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2.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 19-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The association between meat, fish, or fatty acid intake and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been investigated in a few studies, and the results were inconsistent. In addition, most studies are mainly based on the United States and European countries, in which the dietary patterns differ from that in Asia. Therefore, the risk of AML/MDS from meat, fish, or fatty acid intake in Asia requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AML/MDS incidence and meat, fish, or fatty acid intake using the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.@*METHODS@#The present study included 93,366 participants who were eligible for analysis and followed up from the 5-year survey date until December 2012. We estimated the impact of their intake on AML/MDS incidence using a Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The study participants were followed up for 1,345,002 person-years. During the follow-up period, we identified 67 AML and 49 MDS cases. An increased intake of processed red meat was significantly associated with the incidence of AML/MDS, with a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.57) for the highest versus lowest tertile and a Ptrend of 0.04. Meanwhile, the intake of other foods and fatty acids was not associated with AML/MDS.@*CONCLUSION@#In this Japanese population, processed red meat was associated with an increased incidence of AML/MDS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Public Health , Meat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/epidemiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 681-687, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985974

ABSTRACT

Objective: To exploring the clinical features of SF3B1-mutated myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts (MDS-EB) and analyzing the association between SF3B1 mutation, and efficacy and prognostic significance for patients with MDS-EB. Methods: This was a retrospective case series study. The clinical data of 266 patients with MDS-EB diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between April 2016 and November 2021 were analyzed. The observed indicators included blood routine counts, mutated genes, overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and leukemia-free survival (LFS). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to depict the survival curves. The Log-rank test method was equally used to compare survival across groups and performed the Cox proportional hazard regression model for prognostic analysis. Results: In 266 patients with MDS-EB, 166 (62.4%) were men, and the median age was 57 (17-81) years. Moreover, there were included 26 and 240 patients in the SF3B1-mutated and SF3B1 wild-type groups. Patients in the SF3B1-mutated group were older [median age 65 (51, 69) years vs. 56 (46, 66) years, P=0.033], had higher white blood cell (WBC) counts [3.08 (2.35, 4.78) × 109/L vs. 2.13 (1.40, 3.77) × 109/L], platelet (PLT) counts [122.5 (50.5, 215.0) ×109/L vs. 49.0 (24.3, 100.8) × 109/L], absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) [1.83 (1.01, 2.88) × 109/L vs. 0.80 (0.41, 1.99) × 109/L]and occurrence of DNMT3A mutation [23.1% (6/26) vs. 6.7% (16/240)] (all P<0.05). The ORR were similar in both groups after 2 and 4 cycles of therapy (P=0.348, P=1.000). Moreover, the LFS (P=0.218), PFS (P=0.179) and OS (P=0.188) were similar across the groups. Univariate Cox analysis revealed that SF3B1 mutation did not affect the prognosis of patients with MDS-EB (OS: P=0.193; PFS: P=0.184). Conclusions: Patients with SF3B1 mutation were older, with greater WBC, PLT, and ANC, and SF3B1 mutation easily co-occurred with DNMT3A mutation. From this model, there were no significant differences in efficacy and survival of MDS-EB with or without SF3B1 mutation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Leukocytes , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , RNA Splicing Factors/genetics
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 907-910, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982149

