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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202202978, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525840

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Brown-Séquard es el conjunto de signos y síntomas causado por hemisección medular de diversos orígenes. Puede generarse por múltiples causas; las traumáticas son las más frecuentes. Las causas menos frecuentes son patología inflamatoria, isquémica, tumoral o infecciosa. Se presenta un niño de 12 años, con instauración aguda y progresiva de un síndrome de hemisección medular derecho, con parálisis hipo/arrefléctica homolateral y afectación de sensibilidad termoalgésica contralateral. En la resonancia magnética de médula espinal, se observó compromiso inflamatorio en hemimédula derecha a nivel de segunda y tercera vértebras torácicas. Con diagnóstico de mielitis transversa idiopática, inició tratamiento con corticoide intravenoso a altas dosis con evolución clínica favorable y restitución de las funciones neurológicas.


Brown-Séquard syndrome refers to a set of signs and symptoms caused by hemisection of the spinal cord from various sources. It may have multiple causes; traumatic injuries are the most frequent ones. The less common causes include inflammation, ischemia, tumors, or infections. This report is about a 12-year-old boy with an acute and progressive course of right hemisection of the spinal cord, with ipsilateral hypo/areflexic paralysis and contralateral loss of thermalgesic sensation. The MRI of the spinal cord showed inflammation in the right side of the spinal cord at the level of the second and third thoracic vertebrae. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic transverse myelitis and was started on intravenous high-dose corticosteroids; he showed a favorable clinical course and recovered neurological functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Brown-Sequard Syndrome/diagnosis , Brown-Sequard Syndrome/etiology , Myelitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Inflammation/complications
2.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533510

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad asociada a anticuerpos contra la glicoproteína de mielina del oligodendrocito (MOGAD, por sus siglas en inglés) es una entidad clínica recientemente identificada. La frecuencia de presentación del MOGAD es desconocida, pero se considera baja con respecto a otras enfermedades inflamatorias desmielinizantes. Materiales y métodos: Revisión narrativa de la literatura. Resultados: Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta condición son heterogéneas e incluyen neuritis óptica, mielitis, desmielinización multifocal del sistema nervioso central y encefalitis cortical. Se han descrito algunos hallazgos radiológicos que aumentan la sospecha diagnóstica, como el realce perineural del nervio óptico, el signo de la H en el cordón espinal y la resolución de lesiones T2 con el tiempo. El diagnóstico se basa en la detección de inmunoglobulinas G específicas contra MOG, en el contexto clínico adecuado. El tratamiento consiste en manejo de los ataques agudos con dosis altas de corticoides y en algunos casos se deberá considerar la inmunosupresión crónica, considerar la inmunosupresión crónica en pacientes con recurrencia o con discapacidad severa residual tras el primer evento. Conclusiones: En esta revisión narrativa se resumen los aspectos clave con respecto a la fisiopatología, las manifestaciones, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la MOGAD.


Introduction: The disease associated with antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOGAD) is a recently identified clinical entity, with unknown frequency, but is considered low compared to other demyelinating inflammatory diseases. Materials And Methods: Narrative review. Results: The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous, ranging from optic neuritis or myelitis to multi-focal CNS demyelination or cortical encephalitis. There have been described characteristic MRI features that increase the diagnostic suspicion, such as perineural optic nerve enhancement, spinal cord H-sign or T2-lesion resolution over time. The diagnosis is based on the detection of specific G- immunoglobulins against MOG, in the suggestive clinical context. Acute treatment is based on high dose steroids and maintenance treatment is generally reserved for relapsing cases or patients with severe residual disability after the first attack. Conclusions: In this narrative review, fundamental aspects of pathophysiology, clinical and radiological manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MOGAD are discussed.


Subject(s)
Optic Neuritis , Oligodendrocyte-Myelin Glycoprotein , Myelitis , Serology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Immunosuppression Therapy
5.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 182-186, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1390627

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la neuritis óptica requiere un diagnóstico y manejo desafiante, se puede presentar de forma aislada o asociada con trastornos inflamatorios, siendo hasta 25% de la clínica de los síndromes desmielinizantes agudos pediátricos. La incidencia anual estimada de neuritis óptica pediátrica es 0.2 por 100.000 niños, con una preponderancia femenina y una edad media de presentación de 9 a 11 años. Presentación del caso: paciente de 12 años con cuadro agudo de diplopía, dolor ocular izquierdo sin antecedentes relevantes, en quien se encontró parálisis del VI par izquierdo y resonancia magnética cerebral (RMc) con realce en nervio óptico, iniciándose tratamiento con corticoterapia endovenosa, previo descarte de patologías infecciosas, con evolución satisfactoria. Conclusiones: en el espectro de la neuritis óptica es importante el conocimiento de sus diferentes etiologías, debido a que el tratamiento y pronóstico dependen de la causa.


