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1.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 272-275, sept. 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026763

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En pacientes pediátricos quemados la osteomielitis fúngica es una complicación infrecuente que conduce a una significativa morbilidad. La información en la literatura está limitada a unos escasos reportes de casos. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y de evolución de niños quemados con osteomielitis fúngica. Métodos: Se llevo a cabo un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de pacientes mayores de 1 mes y menores de 18 años quemados con osteomielitis fúngica internados en el hospital Juan P. Garrahan, un hospital terciario en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: entre enero del 2007 y enero del 2017, de 600 niños quemados, 9 pacientes presentaron diagnóstico confirmado de osteomielitis fúngica. La mediana de edad fue de 42.5 meses (RIC, 27-118 meses) y la mediana de superficie quemada fue de 33.5% (RIC, 18.5-58%). La osteomielitis fue diagnosticada con una mediana de 30 días luego de la quemadura. Las localizaciones más frecuentes de osteomielitis fueron los miembros superiores y a nivel de calota. Los microorganismos aislados a partir del cultivo de hueso fueron: Fusarium spp. en tres pacientes, Mucor spp. en un paciente; Trichosporon asahii en un paciente; Cándida albicans en dos pacientes y Candida parapsilosis en dos pacientes. En dos casos la infección fúngica fue asociada con aislamientos bacteriano concomitante. Todos los pacientes presentaron hallazgos histopatológicos compatibles con osteomielitis. La mediana de tiempo de tratamiento fue de 44.5 días (RIC, 34.5- 65.5 días). Seis pacientes (67%) presentaron secuela motora. Conclusión: La osteomielitis fúngica fue infrecuente Candida spp. y Fusarium spp. fueron los hongos más comúnmente identificados. La secuela funcional fue frecuente (AU)


Introduction: In pediatric burn patients fungal osteomyelitis is a rare complication that leads to significant morbidity. Data in the literature are limited to sporadic case reports. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features and outcome in burned children with fungal osteomyelitis. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in burn patients older than 1 month and younger than 18 years admitted to Hospital Juan P. Garrahan, a tertiary hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Between January 2007 and January 2017, of 600 burned children, nine had a confirmed diagnosis of fungal osteomyelitis. Median age was 42.5 months (IQR, 27-118 months) and median burn surface was 33.5% (IQR, 18.5-58%). Osteomyelitis was diagnosed at a median of 30 days after the burn. The most common location of osteomyelitis were the upper limbs and skull. The microorganisms isolated form bone cultures were Fusarium spp. in three patients, Mucor spp. in one patient; Trichosporon asahii in one patient; Candida albicans in two patients; and Candida parapsilosis in two patients. In two cases the funal infection was associated with concomitant bacterial isolation. In all patients, the histopathological findings were compatible with osteomyelitis. Median duration of treatment was 44.5 days (IQR, 34.5-65.5 days). Six patients (67%) had motor sequelae. Conclusion: Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare disease. Candida spp. and Fusarium spp. were most frequently identified fungi. Functional sequelae were common (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Burns/complications , Mycoses/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Miosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 401-406, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. Methodology A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 289 isolates were obtained from 178 tissue samples from 261 patients, 156 (59.7%) males and 105 (40.2%) females, with a mean age of 58 years (-15 years), having diabetic foot infection. No growth was seen in thirty eight (17.6%) tissue samples. Out of the total samples, 44.3% were monomicrobial and 55.7% were polymicrobial. Gram negative pathogens were predominant (58.5%). Seven of the total isolates were fungal; 0.7% showed pure fungal growth and 1.7% were mixed, grown along with some bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (26.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.9%). Of the 58.5% gram negative pathogens, 16.5% were Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems. Among these isolates, 4 (25%) were positive for blaNDM-like gene. Among the rest, 18.6% were carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, among which 4 (36.3%) were blaNDM. Among the Staphylococci, 23.7% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our results support the recent view that gram negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may be predominant in DFIs. There is an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially carbapenem resistance and this is creeping rapidly. We need to be more judicious while using empiric antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Methicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/microbiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 462-464, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038269

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The number of new cases of emerging fungal infections has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the large number of immunocompromised individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of emerging fungi to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B by disk diffusion method. In 2015, 82 emerging fungi were evaluated in IPB-LACEN/RS and 13 (15.8%) were resistant: 10/52 were from superficial mycoses and 3/30 from systemic mycoses. The data from the study point to the need for permanent vigilance regarding the careful evaluation in the prescription and clinical and laboratory follow-up of patients affected by fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 205-212, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974346