ABSTRACT

With the development of molecular biology techniques, the people's understanding of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has greatly improved, a heterogeneous hematopoietic pre-malignant disorder of the stem cells. Gene mutations include RNA splicing, DNA methylation, chromosome modification, transcription factors, signal transduction kinases, RAS pathways, cohesion complexes, DNA repair, etc. Gene mutation is the determinant of diagnostic typing and therapeutic efficacy of MDS. The new concepts of CHIP and ICUS have aroused people's attention to the elderly patients with clonal hematopoiesis and non-clonal cytopenia but without MDS characteristics, who have the possibility of high-risk transformation to MDS and leukemia. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of MDS, the significance of gene mutations, CHIP and ICUS in the diagnosis and prognosis of MDS were reviewed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , DNA Methylation , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Prognosis , Signal Transduction
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 522-531, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with decitabine (Dec)-conditioning regimen in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS transformed acute myeloid leukemia (MDS-AML).@*METHODS@#The characteristics and efficacy data of 93 patients with MDS and MDS-AML who received allo-HSCT in our center from April 2013 to November 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered by myeloablative conditioning regimen containing Dec (25 mg/m2 /d×3 d).@*RESULTS@#Among the 93 patients, 63 males and 30 females, were diagnosed as MDS(n =77), MDS-AML(n =16). The incidence of I/II grade regimen-related toxicity (RRT) was 39.8%, and III grade RRT was only found in 1 patient (1%). Neutrophil engraftment was successful in 91 (97.8%) patients after a median neutrophil engraftment time of 14 (9-27) days; Successful platelet engraftment was achieved in 87 (93.5%) patients, with a median engraftment time of 18 (9-290) days. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease(aGVHD) and grade III-IV aGVHD was 44.2% and 16.2%, respectively. The incidence of chronic graft versus host disease(cGVHD) and moderate-to-severe cGVHD was 59.5% and 37.1%, respectively. Of the 93 patients, 54 (58%) developed posttransplant infections, among which lung infection (32.3%) and bloodstream infection (12.9%) were the most common. The median follow-up after transplantation was 45 (0.1-108) months. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate, disease-free survival (DFS) rate, treatment-related mortality, and cumulative incidence of relapse were 72.7%, 68.4%, 25.1%, and 6.5%, respectively. And the 1-year graft-versus-host disease/relapse-free survival rate was 49.3%. The patients in different group of relative high-risk prognostic scoring or low-risk prognostic scoring, with or without poor-risk mutation(s), with mutations number ≥3 or <3 had similar 5-year OS rate (more than 70%). Multivariate analysis showed that the incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD was the independent risk factor affecting OS(P =0.008)and DFS (P =0.019).@*CONCLUSION@#Allo-HSCT with Dec-conditioning regimen is feasible and effective in the treatment of patients with MDS and MDS-AML, especially those in high prognostic risk and with poor-risk mutations.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Decitabine , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Transplantation Conditioning/adverse effects , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Recurrence
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 469-475, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution of bone marrow lymphocyte subsets in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS),the proportion of activated T cells with immunophenotype CD3+HLA-DR+ in the lymphocytes and its clinical significance, and to understand the effects of different types of MDS, different immunophenotypes, and different expression levels of WT1 on the proportion of lymphocyte subsets and activated T cells.@*METHODS@#The immunophenotypes of 96 MDS patients, the subsets of bone marrow lymphocytes and activated T cells were detected by flow cytometry. The relative expression of WT1 was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and the first induced remission rate (CR1) was calculated, the differences of lymphocyte subsets and activated T cells in MDS patients with different immunophenotype, different WT1 expression, and different course of disease were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The percentage of CD4+T lymphocyte in MDS-EB-2, IPSS high-risk, CD34+ cells >10%, and patients with CD34+CD7+ cell population and WT1 gene overexpression at intial diagnosis decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the percentage of NK cells and activated T cells increased significantly (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the ratio of B lymphocytes. Compared with the normal control group, the percentage of NK cells and activated T cells in IPSS-intermediate-2 group was significantly higher(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the percentage of CD3+T, CD4+T lymphocytes. The percentage of CD4+T cells in patients with complete remission after the first chemotherapy was significantly higher than in patients with incomplete remission(P<0.05), and the percentage of NK cells and activated T cells was significantly lower than that in patients with incomplete remission (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In MDS patients, the proportion of CD3+T and CD4+T lymphocytes decreased, and the proportion of activated T cells increased, indicating that the differentiation type of MDS is more primitive and the prognosis is worse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Bone Marrow , B-Lymphocytes , Killer Cells, Natural , Flow Cytometry , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 338-343, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy, prognosis and safety of decitabine combined with modified EIAG regimen in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 44 patients with relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk MDS admitted to our hospital from January 2017 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were equally divided into D-EIAG group (decitabine combined with EIAG regimen) and D-CAG group (decitabine combined with CAG regimen) according to clinical treatment regimen. The complete response (CR), CR with incomplete hematologic recover (CRi), morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS), partial response (PR), overall response rate (ORR), modified composite complete response (mCRc), overall survival (OS) time, 1-year OS rate, myelosuppression and adverse reactions between the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#In D-EIAG group, 16 patients (72.7%) achieved mCRc (CR+CRi+MLFS), 3 patients (13.6%) achieved PR, and ORR (mCRc+PR) was 86.4%. In D-CAG group, 9 patients (40.9%) achieved mCRc, 6 patients (27.3%) achieved PR, and ORR was 68.2%. Difference was observed in mCRc rate between the two groups (P=0.035), but not in ORR (P>0.05). The median OS time of D-EIAG group and D-CAG group was 20 (2-38) months and 16 (3-32) months, and 1-year OS rate was 72.7% and 59.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference in 1-year OS rate between the two groups (P>0.05). After induction chemotherapy, the median time for absolute neutrophil count recovery to 0.5×109/L in D-EIAG group and D-CAG group was 14 (10-27) d and 12 (10-26) d, for platelet count recovery to 20×109/L was 15 (11-28) d and 14 (11-24)d, the median red blood cell suspension transfusion volume was 8 (6-12) U and 6 (6-12) U, and the median apheresis platelet transfusion volume was 4 (2-8) U and 3 (2-6) U, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in comparison of the above indicators between the two groups (P>0.05). The hematological adverse reactions of patients were mainly myelosuppression. Grade III-IV hematological adverse events occurred in both groups (100%), with no increase in the incidence of non-hematological toxicities such as gastrointestinal reactions or liver function damage.@*CONCLUSION@#Decitabine combined with EIAG regimen in the treatment of relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk MDS can improve remission rate, provide an opportunity for subsequent therapies, and have no increase in adverse reactions compared with D-CAG regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Cytarabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Bone Marrow Diseases/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 472-478, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984646