Introduction: optic neuritis (ON) requires a challenging diagnosis and management. It can appear as an isolated condition or in association with inflammatory disorders, being 25% of the clinical manifestations of pediatric acute demyelinating syndromes. The estimated annual incidence of pediatric ON is of 0.2 per 100.000, with a female preponderance and a mean age at onset of 9 to 11 years. Case report: a 12-year-old patient presenting with acute diplopia and left ocular pain, referring no relevant past history. Left sixth nerve palsy and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing optic nerve enhancement, were evidenced. Therapy with intravenous corticosteroids was started, once an infectious etiology had been ruled out, with satisfactory progression. Conclusions: in the optic neuritis spectrum disorders, knowledge regarding other potential etiologies is key to treatment and prognosis, which depend on the cause.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Optic Neuritis , Myelitis , Antibodies , Multiple Sclerosis
6.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 125-129, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362195

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with spinal cord injury treated at POLEM ­ Associação de Apoio às Pessoas comLesão Medular (Association for Supporting People with Spinal Cord Injury). Method The population studied comprised 113 patients with spinal cord injury, of traumatic or nontraumatic etiology, and the data obtained were compared with those of other institutions. Results Of the 113 patients, 70.8% were male and 29.2% female. Traumatic lesions were responsible for 54% of the patients, and nontraumatic for 46%. Of the patients with traumatic injury, 90.2% were male, the main cause being traffic accidents. In nontraumatic lesions, women were the most affected, 51.9%; and dysraphism and myelitis were the main causes (31% and 21%, respectively). Conclusion The results showed an important incidence of spinal cord injury due to trauma,mainly affecting young individuals of productive age and low educational level, representing high economic and social costs. The data found in the present study are similar to those of other studies performed in our country.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Injuries/etiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Self-Help Devices , Brazil/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Spinal Dysraphism , Educational Status , Myelitis
7.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 33-38, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica, enfermedad inflamatoria, desmielinizante, afecta al sistema nervioso central, frecuente en poblaciones no caucásicas como la ecuatoriana. El retraso en su diagnóstico y tratamiento provoca discapacidad que se puede prevenir. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Población de 45 Historias Clínicas y una muestra de 41 de pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica atendidos en la Unidad de Neurología del Hospital de Especialida-des Carlos Andrade Marín, período enero 2005 a diciembre 2019. Se realizó análisis univarial. Se aplicó el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 25. RESULTADOS. El 76,0% (31; 41) fueron mujeres. Datos promedios: edad 48,9 años; diagnóstico definitivo demoró 4,12 años, desde el inicio de los síntomas; tiempo de diagnóstico fue 3,17 años; 3,7 brotes en total; el 87,8% (36; 41) con un fenotipo recurrente. La media de duración de la enfermedad fue de 6,8 años. En el 70,7% (29; 41), se identificaron anticuerpos anti-AQP4 en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, el 51,2% requirieron para la marcha apoyo uni o bilateral. El 43,9% (18; 41) debutó con neuritis óptica; el 31,7% (13; 41) presentaron mielitis como primer síntoma y el 24,4% (10; 41) la combinación de neuritis óptica y mielitis fueron los síntomas iniciales. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil clínico y epi-demiológico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro de neuromielitis óptica. Existió demora en el diagnóstico definitivo de los pacientes desde el inicio de los síntomas, lo que se tradujo en un aumento de la discapacidad.


