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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764175

ABSTRACT

Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord that is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilitic myelitis, which involves the spinal cord, is a very rare form of neurosyphilis seen in patients with syphilis. It requires differentiation from other diseases of the spinal cord, including idiopathic transverse myelitis and spinal cord infarction. Herein, we describe the presentation and diagnosis of syphilitic myelitis in a 43-year-old woman, based on a flip-flop sign and candle guttering appearance depicted in magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Neurosyphilis , Spinal Cord , Syphilis , Treponema pallidum
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761293

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of central nervous system characterized by relapsing attacks that target the optic nerves and spinal cord, as well as aquaporin-4 (AQP4) enriched periventricular brain regions. The area postrema (AP), located in the dorsal medulla, is the chemosensitive vomiting center and has high AQP-4 expression. The AP syndrome with unexplained hiccups, nausea, and vomiting is one of the core clinical characteristics in the NMOSD and maybe the first presenting symptom. We experienced a 25-year-old woman presented with intractable vomiting, dizziness and oscillopsia. Upbeat nystagmus detected on the bedside examination led to comprehensive neurological workups including magnetic resonance imaging, and she was diagnosed as the AP syndrome. Ten months later, she experienced a recurrence as a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and the diagnosis was finally compatible with NMOSD without AQP4-IgG. NMOSD, especially the AP syndrome, should be considered in any dizzy patient with intractable vomiting, and detailed neuro-otologic and neuro-ophthalmologic examinations are warranted for the correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Area Postrema , Autoimmune Diseases , Brain , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Female , Hiccup , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelitis, Transverse , Nausea , Neuromyelitis Optica , Nystagmus, Pathologic , Optic Nerve , Recurrence , Spinal Cord , Vomiting
3.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 34(4): 250-256, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973532

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El entendimiento de las caracteristicas clínicas del espectro de trastornos de Neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD) con mielitis parcial y neuritis óptica típica ha ampliado el diagnóstico en casos atípicos. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 47 años que debuta con neuritis óptica atípica y mielitis parcial. Resonancia magnética cerebral y órbitas con realce de nervio óptico, quiasma óptico y tracto óptico derecho, de columna cervical y torácica contrastada con mielitis parcial a nivel C4 y T2. Fue tratada con bolos de metilprednisolona y plasmaferesis, con buena respuesta clínica. Se realizó anticuerpos aquaporina 4 sérico positivos.


SUMMARY The understanding of the clinical characteristics of the spectrum of optic neuromyelitis disorders (NMOSD) with partial myelitis and typical optic neuritis has extended the diagnosis in atypical cases. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who debuts with atypical optic neuritis and partial myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and orbits with optic nerve enhancement, optical chiasm and right optic tract, cervical and thoracic spine contrasted with partial myelitis at level C4 and T2. I t was treated with boluses of Methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis, with good clinical response. Aquaporina 4 Serum positive antibodies were performed.


Subject(s)
Neuromyelitis Optica , Aquaporin 4 , Myelitis , Myelitis, Transverse
4.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(2): 139-142, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985686

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La mielitis transversa es una enfermedad inflamatoria y desmielinizante aguda o subaguda que se desarrolla en ausencia de afectación neurológica previa y compromete las vías sensitiva y motora además del control autónomo de la medula espinal. El cuadro se presenta como un dolor lumbar localizado, parestesias de inicio súbito en miembros inferiores con pérdida de la sensibilidad y paraparesia que puede evolucionar a paraplejia a lo que se suma comúnmente la disfunción vesical e intestinal; la coordinación y la sensibilidad de los miembros superiores también puede verse comprometida La incidencia de esta patología es baja, en los Estados Unidos oscila entre 14.000 casos nuevos en el año, de los cuales 33.000 persisten con secuelas. Afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños de todas las razas por igual, presentándose con más frecuencia entre los 10-19 años y los 30-39 años de edad. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye: síndrome de Guillain-Barré, compresión medular por tumores, mielopatías de origen vascular, esclerosis múltiple, neuromielitis óptica entre otros. El diagnóstico se basa en la presunción clínica, ante la cual debe solicitarse una resonancia magnética de manera urgente. El siguiente paso es realizar una punción lumbar para estudio en líquido cefalorraaquídeo (LCR) de células blancas, IgG y albúmina. El tratamiento de la mielitis transversa va encaminado hacia la resolución del proceso inflamatorio a nivel medular y la detención del avance del mismo.