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the early effect and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with a 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) /myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) . Methods: From April 2021 to May 2022, 31 AML/MDS patients who received allo-HSCT with a 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen were analyzed. Results: AML (n=10), MDS-AML (n=6), CMML-AML (n=1), and MDS (n=14) were identified in 31 patients, 16 males, and 15 females, with a median age of 41 (20-55) yr. Neutrophils and platelets were successfully implanted in 31 patients (100%), with a median implantation duration of 12 (9-30) and 14 (9-42) days, respectively. During the preconditioning period, 16 patients (51.6%) developed oral mucositis, with 15 cases of Ⅰ/Ⅱ grade (48.4%) and one case of Ⅲ grade (3.2%). After transplantation, 13 patients (41.9%) developed CMV viremia, six patients (19.4%) developed hemorrhagic cystitis, and four patients (12.9%) developed a local infection. The median time of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) following transplantation was 33 (12-111) days. The cumulative incidence of aGVHD and Ⅲ/Ⅳ grade aGVHD was 41.9% (95% CI 26.9%-61.0%) and 22.9% (95% CI 13.5%-47.5%), respectively. There was no severe cGVHD, and mild and moderate chronic GVHD (cGVHD) incidence was 23.5% (95% CI 12.1%-43.6%). As of November 30, 2022, only one of the 31 patients had relapsed, with a 1-yr cumulative relapse rate (CIR) of 3.2% (95% CI 0.5%-20.7%). There was only one relapse patient death and no non-relapse deaths. The 1-yr overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 92.9% (95% CI 80.3%-100%) and 96.8% (95% CI 90.8%-100%), respectively. Conclusions: A 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT reduced relapse and was safe and feasible in treating AML/MDS.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Decitabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Recurrence , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Transplantation Conditioning/adverse effects , Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 373-379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984632