INTRODUCTION. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, an inflammatory, demyelinating disease, affects the central nervous system, common in non-Caucasian popu-lations such as Ecuadorians. The delay in its diagnosis and treatment causes disabi-lity that can be prevented. OBJECTIVE. To determine the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Population of 45 Medical Records and a sample of 41 patients with a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disor-der seen at the Neurology Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, period from January 2005 to December 2019. Univariate analysis was performed. The statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 25 was used. RESULTS. 76,0% (31; 41) were women. Average data: age 48,9 years; definitive diagnosis took 4,12 years from the onset of symptoms; time to diagnosis was 3,17 years; 3,7 outbreaks in total; 87,8% (36; 41) with a recurrent phenotype. The average disease duration was 6,8 years. In 70,7% (29; 41), anti-AQP4 antibodies were identified in serum by direct immunofluorescence, 51,2% required uni- or bilateral su-pport for walking. Optic neuritis started in 43,9% (18; 41); 31,7% (13; 41) had myelitis as the first symptom and 24,4% (10; 41) the combination of optic neuritis and myelitis were the initial symptoms. CONCLUSION. The clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder was determined. There was delay in the conclusive diagnosis of patients from the beginning of symptoms, which resulted in increased disability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases , Optic Neuritis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Health of the Disabled , Myelitis , Nervous System , Sjogren's Syndrome , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Hashimoto Disease , Hypothyroidism
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 217-221, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361632

ABSTRACT

A sarcoidose caracteriza-se como doença granulomatosa que acomete diferentes órgãos humanos, especialmente os pulmões, sendo sua patogênese pouco conhecida. No caso em questão, a paciente iniciou com sintomas inespecíficos, como fraqueza, perda ponderal e tosse seca esporádica, sendo internada para extensão da propedêutica. Sugeriu-se como hipótese diagnóstica inicial possível quadro de mieloma múltiplo, tendo em vista a anemia, a disfunção renal, a hipercalcemia e, sobretudo, as lesões osteolíticas apresentadas pela paciente. Todavia, o diagnóstico de sarcoidose foi selado a partir das biópsias de medula óssea e de linfonodo inguinal, que evidenciaram mielite e linfadenite granulomatosas, respectivamente. A terapêutica instituída baseou-se na administração de corticosteroides e em medidas de redução da calcemia. A paciente recebeu alta, com melhora do quadro clínico, para acompanhamento ambulatorial da doença. Conclui-se que a sarcoidose não possui tratamento curativo, mas a terapêutica imunossupressora é eficaz no controle da progressão da enfermidade, fazendo com que o paciente tenha um prognóstico favorável.


Sarcoidosis is characterized as a granulomatous disease that affects different human organs, especially the lungs, and its pathogenesis is little known. In this case, the patient started with nonspecific symptoms, such as weakness, weight loss, and sporadic dry cough, being hospitalized for extension of the propaedeutics. The initial diagnostic hypothesis suggested was a possible case of multiple myeloma, based on the anemia, renal dysfunction, hypercalcemia and, above all, the osteolytic lesions presented by the patient. However, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made after bone marrow and inguinal lymph node biopsies that showed granulomatous myelitis and lymphadenitis, respectively. The therapy instituted was based on the administration of corticosteroids and on measures to reduce the level of calcium. The patient was discharged, with clinical improvement, for outpatient follow-up of the disease. It is concluded that sarcoidosis has no curative treatment, but immunosuppressive therapy is effective in controlling the progression of the disease, giving the patient a favorable prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Rare Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , X-Rays , Biopsy , Blood Protein Electrophoresis , Bone Marrow/pathology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia , Anemia , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Myelitis/diagnosis
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2735-2751, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828088

ABSTRACT

Xiaoxuming Decoction is an ancient classic herbal formula for the treatment of stroke. In ancient times, the connotation of stroke was very extensive, including facial neuritis, acute cerebral infarction, acute cerebral hemorrhage, sequelae of cerebral hemorrhage, unexplained weakness of limbs, cervical spondylosis, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, motor neuron disease, dermatomyositis, hypokalemic paralysis peripheral neuritis. It has been identified that: ①Xiaoxuming Decoction is very common in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, such as cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and other cerebrovascular diseases, facial neuritis, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, unexplained limb weakness, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, myasthenia gravis, and rheumatic and immune system diseases, such as dermatomyositis, and can not only alleviate symptoms, but also improve prognosis and the long-term survival rate. ②Sudden limb failure, facial paralysis, and hypoalgesia without heat syndrome are the key indications of Xiaoxuming Decoction. ③This is a special prescription for the treatment of acute facial neuritis, and can cure in one week in the combination with moxibustion. ④In the treatment of facial neuritis complicated with hypertension or acute cerebrovascular disease, Xiaoxuming Decoction generally has a certain antihypertensive effect, without any hypertensive effect, which reflected its two-way regulatory effect for blood pressure. ⑤In the treatment of unknown limb weakness, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, Xiaoxuming Decoction can rapidly alleviate the symptoms. ⑥This is the basic formula for multiple sclerosis and motor neuron disease. Long term use of Xiaoxuming Decoction can alleviate the symptom of limb weakness, reduce the occurrence of complications and delay the progress of the disease, but with a poor long-term prognosis. ⑦In the treatment of myasthenia gravis, Xiaoxuming Decoction can significantly improve muscle strength, and gradually help stop hormone reduction. After thymoma surgery, Xiaoxuming Decoction is also applicable to some patients with recurrent myasthenia gravis. ⑧Xiaoxuming Decoction also plays a role in the treatment of dermatomyositis and cervical spondylopathy. ⑨Raw ephedra is the monarch drug of Xiaoxuming Decoction, which is the key to the effect. The dosage starts with 6 g is titrated in a small dose and increases gradually. In addition, this formula is forbidden for those with red face, fast heart rate, high blood pressure, blocked stool, red tongue, yellow fur, wiry and rapid pulse or powerful pulse, and spout pulse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dermatomyositis , Facial Nerve Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Motor Neuron Disease , Multiple Sclerosis , Myasthenia Gravis , Myelitis , Radiculopathy , Spondylosis
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(6): 664-669, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046726