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study compares patients with and without non-viral microbial keratitis in relation to sociodemographic variables, clinical aspects, and involved causative agent. Clinical aspects, etiology and therapeutic procedures were assessed in patients with and without keratitis that were diagnosed in an Eye Care Center in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: (a) cases: 64 patients with non-viral microbial keratitis diagnosed at biomicroscopy; and (b) controls: 47 patients with other eye disorders that were not keratitis. Labor activity related to agriculture, cattle raising, and contact lens use were all linked to keratitis occurrence (p < 0.005). In patients with keratitis, the most common symptoms were pain and photophobia, and the most frequently used medicines were fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (34.4%), amphotericin B (31.3%), and natamycin (28.1%). Microbial keratitis evolved to corneal perforation in 15.6% of cases; transplant was indicated in 10.9% of cases. Regarding the etiology of this condition, 23 (42.2%) keratitis cases were caused by bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12.5%), 17 (39.1%) by fungi (Fusarium spp., 14.1% and Aspergillus spp., 4.7%), and 4 (6.3%) by Acanthamoeba. Patients with keratitis present with a poorer prognosis. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent is indispensable and depends on appropriate ophthalmological collection and microbiological techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Keratitis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(6): 458-461, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887414

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Arthrographis kalrae es un hongo hialino de crecimiento lento que, en su desarrollo, forma artroconidios. Es un patógeno oportunista que causa infecciones en personas inmunocomprometidas e inmunocompetentes, y ha sido aislado muy raramente en muestras clínicas de seres humanos. Caso clínico: Se describe el caso de un paciente con inmunodeficiencia primaria y afectación pulmonar con evolución tórpida. Presentó compromiso de ambos pulmones a pesar del tratamiento antibiótico y antifúngico instaurado. Durante su seguimiento, se realizaron múltiples biopsias pulmonares y se aisló A. kalrae en el cultivo de tejido pulmonar. Recibió tratamiento con posaconazol, con buena respuesta y remisión de las lesiones. Conclusión: Este es el primer caso reportado de infección pulmonar por A. kalrae en un paciente pediátrico con enfermedad granulomatosa crónica en Argentina.


Background: Arthrographis kalrae is a hyaline fungus that grows forming arthroconidia. It is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised as in immunocompetent people and has been rarely isolated from human clinical samples. Case report: We describe the case of a male child with primary immunodeficiency who initially presented unilateral pneumonia and progressed to bilateral involvement despite antibiotic, antifungal treatment. A. kalrae was diagnosed by pulmonary biopsy. He received posaconazole with resolution of disease. Conclusions: This is the first case of A. kalrae pulmonary infection in a pediatric patient with chronic granulomatous disease in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ascomycota , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Mycoses/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(11): 1313-1321, Nov. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895376

ABSTRACT

As enfermidades fúngicas são diagnósticos diferenciais de diversas morbidades de caráter infeccioso, degenerativo ou proliferativo neoplásico, principalmente em gatos, que é a espécie mais suscetível a estas. Este trabalho descreve os achados anatomopatológicos de doenças fúngicas em gatos no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2015 pelo SPV-UFRGS. Foram revisados 1.274 protocolos de necropsia e encontrou-se 17 casos de micoses, correspondendo a 1,33% dos diagnósticos. Quanto às amostras provenientes de biopsias, foram verificados 2.615 protocolos e detectou-se 59 casos de doenças fúngicas, totalizando 2,25% dos diagnósticos, sendo revisados seus achados macroscópicos, microscópicos, colorações especiais e cultivo micológico. O principal diagnóstico encontrado foi esporotricose com 34 casos de biópsia e cinco de necropsia. Criptococose obteve seis diagnósticos na necropsia e 13 na biópsia. O pseudomicetoma dermatofítico possui cinco casos de biópsia e dois de necropsia. Histoplasmose obteve um diagnóstico na necropsia e dois na biópsia. Aspergilose teve dois casos diagnosticados na necropsia. Candidíase e feo-hifomicose obtiveram um caso cada. Em quatro ocasiões, não se pode identificar o agente envolvido na lesão e foram classificados conforme a alteração morfológica em: dermatite fúngica, enterite fúngica, rinite micótica e dermatite e osteomielite fúngica. Através deste trabalho, pode-se identificar que a esporotricose foi o diagnóstico de doença fúngica mais frequente em felinos, seguido da criptococose e pseudomicetoma dermatofítico.(AU)


