national health status, without neglecting the regional and global environment. All the results presented are endorsed by over 100 publications and scientific works, which is evidence of the quality and rigor of the work done. May this paper be a tribute to the founder of Pedro Kouri Tropical Medicine Institute and all the scientists who have brought prestige to its name throughout these years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tropical Medicine/history , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/history , Mycology/history , Mycoses/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 117-123, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748245

ABSTRACT

In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp. (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Candida/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Pichia/isolation & purification , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Trichosporon/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pichia/drug effects , Rhodotorula/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Trichosporon/drug effects
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157676

ABSTRACT

Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, yeast or other non-dermatophyte molds and have been known to be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and the etiologic agents of onychomycosis in patients attending RIMS, Imphal, Manipur for a period of two years (January 2010 to December 2012). Nail samples of 347 clinically suspected cases of onycomycosis attending dermatology OPD RIMS, Manipur were collected and were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH) mounts for direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA). The male female ratio of the participants was 1:1.81 (165 male and 302 female). Out of 467, 399 (85.44.%) were positive by culture and KOH mount. Young adults in the age group of 21-30 years were commonly affected. In female patients finger nail infection was more common than toe nail infection. Both toe and finger nails involvement were noticed in nine patients of which two were male and seven were female. The most frequently isolated fungus was dermatophytes, in 107 (40.38%) patients followed by Aspergillus spp in 101 (38.11%) and Candida spp in 17 (6.4%). This study demonstrated that dermatophytes, as well as moulds especially Aspergillus spp are commonly isolated from onychomycosis patients in our region.


Subject(s)
Adult , Agar , Culture Media , Culture Techniques , Female , Fungi/growth & development , Humans , Hydroxides/diagnosis , India/epidemiology , Male , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/etiology , Nails/microbiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/etiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Potassium Compounds/diagnosis , Prevalence , Young Adult
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 74-78, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703169

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are more than 300,000 extractors using the babaçu coconut as a source of income in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins and Piauí, and this activity is associated with fungal infections. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of emergent fungi in the conjunctiva, nails and surface and subcutaneous injuries of female coconut breakers in Esperantinópolis, Maranhão. Additionally, soil samples and palm structures were collected. Methods: The obtained samples were cultured in Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar and chloramphenicol. The etiological agent was confirmed by a direct mycological exam and growth in culture. Results: In total, 150 domiciles were visited, and samples were collected from 80 patients. From the ground, the most frequently isolated fungus was Aspergillus niger (53. 8%). the most frequently detected fungus in babaçu coconut was Aspergillus niger (66.7%). Conjunctival fungal growth occurred in 76.3% of the women. The ocular fungal microbiota consisted of filamentous fungi (80.6%), and yeasts were present in 19.4% of cases. Onychomycosis was diagnosed in 44% (11/25) of the women. Conclusions: The identification of the genera Neosartorya, Rhizopus and Curvularia in onychomycoses shows that emergent filamentous fungi can be isolated. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Scedosporium sp. were the predominant genera found in the babaçu coconut. From ocular conjunctiva, Candida spp. were the most prevalent species isolated, and Fusarium sp. was present only in one woman. The nearly permanent exposure of coconut breakers to the external environment and to the soil is most likely the reason for the existence of a mycotic flora and fungal infections, varying according to the individual's practices and occupation. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/microbiology , Cocos/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(1): 70-77, ene.-mar. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675134