ABSTRACT

Desde la eliminación de la circulación del virus polio salvaje, disminuyeron los casos de parálisis fláccida aguda. Sin embargo, continúan ocurriendo casos asociados a otros enterovirus no polio y virus neurotropos. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 9 años con diagnóstico de meningitis y mielitis con compromiso motor en los miembros inferiores y vejiga neurogénica asociado a enterovirus, con resolución completa del cuadro neurológico posterior a la administración de gammaglobulina hiperinmune.


Since the wild poliovirus no longer circulates, the number of cases of acute flaccid paralysis decreased. However, cases related to non-polio enteroviruses and neurotrope viruses continue to occur. We present a nine-year-old patient with meningitis and myelitis with motor involvement in the lower limbs and neurogenic bladder associated with enterovirus, with complete resolution of the neurological symptoms following the administration of hyperimmune gammaglobulin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use , Enterovirus , Myelitis/diagnostic imaging , Paralysis
13.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 26(5): 286-291, sep.-oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1092939

ABSTRACT

Resumen La aorta shaggy se define como una degeneración ateromatosa agresiva y extensa de la aorta, cuya friabilidad predispone a ulceración y complicaciones embólicas, cursa con alto riesgo de embolia sistémica y no se conocen prevalencia ni incidencia en poblaciones de riesgo. La mayoría de casos publicados hacen referencia a complicaciones en procedimientos quirúrgicos. En la literatura no se hallaron reportes que asocien ateroembolia aórtica con obstrucción de la arteria de Adamkiewicz, cuyo diagnóstico no siempre es posible visualizando su oclusión por angiotomografía o por angiorresonancia, pues el defecto puede ser evanescente o puede existir compromiso distal con obstrucción microvascular, difícilmente aparente con arteriografía selectiva. Se presenta un caso de mielopatía isquémica embólica asociada a aorta shaggy con probable oclusión de la arteria de Adamkiewicz como responsable del deterioro neurológico agudo de la paciente, confirmado por resonancia magnética nuclear. Para caracterizar mejor esta enfermedad y para tener las estrategias diagnósticas y terapéuticas apropiadas en su abordaje oportuno, consideramos importante el reporte de casos similares aumentando así su sospecha diagnóstica.


Abstract A shaggy aorta is defined as an aggressive and extensive atheromatous degeneration of the aorta. Its friability predisposes to ulceration and embolic complications. It carries a high risk of systemic embolisms, and its prevalence and incidence in risk populations is unknown. The majority of published cases mention complications in surgical procedures. No reports have been found in the literature that associate aortic atheroembolism with obstruction of the artery of Adamkiewicz. Its diagnosis is not always possible by visualising its occlusion by computed tomography angiography or by magnetic resonance angiography, since the defects may be evanescent, or there may be a distal compromise with a microvascular obstruction, hardly apparent with selected angiography. A case is presented of embolic ischaemic myelitis associated with a shaggy aorta, with probable occlusion of the artery of Adamkiewicz being responsible form the acute neurological deterioration of the patient, confirmed by a nuclear magnetic resonance scan. In order to better describe the features of this disease and to have the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for its timely approach, it is considered important to report all similar cases, thus increasing its diagnostic suspicion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Myelitis , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Embolism
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e39-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765143

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Myelitis
15.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 279-282, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764175