Abstract Transverse myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory demyelinating disease that develops in the absence of previous neurological involvement and compromises the sensory and motor pathways in addition to the autonomous control of the spinal cord, the table is presented as a localized back pain, sudden paresthesia in lower limbs with loss of sensation and paraparesis which may progress to paraplegia commonly associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction; coordination and sensitivity of the upper limbs may also be compromised The incidence of this disease is low, in the United States ranges from 14,000 new cases per year of which 33,000 remain with sequelae. It affects men, women and children of all races equally predominantly between 10-19 years and 30-39 years of age. Differential diagnoses include Guillain- Barré syndrome, compression by spinal cord tumors, vascular myelopathy, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis óptica spectrum diseases amongst others. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion upon which an MRI should be requested urgently, the next step is to perform a lumbar puncture to study CSF white cell count, IgG and albumin. The treatment of transverse myelitis is aimed towards resolution of the inflammatory process in the spinal cord and avoiding neural deficit progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord Diseases , Demyelinating Diseases , Myelitis, Transverse , Spinal Cord Neoplasms , Spinal Puncture , Bereavement , Cell Count , Neuromyelitis Optica , Albumins , Absenteeism
5.
Medicina (Bogotá) ; 40(1(120)): 56-66, Ene-Mar, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-909815

ABSTRACT

En el presente artículo se presenta una revisión de los principales resultados del proyecto RAIZ, acrónimo de "Respuesta autoinmune en individuos infectados por el virus Zika", originado por dos eventos mutuamente relacionados, la asociación entre un virus emergente en el continente, el virus Zika (vZika), y una enfermedad neuromuscular poco prevalente en Colombia, el síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Después de la llegada del virus al país se observó que las zonas donde se reportaban brotes del virus, se documentaba un aumento en los casos de síndrome de Guillain-Barré y otros síndromes neurológicos, que generó un gran interés para entender los mecanismos subyacentes de la infección asociados con autoinmunidad neurológica. Mediante la realización del primer estudio de casos y controles de Zika, Guillain-Barré y otros síndromes neurológicos, se comprobó dicha asociación en Colombia. A lo largo del proyecto, además, se investigaron los principales mecanismos asociados, mediante estudios de seroprevalencia de otras infecciones, inmunológicos y genéticos


This article presents a review of the main results of the RAIZ project, acronym of "Autoimmune response in individuals infected with the Zika virus", originated by two mutually related events: the association between an emerging virus on the continent, the Zika virus (vZika), and a neuromuscular disease not very prevalent in Colombia, the Guillain-Barré syndrome. After the arrival of the virus in the country it was observed that in the areas of outbreaks an increase of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological syndromes was documented, which generated a great interest in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the infection associated with neurological autoimmunity. By conducting the first case-control study on Zika, Guillain-Barré and other neurological syndromes in Colombia, the association was verified. Throughout the project, the main associated mechanisms were addressed through analyses of other infections, immunological analysis and the first genome-wide association study


Subject(s)
Zika Virus , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e170538, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040584

ABSTRACT

This study showed that laboratory markers of recent infection by dengue, Zika or chikungunya arboviruses were detected in the biological samples of approximately one-third of patients with encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis or Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a surveillance programme in Piauí state, Brazil, between 2015-2016. Fever and myalgia had been associated with these cases. Since in non-tropical countries most infections or parainfectious diseases associated with the nervous system are attributed to herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and Campylobacter jejuni, the present findings indicate that in tropical countries, arboviruses may now play a more important role and reinforce the need for their surveillance and systematic investigation in the tropics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/immunology , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/immunology , Acute Disease , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/virology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/virology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766672