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the molecular features of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) . Methods: According to 2022 World Health Organization (WHO 2022) classification, 113 CMML patients and 840 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients from March 2016 to October 2021 were reclassified, and the clinical and molecular features of CMML patients were analyzed. Results: Among 113 CMML patients, 23 (20.4%) were re-diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including 18 AML with NPM1 mutation, 3 AML with KMT2A rearrangement, and 2 AML with MECOM rearrangement. The remaining 90 patients met the WHO 2022 CMML criteria. In addition, 19 of 840 (2.3%) MDS patients met the WHO 2022 CMML criteria. At least one gene mutation was detected in 99% of CMML patients, and the median number of mutations was 4. The genes with mutation frequency ≥ 10% were: ASXL1 (48%), NRAS (34%), RUNX1 (33%), TET2 (28%), U2AF1 (23%), SRSF2 (21.1%), SETBP1 (20%), KRAS (17%), CBL (15.6%) and DNMT3A (11%). Paired analysis showed that SRSF2 was frequently co-mutated with ASXL1 (OR=4.129, 95% CI 1.481-11.510, Q=0.007) and TET2 (OR=5.276, 95% CI 1.979-14.065, Q=0.001). SRSF2 and TET2 frequently occurred in elderly (≥60 years) patients with myeloproliferative CMML (MP-CMML). U2AF1 mutations were often mutually exclusive with TET2 (OR=0.174, 95% CI 0.038-0.791, Q=0.024), and were common in younger (<60 years) patients with myelodysplastic CMML (MD-CMML). Compared with patients with absolute monocyte count (AMoC) ≥1×10(9)/L and <1×10(9)/L, the former had a higher median age of onset (60 years old vs 47 years old, P<0.001), white blood cell count (15.9×10(9)/L vs 4.4×10(9)/L, P<0.001), proportion of monocytes (21.5% vs 15%, P=0.001), and hemoglobin level (86 g/L vs 74 g/L, P=0.014). TET2 mutations (P=0.021) and SRSF2 mutations (P=0.011) were more common in patients with AMoC≥1×10(9)/L, whereas U2AF1 mutations (P<0.001) were more common in patients with AMoC<1×10(9)/L. There was no significant difference in the frequency of other gene mutations between the two groups. Conclusion: According to WHO 2022 classification, nearly 20% of CMML patients had AMoC<1×10(9)/L at the time of diagnosis, and MD-CMML and MP-CMML had different molecular features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic/genetics , Prognosis , Splicing Factor U2AF/genetics , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 257-262, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for the verification of the clonalities of non-clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (n-CCA) identified by conventional chromosome banding analysis (CBA) in patients with Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#Clinical data and results of karyotyping and FISH assays for 91 patients of MDS with n-CCA identified by CBA were retrospectively analyzed. In total 94 non-clonal +8, 5q-, -7/7q- or 20q- were detected by CBA, among which 43 (45.7%) were verified to be clonal abnormalities by FISH.@*RESULTS@#The detection rates for +8, 5q-, -7/7q- and 20q- by FISH were 47.6% (30/63), 25% (2/8), 41.7% (5/12), 40% (2/5) and 66.7% (4/6), respectively, with the positive cells accounting for 4% to 90% of all counted cells, with a median value of 7%. The 91 patients were divided into three groups including ≥ 20, 10 ~< 20 and < 10 based on the numbers of metaphase cells in CBA, and the detection rates by FISH for the three groups were 43.7% (31/71), 33.3% (3/9) and 63.6% (7/11), respectively, which showed no statistically difference (P > 0.05). Continuous CBA and FISH surveys were conducted for 26 patients who received supportive treatment, and the results revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of FISH-verified positive abnormalities had persisted, whereas 92.9% (13/14) of the n-CCA verified as negative by FISH was transient.@*CONCLUSION@#Nearly half of the CBA identified n-CCA have been verified as clonal aberrations by FISH, and the FISH detection rate showed no correlation with the number of metaphase cells. FISH test is strongly recommended for verifying the clonalities of n-CCA detected by CBA, and continuous cytogenetic survey of the patients with MDS is necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics
11.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 147-153, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER) is an essential mechanism for single-strand breaks (SSB) repair while xeroderma pigmentosum family (XPA to XPG) is the most important system to NER. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous hematological cancer characterized by cytopenias and risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation. MDS pathogenesis has been associated with problems of DNA repair system. This report aimed to evaluate NER polymorphisms (XPA rs1800975, XPC rs2228000, XPD rs1799793 and XPF rs1800067) in 269 MDS patients of different populations in Latin America (173 Brazilian and 96 Argentinean). Genotypes were identified in DNA samples by RT-qPCR using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. Regarding rs1799793 polymorphism of XPD for Brazilian population, the heterozygous genotype AG presented a high odds ratio (OR) to have a normal karyotype (p= 0.012, OR=3.000) and the mutant homozygous genotype AA was associated to a high OR of AML transformation (p= 0.034, OR=7.4). In Argentine population, the homozygous mutant AA genotype of rs1800975 polymorphism of XPA was associated with an increased odd to have hemoglobin levels below 8g/dL (p= 0.013, OR=10.000) while for the rs1799793 polymorphism of XPD, the heterozygous AG genotype decreased OR to be classified as good (p< 0.001, OR=9.05 × 10−10), and intermediate (p< 0.001, OR=3.08 × 10−10), according to Revised-International Prognostic Scoring System. Regarding the rs1800067 polymorphisms of XPF, the homozygous mutant AA genotype showed a decreased OR to be classified as good (p< 0.001, OR=4.03 × 10−13) and intermediate (p< 0.001, OR=2.54 × 10−13). Our report reinforces the heterogeneity of MDS and demonstrates the importance of ethnic differences and regional influences in pathogenesis and prognosis of MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Polymorphism, Genetic , DNA Damage , DNA Repair
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420051