ABSTRACT

Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord that is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilitic myelitis, which involves the spinal cord, is a very rare form of neurosyphilis seen in patients with syphilis. It requires differentiation from other diseases of the spinal cord, including idiopathic transverse myelitis and spinal cord infarction. Herein, we describe the presentation and diagnosis of syphilitic myelitis in a 43-year-old woman, based on a flip-flop sign and candle guttering appearance depicted in magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Brain , Diagnosis , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Neurosyphilis , Spinal Cord , Syphilis , Treponema pallidum
16.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 34(4): 250-256, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973532

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El entendimiento de las caracteristicas clínicas del espectro de trastornos de Neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD) con mielitis parcial y neuritis óptica típica ha ampliado el diagnóstico en casos atípicos. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 47 años que debuta con neuritis óptica atípica y mielitis parcial. Resonancia magnética cerebral y órbitas con realce de nervio óptico, quiasma óptico y tracto óptico derecho, de columna cervical y torácica contrastada con mielitis parcial a nivel C4 y T2. Fue tratada con bolos de metilprednisolona y plasmaferesis, con buena respuesta clínica. Se realizó anticuerpos aquaporina 4 sérico positivos.


SUMMARY The understanding of the clinical characteristics of the spectrum of optic neuromyelitis disorders (NMOSD) with partial myelitis and typical optic neuritis has extended the diagnosis in atypical cases. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who debuts with atypical optic neuritis and partial myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and orbits with optic nerve enhancement, optical chiasm and right optic tract, cervical and thoracic spine contrasted with partial myelitis at level C4 and T2. I t was treated with boluses of Methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis, with good clinical response. Aquaporina 4 Serum positive antibodies were performed.


Subject(s)
Neuromyelitis Optica , Aquaporin 4 , Myelitis , Myelitis, Transverse
17.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 34(2): 123-128, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-949621

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La degeneración combinada subaguda, es una patología de tipo neuropsiquiatrica asociada al déficit de vitamina B12. Se manifiesta clínicamente por ataxia sensorial, neuropatía periférica, disfunción cognitiva y neuropatía óptica; estas manifestaciones generalmente son atribuidas a la síntesis anormal de mielina. Puede tener una presentación clínica inespecífica, pero la medición de los niveles de vitamina B12, algunos metabolitos séricos, y el uso de métodos de neuroimagen, ayudan a confirmar el diagnóstico ante su sospecha. A continuación se describe el caso de un paciente con un cuadro de degeneración combinada subaguda, quien consultó por síntomas neurológicos e hipertensión severa, quien luego del tratamiento presentó mejoría de su sintomatologia neurológica y vascular.


SUMMARY Sub-acute combined degeneration is a neuropsychiatrical pathology associated with vitamin B12 deficiency It is clinically manifested through sensorial ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction and optical neuropathy; these manifestations are generally attributed to the abnormal synthesis of myelin. It can have a nonspecific clinical presentation but the measurement of the levels of vitamin B12, some serum metabolites, and the use of neuroimaging methods help to confirm the diagnose when suspected. The case of a patient with sub-acute combined degeneration is described below. The patient was attended because of neurological symptoms and severe hypertension, and after the treatment, the patient's neurological and vascular symptomatology improved.


Subject(s)
Cobamides , Homocysteine , Methylmalonic Acid , Myelitis
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 13-21, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777084