Fungal disease is included in the differential diagnosis of a wide range of disorders in cats. At the Department of Veterinary Pathology of Federal University Federal of Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS), evaluation of records data of cats from January 2005 to December 2015 were examined. A total of 1,274 necropsy have been reviewed from which 17 cases of fungal infection was revealed accounting for 1.33%, and a total of 2,615 biopsies have been reviewed from which 59 cases of fungal infection was revealed, accounting for 2.25%. We retrospectively analyzed the gross and microscopic findings and the yield of additional diagnostic approaches employed. Sporotrichosis was the most common diagnosis with 34 cases found in biopsy and five necropsies. Cryptococcosis obtained six diagnoses through necropsy and 13 through biopsy. Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma was found in five cases in biopsy and two necropsies. Histoplasmosis diagnosis was obtained in one necropsy and two biopsies. Aspergillosis had two cases diagnosed in necropsy. Candidiase and phaeo-hyphomycosis accounted for one case each. In four occasions, it was not possible to identify the agent involved and the diagnosis was made regarding the morphological changes: fungal dermatitis, fungal enteritis, mycotic rhinitis, and fungal dermatitis and osteomyelitis. In this study, sporotrichosis could be identified as the most frequent diagnosis of fungal disease in cats, followed by cryptococcosis and dermatophytic pseudomycetoma.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cryptococcosis/veterinary , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/pathology , Mycoses/veterinary , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Aspergillosis/veterinary , Candidiasis/veterinary , Histoplasmosis/veterinary , Phaeohyphomycosis/veterinary
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 793-799, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triazoles/poisoning , Ecosystem , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Agriculture , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Fungi/physiology , Fungicides, Industrial , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(5): 549-552, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTEmpirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11-19) days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture). Because the patients' clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3-7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Echinocandins/therapeutic use , Febrile Neutropenia/drug therapy , Geotrichosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/diagnosis , Trichosporonosis/diagnosis , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology , Geotrichosis/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Rare Diseases , Severity of Illness Index , Trichosporonosis/microbiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 63-69, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748362

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Animal Migration , Chiroptera/genetics , Mycoses/transmission , Residence Characteristics , Conservation of Natural Resources , Chiroptera/microbiology , Demography , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Hibernation , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Mycoses/microbiology , Pennsylvania , Phylogeography
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 551-555, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749710

ABSTRACT

Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amphibians/microbiology , Carrier State/veterinary , Chytridiomycota/isolation & purification , Mycoses/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Brazil , Carrier State/microbiology , Chytridiomycota/genetics , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycoses/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Veterinary Medicine/methods
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 117-123, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748245

ABSTRACT

In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp. (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Candida/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Pichia/isolation & purification , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Trichosporon/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pichia/drug effects , Rhodotorula/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Trichosporon/drug effects
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(2): 221-224, abr. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-747525

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) by filamentous fungi are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, especially those with myeloid leukemia. In 2011 a protocol for the rapid diagnosis of IFD by filamentous fungi was implemented in Valparaiso Region. Objectives: To describe cases of IFD by filamentous fungi of the Valparaíso Region, since the implementation of rapid diagnosis and to compare results with the period 2004-2009. Materials and Method: Descriptive and prospective study conducted in two public hospitals: Carlos van Buren at Valparaiso and Gustavo Fricke at Viña del Mar. We selected patients with a diagnosis of filamentous fungal diseases considering the EORTC/MSG criteria. Demographics, underlying diseases, risk factors for EFI, galactomannan (GM) results in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, cultures and biopsies, treatment and overall lethality rates at 30 days were registered. Results: Eighteen patients were detected, 6 with proven and 12 probable IFD. Nine were diagnosed by GM, 8 by culture and two with both methods. In cases which the agent (9/18) was isolated from Rhizopus oryzae was the most frequent. When comparing overall lethality with the period 2004-2009, there was a reduction of 47.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusions: Compared to data previously published in the region, demographic and comorbidities of patients with IFD caused by filamentous fungi are similar, however the currently rapid diagnosis protocol has improved survival of patients and lethality experienced overall decrease.