ABSTRACT

Los Síndromes Mielodisplásicos (SMD) son un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades mieloides. Esta heterogeneidad en la presentación clínica complejiza el diagnóstico requiriendo diversos estudios complementarios. El tratamiento debe ser individualizado y adaptado al riesgo, desde terapias de soporte hasta intervenciones de alto costo. Para conocer la accesibilidad a las herramientas diagnóstico y terapéuticas se realizó una encuesta online dirigida a los hematólogos que asisten pacientes con SMD en Uruguay en 2016 y 2019. Las encuestas fueron respondidas por 32.5% y 26.6% de los miembros de la Sociedad de Hematología del Uruguay. Más del 90% tienen acceso a estudios histológicos, citogenéticos, FISH y citometría de flujo. La posibilidad de realizar paneles de secuenciación masiva se encuentra restringida a menos de 10% derivando la muestra al exterior, siendo mayor en 2019 en comparación a 2016. Los sistemas de estratificación de riesgo más utilizados son el sistema internacional de puntuación de riesgo (IPSS) y su versión revisada (IPSS-R). La disponibilidad de tratamientos de soporte (transfusiones, eritropoyetina y G-CSF), de azacitidina y del trasplante alogénico de precursores hematopoyéticos es amplia. Existió un aumento en indicación de azacitidina en 2019 con respecto a 2016. Sin embargo, el acceso a decitabina, lenalidomida y fármacos quelantes de hierro es escaso y no se cuenta con ensayos clínicos donde incluir pacientes que fallan o no responden a los tratamientos convencionales. La presente encuesta, realizada en dos períodos, describe la realidad y su evolución en nuestro país en cuanto a accesibilidad a herramientas diagnósticas y terapéuticas extrapolables a otras patologías oncohematológicas. Los datos recabados permitirán plantear estrategias tendientes a mejorar el abordaje diagnóstico-terapéutico de los pacientes con SMD en Uruguay.


Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) constitutes an heterogenous group of hematological malignancies. Reaching an accurate diagnosis, represents in an important number of cases, a major challenge that requires different diagnostic tools. In order to acknowledge the scope of access to those tools in our country, we performed a survey addressed to Uruguayan hematologists who care for MDS patients in their clinical practice. The survey was carried out in 2016 and 2019 among Uruguayan Hematology Society members. Response rate was 32.5% and 26.6% respectively. Access to bone marrow biopsy, cytogenetics, FISH and flow cytometry was accessible to more than 90% of physicians. Less than 10% of respondents were able to request next generation sequencing (NGS) studies and in that case, they have to send them abroad. IPSS and R-IPSS were the most frequently used risk scores. Support treatment such as growth factors and transfusions are widely accessible. Azacytidine and allogenic transplant are available as well. However, access to decitabine, lenalidomide and iron chelating drugs is scarce and there are no clinical trials to include patients who fail or do not respond to conventional treatments. This survey, carried out in two periods, describes the reality and its evolution in our country in terms of accessibility to diagnostic and therapeutic tools that can be extrapolated to other oncohematological pathologies. We were able to get to know our country reality regarding diagnostic and therapeutic tools for MDS patients. This, would represent an important input in order to design health strategies aiming to improve clinical care for our patients.


As Síndromes Mielodisplásicas (SMD) são um grupo heterogêneo de doenças mielóides. Essa heterogeneidade na apresentação clínica torna o diagnóstico mais complexo, exigindo vários estudos complementares. O tratamento deve ser individualizado e adaptado ao risco, desde terapias de suporte até intervenções de alto custo. Para conhecer a acessibilidade de ferramentas diagnósticas e terapêuticas, foi realizada uma pesquisa online dirigida aos hematologistas que atendem pacientes com SMD no Uruguai em 2016 e 2019. As pesquisas foram respondidas por 32,5% e 26,6% dos membros da Sociedad de Hematologia do Uruguai. Mais de 90% têm acesso a estudos histológicos, citogenéticos, FISH e citometria de fluxo. A possibilidade de realização de painéis de sequenciamento massivo está restrita a menos de 10% provenientes da amostra no exterior, sendo maior em 2019 em relação a 2016. Os sistemas de estratificação de risco mais utilizados são o sistema internacional de pontuação de risco (IPSS) e sua versão revisada (IPSS -R). Tratamentos de suporte (transfusões, eritropoietina e G-CSF), azacitidina e transplante alogênico de células-tronco hematopoiéticas estão amplamente disponíveis. Houve aumento da indicação de azacitidina em 2019 em relação a 2016. No entanto, o acesso a decitabina, lenalidomida e quelantes de ferro é escasso e não há ensaios clínicos para incluir pacientes que falham ou não respondem aos tratamentos convencionais. Este inquérito, realizado em dois períodos, descreve a realidade e a sua evolução no nosso país em termos de acessibilidade a instrumentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos que podem ser extrapolados para outras patologias onco-hematológicas. Os dados coletados permitirão propor estratégias destinadas a melhorar a abordagem diagnóstico-terapêutica de pacientes com SMD no Uruguai.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Therapeutics/statistics & numerical data , Uruguay , Health Care Surveys , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/statistics & numerical data
13.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(3): 328-331, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404985