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence supports an important role of chemokines, produced by spinal cord astrocytes, in promoting central sensitization and chronic pain. In particular, CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) has been shown to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents in spinal outer lamina II (IIo) neurons. However, the exact molecular, synaptic, and cellular mechanisms by which CCL2 modulates central sensitization are still unclear. We found that spinal injection of the CCR2 antagonist RS504393 attenuated CCL2- and inflammation-induced hyperalgesia. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed CCR2 expression in excitatory vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 2-positive (VGLUT2) neurons. CCL2 increased NMDA-induced currents in CCR2/VGLUT2 neurons in lamina IIo; it also enhanced the synaptic NMDA currents evoked by dorsal root stimulation; and furthermore, it increased the total and synaptic NMDA currents in somatostatin-expressing excitatory neurons. Finally, intrathecal RS504393 reversed the long-term potentiation evoked in the spinal cord by C-fiber stimulation. Our findings suggest that CCL2 directly modulates synaptic plasticity in CCR2-expressing excitatory neurons in spinal lamina IIo, and this underlies the generation of central sensitization in pathological pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Benzoxazines , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agents , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists , Pharmacology , Freund's Adjuvant , Toxicity , Hyperalgesia , Metabolism , Long-Term Potentiation , Physiology , Luminescent Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Myelitis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Neurons , Pain Management , Somatostatin , Genetics , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Cell Biology , Spiro Compounds , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 359-365, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of different clinical presentations and the phenotypic spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Neurology Department of King Fahd Hospital of University Alkhobar in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data of 190 MS patients who fulfilled the McDonald criteria were retrieved from medical records and analyzed. RESULTS: The age at disease onset was 26.27±8.2 years (mean±SD) and disease duration was 6.38±5.10 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.6. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the most-frequent first clinical presentations. Sensory (73.1%), motor (61%), and visual (58.4%) symptoms were the most-frequent established clinical symptoms. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) was present in 75% of the cases. Supratentorial T2-weighted white-matter lesions and deep-gray-matter or juxtacortical lesions were the most-frequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions, comprising 28% and 23.7% of all MRI lesions observed in 93.6% and 79.4% of the cases, respectively. The scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale were within the range of 1.0–5.5 in 82.1% of the patients. There were 145 (76.3%) patients taking interferon β therapy. CONCLUSIONS: MS presenting in the hospital setting is more common in KSA than reported previously, and the number of diagnosed cases in increasing. It is therefore an emerging and disabling neurological illness in KSA with clinical characteristics not dissimilar to those in other middle eastern countries. A decrease in the frequency of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) indicates either that more new cases of RRMS are being diagnosed or that adequate treatments of RRMS are preventing the evolution to SPMS. Further larger and population-wide epidemiological and clinical studies with the long-term follow-up of MS patients are required to better assess the clinical spectrum of MS in KSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Interferons , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Multiple Sclerosis , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Myelitis , Neurology , Optic Neuritis , Phenotype , Prevalence , Saudi Arabia
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(4): 364-369, ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887348

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La asociación entre enterovirus D68 y cuadros de mielitis aguda fláccida ha sido descrita en Estados Unidos, en 2014. Desde ese año, se han reportado casos esporádicamente en Canadá y Europa. Se describe, en este estudio, una serie de casos con mielitis aguda fláccida en el Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" en Buenos Aires, Argentina, en 2016. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes internados desde el 1/04/2016 al 1/07/2016 con mielitis fláccida aguda con lesiones en la médula espinal que comprometieran la sustancia gris en la resonancia magnética nuclear. Se procesaron, para la búsqueda etiológica, muestras de secreciones nasofaríngeas, hisopados de materia fecal y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 10 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue 4 años (rango de 3 meses a 5 años). Ocho pacientes tuvieron una enfermedad febril autolimitada antes del inicio de los síntomas neurológicos. Los hallazgos neurológicos fueron debilidad fláccida de, al menos, un miembro, cervicoplejia (n= 2) y parálisis facial (n= 2). Todos los pacientes presentaron lesiones longitudinales en la médula espinal, con compromiso de sustancia gris, predominantemente, en el asta anterior. En todos los casos, se realizó una punción lumbar. En 7 pacientes, se observó pleocitosis. En cuatro niños, se identificó enterovirus D68 en secreciones nasofaríngeas y, en uno, se identificó el enterovirusD68 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Todos los pacientes persistieron con déficits neurológicos al momento del alta. Conclusiones: Se reporta el primer brote de mielitis aguda fláccida asociada a enterovirusD68 en Argentina. La vigilancia epidemiológica activa permitirá conocer la verdadera incidencia, epidemiología y etiología de esta enfermedad.


Introduction: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study. Samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, fecal swabs and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and processed to look for the causative agent. Results: Ten patients were included. The median age was 4 years old (range from 3 months to 5 years old). Eight patients had a self-limiting febrile condition before the onset of neurological symptoms. Neurological findings were flaccid weakness in, at least, one limb, cervical paralysis (n= 2) and facial paralysis (n= 2). All patients had longitudinal lesions in the spinal cord, with gray matter involvement, mainly in the anterior horn. In all cases, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) was performed. Pleocytosis was observed in 7 patients. In four children, enterovirus D68 was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions, and in one, it was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological deficit persisted in all patients at the time of discharge. Conclusions: The first outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis associated to enterovirus D68 is reported in Argentina. Active epidemiological surveillance will help to determine the true incidence, epidemiology and etiology of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Myelitis/epidemiology , Myelitis/virology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric , Myelitis/diagnosis , Myelitis/therapy
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