ABSTRACT

A 53-year-old male patient presented with quadriparesis during pulmonological hospitalization for the treatment of S. aureus associated necrotizing pneumonia. He was diagnosed with the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) positive longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis from pons to T3 level. Despite the administration of intravenous methylprednisolone and plasma exchange with appropriate antibiotics, the patient's neurological condition deteriorated and he died. Our case implies that an S. aureus associated necrotizing pneumonia can trigger an AQP4 positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and contribute to the devastating course.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Aquaporin 4 , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Plasma Exchange , Pneumonia , Pons , Quadriplegia
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammation of the optic nerve that can be recurrent, with unilateral or bilateral presentation. Diagnosing recurrent cases may be challenging. We aimed to compare patients with recurrent ON as their initial symptom according to their following final diagnoses: multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), or chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION). METHODS: The medical records of patients with initial recurrent ON who were followed at the Neuroimmunology Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were classified according to their final diagnosis into MS, NMOSD, or CRION, and the characteristics of these groups were compared to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with recurrent ON were included, and 6, 14, and 13 had final diagnoses of MS, NMOSD, and CRION, respectively. Most of the patients were female with unilateral and severe ON in their first episode, and the initial Visual Functional System Score (VFSS) was ≥5 in 63.6%, 85.7%, and 16.7% of the patients with CRION, NMOSD, and MS, respectively. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies were detected in 9 of 21 (42.8%) tested patients. Seven of nine (77.8%) seropositive NMOSD patients experienced transverse myelitis episodes during the follow-up period. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the VFSS at the last medical appointment predicted the final diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: A lower VFSS at the last medical appointment was predictive of MS. Patients with NMOSD and CRION have similar clinical characteristics, whereas NMOSD patients tend to have worse visual acuity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Aquaporin 4 , Demyelinating Diseases , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Medical Records , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Nerve , Optic Nerve Diseases , Optic Neuritis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224468

ABSTRACT

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a potential cause of hyponatremia of the central nervous system (CNS). Although SIADH has been reported to be associated with many other central nervous disorders, its association with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMO spectrum disorders are rare. NMO is a demyelinating disorder characterized by optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is the target antigen for a NMO autoantibody, is the predominant CNS water channel. However, some NMO patients show seronegative AQP4 antibody results. The spectrum of NMO has been changed, and new findings about the disease have been reported. Here, we report a case of seronegative NMO spectrum disorder associated with SIADH.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Demyelinating Diseases , Humans , Hyponatremia , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Water
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761229

ABSTRACT

Scrub typhus is an infective acute febrile disorder caused by the intracellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi. Neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, transverse myelitis, papilledema, and cranial nerve palsy. However, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with scrub typhus has been rarely reported. A 59-year-old man developed vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and imbalance following scrub typhus infection for eight days. Examination showed eschar at the axilla, decreased mentality, and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Video-oculography disclosed opsoclonus with an amplitude of 15°–20° and a frequency of 6–8 Hz. The serum antibody titers to Orientia tsutsugamushi were 1:5,120, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Neurological symptoms and signs completely improved by systemic steroid and antibiotics treatment. Various mechanisms including direct disseminating inflammation or indirect immune modulation may give rise to neurological complications following scrub typhus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Axilla , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Encephalitis , Humans , Inflammation , Leukocytosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningoencephalitis , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse , Nausea , Neurologic Manifestations , Ocular Motility Disorders , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Papilledema , Parasites , Scrub Typhus , Vertigo , Vomiting
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125189

ABSTRACT

A 19-year-old girl with immunosuppressive agents of tacrolimus and mychophenolate mofetil following liver transplantation due to glycogen storage disease visited hospital due to lower extremity motor weakness and blurred vision. Motor power was checked as grade II in the upper extremities and grade 0 in the lower extremities with absence of deep tendon reflexes and anal sphincter dysfunction. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed increased T2 high signal intensity lesions from C4 to L2 level of spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and the left optic nerve. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed pleocytosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected as 5,954 copies/mL in CSF whereas all other microbiologic tests were negative. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibody and oligoclonal band were not detected. Intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and 3-week course of acyclovir were administered. Although motor power in the upper extremities recovered to grade V, motor power in the lower extremities did not show any improvement. The EBV viral load was not detected in the follow-up CSF examination. EBV infection in an immune-compromised patient could cause extensive demyelinating diseases in central nervous system and result in severe disability.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Anal Canal , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cerebral Cortex , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Demyelinating Diseases , DNA , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycogen Storage Disease , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulins , Immunosuppressive Agents , Leukocytosis , Liver Transplantation , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone , Myelitis, Transverse , Optic Nerve , Reflex, Stretch , Spinal Cord , Tacrolimus , Upper Extremity , Viral Load , Young Adult
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167676