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the most critical complications in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is the progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The dynamics of clonal evolution in MDS and how acquired mutations can be used as biomarkers to track disease progression remains under investigation. Objective and method: Herein, we investigated the frequency of common myeloid clonal mutations (FLT3, NPM1, JAK2, IDH1 and IDH2) in 88 patients with MDS and 35 AML patients with myelodysplasia-related changes, followed at a single reference center in northeastern Brazil. Results: Overall, 9/88 (10%) ofthe MDSpatients and 9/35 (26%) of the secondary AML patients had at least one mutation. While the JAK2 V617F mutation was the most frequent in the MDS patients, the FLT3, NPM1, IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were more frequently found in the secondary AML group. Furthermore, there was a higher frequency of FLT3, NPM1, IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in MDS patients classified as high-risk subtypes than in those of lower risk. Conclusion: Despite the limited sample size, our data suggest that mutations in FLT3, NPM1, IDH1 and IDH2 genes could be potential biomarkers to detect early disease progression in MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Clonal Evolution
14.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(3): 332-335, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) represents a group of hematopoietic neoplasms that is characterized by clonal hematopoiesis, cytopenia and abnormal cellular maturation. Red cell distribution width (RDW) refers to the variation degree of erythrocyte size and it is a reflection of anisocytosis. Higher values have been linked to adverse outcomes, such as increased mortality, vascular events, kidney and liver disease and demonstrated to harbor poor prognosis in solid and hematological malignancies. The RDW value can be used as a contributing parameter for MDS diagnosis, as well as its prognosis. In this study, we essentially aimed to demonstrate the correlation between the RDW and MDS prognostic indexes. Materials and methods: Ninety-four MDS patients at the Aydın Adnan Menderes University Hematology Division were included in the study. The correlations between the RDW and laboratory values (either lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, globulin or ferritin) and the RDW prognostic scoring indexes (IPSS, WPSS, IPSS-R and LR-PSS) were investigated. The PASW for Windows, version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), was used for statistical assessment. A p-value below 0.05 was the cut-off for the statistical significance. Results: The mean age of all the patients was 73 ±10 years. Patients were observed for 41.88 ± 25 months. The mean RDW value for all cases was 15.5 ± 2.39. We found a statistically significant difference of survival between RDW values below and above 15.5% (p = 0.016). A significant difference was also observed according to the prognostic scoring indexes (see below). Conclusion: An increase in RDW is probably related to dysplasia in the MDS and this constitutes a possible explanation for the poor outcome. Prognostic indexes might incorporate the RDW as a parameter in the future.


Subject(s)
Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Prognosis , Erythrocytes
16.
Brasília; CONITEC; fev. 2022.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1377737