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Febrile neutropenia is a common complication of chemotherapy treatment of malignant hematological diseases. However, there is insufficient information regarding the infectious complications of febrile neutropenia in our country. Objective. We will evaluate the microbial characteristics of bacterial and fungal isolates and the clinical outcome of patients with febrile neutropenia who received medical attention at an oncological reference center in Colombia. Materials and methods. A prospective case series included patients with histologically confirmed oncological disease, who were admitted because of febrile neutropenia or presented with febrile neutropenia during hospitalization. Patients with benign hematological diseases were excluded. Demographic, microbiological, and clinical features as well as treatment and outcome information from patients with febrile neutropenia were obtained. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses, with mortality defined as the outcome. Results. One hundred and thirty episodes of febrile neutropenia were identified in 104 patients. The mean patient age was 19, and 53% of the patients were male. Approximately 86% of the episodes occurred in patients with hematological disorders. An infectious site was identified in 65% of patients; 41% and 24% of the febrile neutropenia pateints´ episodes exhibited a localized infectious focus and developed bloodstream infections, respectively. The majority of infections were found in blood, urine, gastrointestinal tract, and soft tissue. Distribution analysis of microbiological isolates revealed 46.4% Gram-negative bacilli, 38.4% Gram-positive cocci, 8% fungi, and 7.1% parasites; there was a 7.7% mortality rate. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy was a protection-related factor in multivariate analyses (OR= 0.17; 0.034 - 0.9 95% CI; p= 0.037). Conclusions. The mortality rate was relatively low and comparable to the rate reported by developed countries. Inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy was the main factor associated with mortality.


Introducción. La neutropenia febril es una complicación frecuente de la quimioterapia para las neoplasias hematológicas. Se dispone de escasa información de sus complicaciones infecciosas en nuestro medio. Objetivo. Evaluar las características clínicas y microbiológicas de pacientes con neutropenia febril, así como su resultado clínico en una institución de referencia oncológica en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se conformó prospectivamente una serie de casos con pacientes con enfermedad oncológica confirmada, que consultaron o presentaron neutropenia febril durante la hospitalización. Se excluyeron aquellos con enfermedad hematológica benigna. Se recolectaron datos sobre variables demográficas, microbiológicas, clínicas, de tratamiento y de resultado de los pacientes. Se llevaron a cabo un análisis univariado y uno multivariado, con la mortalidad como resultado. Resultados. Se identificaron 130 episodios de neutropenia febril en 104 pacientes, con una edad media de 19 años y 53 % masculinos. El 86 % de los episodios ocurrieron en pacientes con alteraciones hematológicas. Se demostró infección en 65 % de los casos: 41 % con un foco infeccioso localizado y 27,7 % con bacteriemia. Los principales focos infecciosos se localizaron en el torrente sanguíneo, el aparato urinario, el sistema gastrointestinal, la piel y los tejidos blandos. De los aislamientos microbiológicos, 46,4 % fueron bacilos Gram negativos, 38,4 %, cocos Gram positivos, 9 %, hongos y, 7,1%, parásitos. La mortalidad global fue de 7,7 %. En el análisis multivariado la utilización de un tratamiento empírico apropiado se correlacionó con una menor mortalidad, de forma independiente (OR=0,17; IC 95% 0,034-0,9; p=0,037). Conclusiones. La tasa de mortalidad fue relativamente baja y fue comparable con lo reportado en países desarrollados. El tratamiento antimicrobiano inapropiado fue el principal factor asociado con mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Cancer Care Facilities , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia/epidemiology , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Mycoses/etiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia/complications , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Entamoebiasis/drug therapy , Entamoebiasis/epidemiology , Entamoebiasis/etiology , Entamoebiasis/parasitology , Hospital Mortality , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Organ Specificity , Prospective Studies , Recurrence
17.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 76(1): 27-29, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695656

ABSTRACT

Se presentan dos casos de niños con tiña facial modificada por el empleo prolongado de corticoides tópicos de alta potencia. Las típicas placas circulares u ovaladas, únicas o múltiples bien delimitadas de borde eritemato-vesiculoso levantado activo, de extensión periférica con aclaramiento del centro lesional, poco inflamatorias y muchas veces asintomáticas que afectan la cara, tronco y/o extremidadescambian su morfología y evolución debido al efecto inmunodepresor del fármaco.