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of children with acute combined central and peripheral nervous system demyelination (CCPD); and compare with the children of isolated acute central or peripheral nervous system demyelination. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 145 children with acute demyelinating disease between 2010 and 2015 was undertaken in children with younger than 18 years old. Among these, 96 fulfilled criteria (clinical features and positive neuroimaging or electromyography/nerve conduction studies) for either acute central (group A, n=60, 62.5%) or peripheral (group B, n=30, 31.3%) nervous system demyelination, or a CCPD (group C, n=6, 6.3%). RESULTS: Significant differences among the groups (A vs B vs C) were evident for occurrence of disease between 2013-2015 (45.0% vs 43.3% vs 83.3%; P=0.024), admission to intensive care unit (8.3% vs 26.7% vs 50.0%; P=0.027), length of hospitalization (median, 9.7 vs 12.3 vs 48.3 days; P<0.001), treatment with steroids (88.3% vs 10.0 vs 100.0%; P=0.003), immunoglobulins (13.3% vs 100.0% vs 100.0%; P=0.002) and plasmapheresis (0.0% vs 3.3% vs 50.0%; P=0.037) and severe disability at discharge (3.3% vs 16.7% vs 33.3%; P=0.012). Children of group C showed good response to simultaneous use of immunoglobulin and high-dose corticosteroids and earlier try of plasmapheresis, however, two patients had moderate degree of neurological disability. CONCLUSION: Systemic studies using neuroimaing and electromyography/nerve conduction studies in all patients with demyelinating disease will be necessary to verify the combined or isolated disease, because CCPD might have the poorer outcome than isolated disease.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Child , Demyelinating Diseases , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Intensive Care Units , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Nervous System , Neuroimaging , Optic Neuritis , Peripheral Nervous System , Plasmapheresis , Retrospective Studies , Steroids
13.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 39(2): 99-102, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-953618

ABSTRACT

La mielitis transversa longitudinal extensa (MTLE) se define como lesión de la médula espinal con una extensión de tres o más cuerpos vertebrales. La presentación clínica dependerá del área anatómica afectada incluyendo paraparesia, paraplejia, parestesias o pérdida sensorial en diferentes modalidades, síntomas urinarios entre otros. Sus etiologías son diversas como ser procesos metabólicos, tóxicos, inflamatorios, infecciosos. En el presente artículo describimos tres interesantes casos clínicos de MTLE. El primero una paciente joven con neuromielitis óptica; el segundo una paciente con neurosarcoidosis y el último caso un paciente con mielopatía tóxica producida por abuso de óxido de nitrógeno. Todos ellos con presentación clínica y radiológica similar resaltando la importancia de la obtención de una buena historia clínica.


Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is defined as a spinal cord lesion that compromise 3 or more vertebral segments. Clinical presentation varies and will depend on the anatomical area that is compromised including paraparesis, paraplegia, paresthesia or sensory loss of any modalities and urinary or bowel symptoms. The etiologies are several such as toxic - metabolic abnormalities, inflammatory or infectious. Here in we present three interesting cases of LETM; the first case is a young patient with neuromyelitis optica; the second a case of neurosarcoidosis and the last case a toxic myelopathy secondary to nitrous oxide abuse. All of them with similarities in their clinical and radiologic presentation but with different etiologies highlighting the importance of obtaining a good medical history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Diseases/pathology , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 242-244, Aug. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841584

ABSTRACT

La mielitis transversa aguda se define como un trastorno neuroinmune adquirido de la medula espinal, que ocurre como consecuencia de un evento primario o relacionado a enfermedades inflamatorias autoinmunes, infecciosas o post infecciosas. Entre los agentes etiológicos infecciosos se destaca Borrelia spp., antropozoonosis transmitida por garrapatas de la familia ixodidae. Los pacientes con enfermedad de Lyme desarrollan, entre un 10 a un 15%, manifestaciones neurológicas. El espectro clínico suele ser variado e incierto. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas de la neuroborreliosis de Lyme, la mielitis transversa aguda ha sido reportada entre el 4 al 5%. Se describe el caso de un viajero proveniente de zona endémica de enfermedad de Lyme con encefalomielitis secundaria a infección aguda por Borrelia burgdorferi que presentó resolución completa de los síntomas luego de finalizar el tratamiento antibiótico.


Acute transverse myelitis is defined as an acquired neuroimmune disorder of the spinal cord, which occurs as a consequence of a primary event, or directly related to an autoimmune inflammatory disease, an infectious or post-infectious disease. Amongst infectious etiologies, Borrelia spp., a tick-bourne anthropozoonosis of the ixodidae family, prevails. Approximately 10 to 15% of patients with Lyme disease undergo neurologic manifestations, with an assorted and uncertain array of clinical syndromes. Transverse myelitis accounts for up to 5% of Lyme neuroborreliosis. We describe the case of a traveler from endemic zone for Lyme disease, with encephalomyelitis secondary to acute infection by Borrelia burgderfori, with complete resolution of symptoms after concluding adequate antibiotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lyme Neuroborreliosis/complications , Borrelia burgdorferi , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Travel , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Acute Disease , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnostic imaging
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632844