Introducción: la enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) por hongos filamentosos es una causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, en especial en aquellos con leucemia mieloide. En el 2011 se implementó en la Región de Valparaíso un protocolo de diagnóstico rápido de la EFI por hongos filamentosos. Objetivos: describir los casos de EFI por hongos filamentosos de la Región de Valparaíso, desde la implementación del diagnóstico rápido y compararlos con el período 2004-2009. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo y prospectivo realizado en los hospitales públicos Carlos van Buren de Valparaíso y Gustavo Fricke de Viña del Mar. Se seleccionaron aquellos pacientes con diagnóstico de EFI por hongos filamentosos considerando los criterios EORTC/MSG. Se obtuvieron datos demográficos, enfermedad de base, factores de riesgo para EFI, resultados de galactomanano (GM), cultivos y biopsias, tratamiento y letalidad global a 30 días. Resultados: Se identificaron 18 pacientes, seis con EFI probadas y 12 probables. Nueve fueron diagnosticados con galactomanano, ocho con cultivos y uno con los dos métodos. En los casos en que se aisló el agente (9/18), Rhizopus oryzae fue el más frecuente. Al comparar la letalidad global con la del período 2004-2009, hubo una reducción de 47,8%, la cual fue estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones: En relación a lo publicado anteriormente en la región, se conservan las características demográficas y de co-morbilidad de los pacientes con EFI por hongos filamentosos; sin embargo, la introducción del nuevo protocolo de diagnóstico rápido se asoció a una disminución en la letalidad global.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/diagnosis , Chile , Immunocompromised Host , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/mortality , Prospective Studies , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [130] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870751

ABSTRACT

A aspergilose invasiva (AI) é a infecção por fungos filamentosos mais comum em pacientes imunodeprimidos, especialmente em transplantes de células tronco hematopoiético e neoplasias hematológicas. Objetivo: Geral: Estabelecer a comparação entre a dosagem de Galactomanana (GM), 1,3betaD-glucana (BDG) e dados tomográficos no diagnóstico da AI bem como seu papel no desfecho clínico. Específicos: 1. Verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade dos ensaios de Galactomanana e de 1,3betaD-glucana no soro e lavado broncoalveolar. 2. Comparar os resultados da galatomanana e 1,3betaD-glucana com os dados de imagem em pacientes com suspeita de AI. 3. Verificar a relação entre a evolução dos níveis de GM e desfecho clínico (óbito e sobrevida). Casuística, Materiais e Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo tipo coorte prospectiva, incluindo 398 sujeitos das diversas enfermarias de pacientes imunodeprimidos do HCFMUSP, sendo incluídos dois grupos de pacientes: 202(51%) AI e 198(49%) controles. Resultados: Dos casos, 18 (8,8%) tinham aspergilose provada, 28 (13,7%) provável e 158 possível (77,5%), de acordo a classificação de 2002 EORTC/MSG (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer / Mycoses Study Group). Os sujeitos submetidos ao TCTH eram 42,7%, com neoplasias hematológicas 37%, TOS 9% e outras doenças 11,3%. Os fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento da AI foram neutropenia, monocitopenia, uso de corticóide, presença de doença pelo citomegalovírus e rejeição ou doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro. O fator de risco associado à evolução para o óbito foi a presença de AI. Foram observados bons desempenhos para a GM tanto no soro como no LBA com LR menores que os registrados na literatura. O melhor desempenho da GM no soro para aspergilose+provável ocorreu com LR de 0,35 com sensibilidade-S, especificidade-E, valor preditivo positivo- VPP), valor preditivo negativo-VPN) e área sob a curva-ASC de 54,4%, 73,4%, 50,8%, 76,2% e 0,64, sendo os valores superiores...


Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has become the leading infectious cause of death in immunocompromised hosts, particularly in subjects under SCTH and hematologic neoplasias. Objectives: General: To compare the performance of GM and BG tests in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and computer tomography (CT) scans in the diagnosis of IA in immunocompromised hosts as well as their role in the patient outcome. Specific: 1. To analyse the sensitivity and specificity of Galactomannan and 1,3 betaD-glucan assays in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage. 2. To compare the results of Galactomannan and 1,3betaD-glucan assays with CT scans in patients with invasive aspergilosis. 3. To analyse the relationship between the evolution of galactomannan levels and clinical outcome (death or survival). Patients, Materials and Methods: From December 2008 to March 2013, a prospective cohort of 398 patients from several wards of immunocompromised patients of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, University of São Paulo was included classified in two groups of patients: 202 (51%) with invasive aspergillosis (IA) and 198 (49%) control patients. Results: Considering 202 cases, 18(8.8%) were subjects with proven, 28(13.7%) with probable aspergillosis and 156(77.5%), with possible aspergillosis, according to 2002 EORTC/MSG (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group) criteria. The most common underlying disease were: HSCT (42.7%), hematologic malignancy (37%), SOT (9%), or other diseases (11.3%). The main risk factors associated with IA were neutropenia, monocytopenia, patients under corticosterois, presence of CMV disease, and rejection or graft versus host disease. The risk factor associated with death was the presence of invasive aspergillosis. Good performances for serum and BAL GM were registered with lower cutoffs in the present workin relationship to those found in the literature. The best cutoff for proven + probable...


Subject(s)
Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , beta-Glucans , Febrile Neutropenia , Galactans/administration & dosage , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunocompromised Host , Immunologic Tests , Mycoses/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation
16.
Invest. clín ; 55(4): 297-310, dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783085

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la identificación de levaduras de interés clínico por los métodos automatizados Vitek YBC® y Microscan Walk Away RYID® con los métodos fenotípicos convencionales. Se utilizaron 193 aislamientos de levaduras provenientes de muestras clínicas y cinco cepas controles. Todas las levaduras fueron identificadas por los métodos automatizados antes nombrados y los métodos fenotípicos convencionales de asimilación de carbohidratos, visualización de la morfología microscópica con agar harina de maíz y el uso de agar cromogénico. Para evaluar las variables se utilizaron tablas de contingencia de 2×2, Chi cuadrado de Mc Nemar, el índice Kappa, y se calcularon los valores de concordancia, así como los errores mayores y menores de los métodos automatizados. Las levaduras se dividieron en dos grupos: 1) de aislamiento frecuente y 2) de aislamiento poco frecuente. Los sistemas Vitek YBC® y Microscan Walk Away RYID® fueron concordantes en un 88,4 y 85,9% respectivamente, cuando se compararon con los métodos fenotípicos convencionales. Aunque ambos sistemas automatizados se pueden utilizar para la identificación de levaduras, la presencia de errores mayores y menores indica la posibilidad de identificaciones incorrectas, por lo tanto, el operador de estos equipos debe utilizar paralelamente pruebas fenotípicas como la visualización de la morfología microscópica en agar harina de maíz y el agar cromogénico, sobre todo frente a levaduras de aislamiento poco frecuente. Los sistemas automatizados son una herramienta valiosa, sin embargo, la experiencia y el criterio del microbiólogo son una fortaleza importante para asegurar la calidad de los resultados.


The aim of this study was to compare the identification of clinically relevant yeasts by the Vitek YBC® and Microscan Walk Away RYID® automated methods with conventional phenotypic methods. One hundred and ninety three yeast strains isolated from clinical samples and five controls strains were used. All the yeasts were identified by the automated methods previously mentioned and conventional phenotypic methods such as carbohydrate assimilation, visualization of microscopic morphology on corn meal agar and the use of chromogenic agar. Variables were assessed by 2×2 contingency tables, McNemar’s Chi square, the Kappa index, and concordance values were calculated, as well as major and minor errors for the automated methods. Yeasts were divided into two groups: 1) frequent isolation and 2) rare isolation. The Vitek YBC® and Microscan Walk Away RYID® systems were concordant in 88.4 and 85.9% respectively, when compared to conventional phenotypic methods. Although both automated systems can be used for yeasts identification, the presence of major and minor errors indicates the possibility of misidentifications; therefore, the operator of this equipment must use in parallel, phenotypic tests such as visualization of microscopic morphology on corn meal agar and chromogenic agar, especially against infrequently isolated yeasts. Automated systems are a valuable tool; however, the expertise and judgment of the microbiologist are an important strength to ensure the quality of the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Yeasts/classification , Automation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mycoses/microbiology , Phenotype , Reproducibility of Results , Single-Blind Method
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1101-1103, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727044

ABSTRACT

Ear infections in cats are uncommon, especially involving yeasts. This report describes the first isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii, teleomorph of the Candida genus, in a case of feline otitis in Brazil. The identification and characterization of Stephanoascus ciferrii were confirmed by the Vitek2 System (BioMerieux ®).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Mycoses/veterinary , Otitis/veterinary , Saccharomycetales/isolation & purification , Brazil , Microscopy , Mycological Typing Techniques , Mycoses/microbiology , Otitis/microbiology , Saccharomycetales/cytology , Saccharomycetales/growth & development , Saccharomycetales/metabolism
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(2): 173-179, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708804