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A SMD é uma neoplasia hematológica que inclui um grupo heterogêneo de doenças clonais da células-tronco hematopoiéticas (CTH) caracterizadas por hematopoiese ineficaz, citopenia(s) no sangue periférico e com potencial para evoluir para leucemia mieloide aguda. A presença de citopenia(s) no sangue periférico, definida(s) como hemoglobina < 10g/L, contagem absoluta de neutrófilos < 1,8x109 /L, e/ou plaquetas, < 100x109 /L, associada a alterações displásicas no sangue periférico e medula óssea, na ausência de outras doenças sistêmicas que justifiquem a(s) citopenia(s), são fundamentais para o diagnóstico e classificação desse grupo de doenças. Alfaepoetina é uma eritropoietina humana recombinante, que é quase idêntica ao hormônio eritropoietina endógeno (EPO). A alfaepoetina induz a eritropoiese de uma maneira dependente da dose, mas não afeta a expectativa de vida dos eritrócitos. A presente análise objetiva avaliar a ampliação de uso da alfaepoetina para o tratamento de pacientes adultos com SMD-BR e anemia, que já é utilizada no Brasil para outras indicações. Pergunta: "Para pacientes adultos com SMD-BR, o uso da alfaepoetina quando comparada ao suporte transfusional é seguro, eficaz e custo-efetivo?" Evidências clínicas: Dois ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR), que utilizaram alfaepoetina subcutânea comparada com grupos placebos, foram selecionados a partir de uma busca bibliográfica conduzida nas bases PubMed, EMBASE e Cochrane Reviews. Uma metanálise foi realizada considerando esses dois estudos, totalizando 123 pacientes incluídos no grupo intervenção e 80 pacientes incluídos no grupo controle. Como resultado, a resposta eritroide alcançada foi de 33,3% no grupo intervenção e 7,5% no grupo controle, levando a um risco relativo (RR) de 4,34 (IC95% 1,91-9,85). Além da resposta eritroide a metanálise avaliou a segurança da alfaepoetina, obtendo valores semelhantes de eventos adversos no grupo intervenção e controle, alcançando RR de 0,96 (IC95% 0,69-1,34). Apenas um estudo avaliou a qualidade de vida, e não houve diferença nesse desfecho entre os grupos em qualquer período. Entretanto, a qualidade de vida na semana 24 foi significativamente diferente entre os pacientes que responderam à alfaepoetina e o grupo placebo (Escore do índice EQ-5D p = 0,034). A qualidade da evidência, segundo o GRADE, foi classificada como moderada para todos os desfechos, com exceção da sobrevida, para qual não se obteve resultados na literatura. Avaliação econômica: Foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade por meio de árvore de decisão com cinco anos de horizonte temporal, comparando alfaepoetina com o suporte transfusional. Como resultados, observou-se uma redução de custos de R$ 7.659,52/ano por paciente e uma Razão de Custo-Efetividade Incremental (RCEI) de - R$ 294,38 com alfaepoetina, havendo economia, já que o medicamento é mais eficaz e tem menor custo de tratamento na SMD-BR. Além disso, a análise de sensibilidade determinística univariada, considerando maior preço da tecnologia ou redução no percentual de pacientes em tratamento de sobrecarga de ferro, confirmou que a utilização de alfaepoetina representa menor custo de tratamento. Análise de impacto orçamentário: Nos três cenários apresentados a incorporação da alfaepoetina resulta em economia de recursos de até 51,9%, em relação ao cenário referência (suporte transfusional). Em cinco anos, a incorporação da alfaepoetina pode gerar economia de recursos de até R$ 321 milhões. Na análise de sensibilidade univariada, considerando-se dois cenários apresentados, há economia de recursos entre R$ 32 milhões e R$ 55 milhões, em cinco anos. Monitoramento do Horizonte Tecnológico: Foram identificados dois medicamentos no horizonte tecnológico, tais como luspatercept, aprovado em 2020 no FDA e na EMA para o tratamento de anemia em adultos com SMD de risco muito baixo a intermediário e que falharam aos estimulantes de eritropoiese, mas sem registro na Anvisa para qualquer indicação; e roxadustat, aprovado na EMA em 2021 para o tratamento de anemia em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, mas sem registro na Anvisa e FDA para qualquer indicação. Considerações finais: A evidência considerada foi composta por dois ECR de qualidade moderada de acordo com o GRADE, sendo que ambos estudos apresentam resultados favoráveis quanto ao desfecho resposta eritroide e segurança, conforme metanálise condizida. A análise de custo-efetividade encontrou que em relação ao suporte transfusional, o uso da alfaepoetina proporcionaria a redução de custos de R$ 7.659,52/ano por paciente e que a RCEI com o uso da alfaepoetina foi de - R$ 294,38, ou seja, há uma economia com o uso dessa tecnologia para o tratamento da SMD-BR. Na avaliação de impacto orçamentário, a incorporação da alfaepoetina resulta em economia de recursos de até 51,9% (até R$ 321 milhões), em relação ao cenário referência (suporte transfusional). Recomendação preliminar da Conitec: O Plenário da Conitec, em sua 104ª Reunião Ordinária, no dia 08 de dezembro de 2021, deliberou que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em Consulta Pública com recomendação preliminar favorável à ampliação de uso da alfaepoetina para o tratamento de pacientes com Síndrome Mielodisplásica de Baixo Risco com indicação de uso no SUS. Os membros da Conitec consideraram os resultados apresentados (resposta eritroide, qualidade de vida, segurança e avaliação econômica), bem como os argumentos relacionados ao acesso ao medicamento, levantados pelo Plenário, para tomar essa decisão. Consulta pública: A Consulta Pública nº 119 foi realizada entre os dias 28/12/2021 e 17/01/2022. Foram recebidas 45 contribuições, sendo 10 técnico-científicas e 35 sobre experiência ou opinião. Em geral, todas as contribuições concordaram com a recomendação inicial da Conitec, principalmente reforçando a necessidade de ampliação de uso do medicamento. Assim, o Plenário da Conitec entendeu que não houve argumentação suficiente para mudança de entendimento acerca de sua recomendação preliminar. Recomendação final da Conitec: O Plenário da Conitec, em sua 105ª Reunião Ordinária, no dia 09 de fevereiro de 2022, deliberou por maioria simples recomendar a ampliação de uso da alfaepoetina para o tratamento de pacientes com Síndrome Mielodisplásica de Baixo Risco conforme Protocolo Clínico do Ministério da Saúde. Os membros da Conitec consideraram que as evidências científicas sobre o medicamento demonstratam que sua ampliação de uso no SUS seria benéfica aos pacientes com SMD-BR. Além disso, deliberou-se que o presente Relatório de Recomendação seja encaminhado à Anvisa ao final do processo, com o intuito de se esclarecer questões relativas à utilização da alfaepoetina para o tratamento da SMD-BR no Brasil, do ponto de vista regulatório. Por fim, foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 694/2022. Decisão: Ampliar o uso da alfaepoetina para o tratamento de pacientes com síndrome mielodisplásica de baixo risco, conforme Protocolo Clínico do Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS conforme a Portaria nº 45, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 95, seção 1, página 88, em 20 de maio de 2022.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Unified Health System , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 293-299, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929638