ABSTRACT

Transverse myelitis is an acute inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord resulting in motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Pregnancy increases risk of complications depending on the level of the spinal cord lesion. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is needed during prenatal period. This is a case of IB, a 32 year-old primigravid, a known case of Transverse Myelitis, initially seen at ten weeks age of gestation. Prenatal course was managed accordingly. She underwent primary cesarean section for arrest cervical dilatation at 39 weeks, with an unremarkable post-operative course. There is an increased risk of preventable complications such as recurrent urinary tract infections, anemia, development of decubitus ulcers, premature labor and delivery and autonomic dysreflexia. It is imperative that during the prenatal period, the patient be monitored closely and referred to specialists for further management of these simple to fatal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy , Myelitis, Transverse , Autonomic Dysreflexia , Patients , Urinary Tract Infections , Anemia , Pressure Ulcer , Ulcer
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65866

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can present with various symptoms including optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and area postrema syndrome. However, acute memory loss is an uncommon clinical presentation of NMOSD. We report a patient with NMO-IgG-antibody-positive NMOSD presenting with only acute memory loss, which suggested the presence of bilateral thalamic lesions. This case indicates that NMOSD needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute memory loss.


Subject(s)
Area Postrema , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Memory Disorders , Memory , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis
17.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : S161-S164, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118684

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis manifest as demyelinating diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system. Concurrency of these two disorders is rarely documented in literature. A 4-year-old girl presenting with cough, fever, and an impaired walking ability was admitted to hospital. She had no previous complaints in her medical history. A physical examination revealed lack of muscle strength of the lower extremities and deep tendon reflexes. MRI could not be carried out due to technical problems; therefore, both Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis were considered for the diagnosis. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was started as first line therapy. Because this treatment did not relieve the patient's symptoms, spinal MRI was carried out on the fourth day of admission and demyelinating areas were identified. Based on the new findings, the patient was diagnosed with acute transverse myelitis, and high dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy was started. Electromyography findings were consistent with acute polyneuropathy affecting both motor and sensory fibers. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with concurrency of Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. Interestingly, while concurrency of these 2 disorders is rare, this association has been demonstrated in various recent publications. Progress in diagnostic tests (magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological examination studies) has enabled clinicians to establish the right diagnosis. The possibility of concurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis should be considered if recovery takes longer than anticipated.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Child, Preschool , Cough , Demyelinating Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Electromyography , Female , Fever , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone , Muscle Strength , Myelitis, Transverse , Physical Examination , Polyneuropathies , Reflex, Stretch , Walking
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Generally, the brain had been considered healthy in NMO patients, though recent studies have demonstrated that T2-weighted abnormalities may be observed in various brain regions. Logically, NMO brain lesions are localized at sites of high aquaporin-4 expression. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old right-handed man with dysuria, weakness in the bilateral upper and lower limbs, and decreased sensation of the lower extremities, was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. The patient was gradually speaking less, was showing reduced interest in hobbies, and had undergone changes in character and behavior. An examination was performed using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB), which revealed that the profile of frontal lobe dysfunctions was prominent as compared with other cognitive domains. The patient was treated with prednisolone and azathioprine for about 1 year without recurrence, and showed prognostic improvement according to further SNSB testing. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are considered necessary in order to find the most effective medication regimen for improving cognitive functions in those accurately diagnosed with NMO, and to develop systematic treatment using even more diversified immune-related agents.


Subject(s)
Aged , Azathioprine , Brain , Dysuria , Frontal Lobe , Hobbies , Humans , Logic , Lower Extremity , Mass Screening , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Prednisolone , Recurrence , Sensation , Seoul
19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 334-337, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26683

ABSTRACT

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox (varicella) in children. VZV reactivation may lead to neurological complications, including transverse myelitis. However, transverse myelitis caused by VZV reactivation is rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein, we report a case of transverse myelitis caused by VZV in an immunocompetent older patient, and confirmed this case by polymerase chain reaction. A 79-year-old woman visited our service with complaints of weakness in the right lower leg, generalized vesicular eruptions, and throbbing pain in the right flank for ten days. Spine MRI showed transverse myelitis in the thoracic spine at level T4–T11. The patient was treated with acyclovir and her neurological functions improved, except for sensory impairment below level T10. For older patients, early and aggressive antiviral treatment against VZV may be necessary even though these patients are immunocompetent.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Aged , Chickenpox , Child , Female , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelitis, Transverse , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spine
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