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis and timely treatment are critical in Invasive Fungal Disease (IFD) caused by filamentous fungi in immunocompromised patients. Clinical features of IFD are nonspecific; therefore, images (CT scan), direct microscopic examination, staining and cultures of clinical samples and galactomannan determination in blood or BAL, are substantial. This guideline provides recommendations on transport and sample processing, including stains and culture media requirements. It also describes clues for diagnosis of major genera and species of Aspergillus.


La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) por hongos filamentosos es causa de morbi-mortalidad en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, por lo que es fundamental el diagnostico precoz y su tratamiento oportuno. Las manifestaciones clínicas de las EFIs son inespecíficas, razón por la cual las imágenes (TAC), el examen microscópico directo, tinciones y cultivos de las muestras obtenidas y la determinación de galactomanano en sangre o en LBA tienen un rol fundamental. Esta guía tiene por objetivo recomendar las óptimas condiciones de transporte, procesamiento de las muestras, así como las tinciones y los medios de cultivos a utilizar. Se describen, además, claves para el diagnóstico de los principales géneros y especies de Aspergillus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Aspergillus/classification , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/microbiology , Specimen Handling/standards
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 74-78, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703169

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are more than 300,000 extractors using the babaçu coconut as a source of income in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins and Piauí, and this activity is associated with fungal infections. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of emergent fungi in the conjunctiva, nails and surface and subcutaneous injuries of female coconut breakers in Esperantinópolis, Maranhão. Additionally, soil samples and palm structures were collected. Methods: The obtained samples were cultured in Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar and chloramphenicol. The etiological agent was confirmed by a direct mycological exam and growth in culture. Results: In total, 150 domiciles were visited, and samples were collected from 80 patients. From the ground, the most frequently isolated fungus was Aspergillus niger (53. 8%). the most frequently detected fungus in babaçu coconut was Aspergillus niger (66.7%). Conjunctival fungal growth occurred in 76.3% of the women. The ocular fungal microbiota consisted of filamentous fungi (80.6%), and yeasts were present in 19.4% of cases. Onychomycosis was diagnosed in 44% (11/25) of the women. Conclusions: The identification of the genera Neosartorya, Rhizopus and Curvularia in onychomycoses shows that emergent filamentous fungi can be isolated. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Scedosporium sp. were the predominant genera found in the babaçu coconut. From ocular conjunctiva, Candida spp. were the most prevalent species isolated, and Fusarium sp. was present only in one woman. The nearly permanent exposure of coconut breakers to the external environment and to the soil is most likely the reason for the existence of a mycotic flora and fungal infections, varying according to the individual's practices and occupation. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/microbiology , Cocos/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1257-1266, Oct.-Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705284

ABSTRACT

Eleven quality control isolates (Candida albicans ATCC 64548, C. tropicalis ATCC 200956, C. glabrata ATCC 90030, C. lusitaniae ATCC 200951, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, C. dubliniensis ATCC 6330, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90012, C. gattii FIOCRUZ-CPF 60, and Trichosporon mucoides ATCC 204094) and 32 bloodstream isolates, including C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. pelliculosa (Pichia anomala), C. haemulonii, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr were identified at the species level by the VITEK 2 system. A set of clinical isolates (32 total) were used as challenge strains to evaluate the ability of the VITEK 2 system to determine the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts compared with the CLSI and EUCAST BMD reference standards. The VITEK 2 system correctly identified 100% of the challenge strains. The identification of yeast species and the evaluation of their susceptibility profiles were performed in an automated manner by the VITEK 2 system after approximately 15 h of growth for most species of Candida. The VITEK 2 system ensures that each test is performed in a standardized manner and provides quantitative MIC results that are reproducible and accurate when compared with the BMD reference methods. This system was able to determine the MICs of amphotericin B, flucytosine, voriconazole, and fluconazole in 15 h or less for the most common clinically relevant Candida species. In addition, the VITEK 2 system could reliably identify resistance to flucytosine, voriconazole, and fluconazole and exhibits excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the CLSI or EUCAST broth microdilution reference methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Mycoses/microbiology , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Yeasts/isolation & purification
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