We present two cases of children with facial ringworm modified by the prolonged use of high potency topical corticosteroids. The typical circular or oval lesions, single or multiple, with well-defined and raised redscaly edge and active borders with peripheral extension and center clearance; little inflammatory activity and often asymptomatic affecting the face, trunk and / or extremities change theirmorphology and evolution due to immunosuppressive effect of the drug.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Child , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Tinea/etiology , Trichophyton/pathogenicity , Dermatology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Pediatrics
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157447

ABSTRACT

The risk factors for opportunistic fungal infections are progressive HIV infection, Diabetes mellitus or patient on antibiotics, steroid or antimalignant therapy. Though with the development of Medical sciences, fungal infections are gaining importance, the field of epidemiology of fungal infection has not expanded that much. The different epidemiological markers for fungal infection have been discussed in this article. Ideally epidemiological marker should be standardized, reproducible, sensitive, easy to perform and inexpensive.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/diagnosis , Fungi/diagnosis , Fungi/diagnosis , Fungi/epidemiology , Humans , Medical Laboratory Science , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(supl.1): 11-18, set. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-656320

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in SOT and HSCT recipients. The main species involved are Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp, less frequently Cryptococcus spp., causal agents of mucormycosis and Fusarium spp. Usually occur within the first six months post-transplant, but they do it later, especially during episodes of rejection, which maintains the state of immune system involvement. Prophylaxis recommendations are specific to each type of transplant. In liver transplantation use of fluconazole is recommended only in selected cases by high risk factor for invasive fungal infections (A1). If the patient has a high risk of aspergillosis, there are some suggestions for adults population to use amphotericin B-deoxycholate, liposomal amphotericin B or caspofungin (C2) without being validated none of these recommendations in pediatric population. In adult lung transplant patients where the risk of aspergillosis is higher than in other locations, we recommend universal prophylaxis with itraconazole 200 mg/day, nebulised liposomal amphotericin B or voriconazole (C2), no validated recommendations for pediatrics. In HSCT, universal prophylaxis is recommended only in allogeneic and autologous selected cases. The most accepted indication is fluconazole (A1), and posaconazole (A1) or micafungin (A1) in selected cases with high risk of aspergillosis.


Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en los pacientes receptores de TOS y TPH. Los principales agentes involucrados son Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp, menos frecuentemente Cryptococcus spp., agentes causales de mucormicosis y Fusarium spp. Se presentan habitualmente dentro de los primeros seis meses posttrasplante, pero también lo hacen en forma más tardía, especialmente durante episodios de rechazo, en que se mantiene el estado de compromiso del sistema inmune. Existen recomendaciones de proilaxis especíicas para cada tipo de trasplante. En trasplante hepático se recomienda el uso de fluconazol sólo en casos seleccionados por factores de riesgo (A1). Si existe riesgo de asper-gilosis, hay algunas sugerencias en adultos para el uso de anfotericina B-deoxicolato, anfotericina liposomal o caspofungina (todo en categoría C2), sin estar validada ninguna de estas recomendaciones en pediatría. En trasplante pulmonar en paciente adulto, donde el riesgo de aspergilosis es superior a otras localizaciones, se recomienda proilaxis universal, con itraconazol 200 mg/día, anfotericina liposomal nebulizada o voriconazol (C2), sin recomendaciones validadas para pediatría. En TPH, se recomienda proilaxis universal en trasplante alogénico y sólo para casos seleccionados en trasplantes autólogos. La indicación más aceptada es fluconazol (A1), siendo alternativas a evaluar dependiendo del riesgo de aspergilosis, posaconazol (A1) y micafungina (A1).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Mycoses/prevention & control , Organ Transplantation , Stem Cell Transplantation , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Candida/pathogenicity , Drug Administration Schedule , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Incidence , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145799

ABSTRACT

Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candidiasis/etiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Candidiasis/therapy , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/therapy , Oral Hygiene
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