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the influencing factors of iron metabolism assessment in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Methods: MRI and/or DECT were used to detect liver and cardiac iron content in 181 patients with MDS, among whom, 41 received regular iron chelation therapy during two examinations. The adjusted ferritin (ASF) , erythropoietin (EPO) , cardiac function, liver transaminase, hepatitis antibody, and peripheral blood T cell polarization were detected and the results of myelofibrosis, splenomegaly, and cyclosporine were collected and comparative analyzed in patients. Results: We observed a positive correlation between liver iron concentration and ASF both in the MRI group and DECT groups (r=0.512 and 0.606, respectively, P<0.001) , only a weak correlation between the heart iron concentration and ASF in the MRI group (r=0.303, P<0.001) , and no significant correlation between cardiac iron concentration and ASF in the DECT group (r=0.231, P=0.053) . Moreover, transfusion dependence in liver and cardiac [MRI group was significantly associated with the concentration of iron in: LIC: (28.370±10.706) mg/g vs (7.593±3.508) mg/g, t=24.30, P<0.001; MIC: 1.81 vs 0.95, z=2.625, P<0.05; DECT group: liver VIC: (4.269±1.258) g/L vs (1.078±0.383) g/L, t=23.14, P<0.001: cardiac VIC: 1.69 vs 0.68, z=3.142, P<0.05]. The concentration of EPO in the severe iron overload group was significantly higher than that in the mild to moderate iron overload group and normal group (P<0.001) . Compared to the low-risk MDS group, the liver iron concentration in patients with MDS with cyclic sideroblasts (MDS-RS) was significantly elevated [DECT group: 3.80 (1.97, 5.51) g/L vs 1.66 (0.67, 2.94) g/L, P=0.004; MRI group: 13.7 (8.1,29.1) mg/g vs 11.6 (7.1,21.1) mg/g, P=0.032]. Factors including age, bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, T cell polarization, use of cyclosporine A, liver aminotransferase, and hepatitis antibody positive had no obvious effect on iron metabolism. Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between liver iron concentration and ASF in patients with MDS, whereas there was no significant correlation between cardiac iron concentration and ASF. Iron metabolism was affected by transfusion dependence, EPO concentration, and RS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ferritins , Iron , Iron Overload , Liver/metabolism , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Primary Myelofibrosis , Retrospective Studies , Splenomegaly
19.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 247-254, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929565

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of the revised international prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R) and the WHO prognostic scoring system (WPSS) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: The clinical data of 184 patients with MDS who received allo-HSCT from July 2016 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. IPSS-R and WPSS were performed at diagnosis and before transplantation. The prognostic values of IPSS-R and WPSS and potential risk factors were explored. Results: With a median follow-up of 21.9 (0.5-47.5) months, the two-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were (75.1±3.4)% and (71.6±3.6)% , respectively. The two-year cumulative relapse rate and nonrelapse mortality rate were (11.9±0.1)% and (16.5±0.1)% , respectively. There were no significant differences in OS and PFS between the IPSS-R ≤3.5 and >3.5 groups at diagnosis (P=0.409; P=0.724). No significant differences in OS and PFS between the WPSS ≤2 and >2 groups (P=0.426; P=0.726) were observed as well. When the patients were reevaluated before transplantation, the OS and PFS of the IPSS-R ≤3.5 group were significantly better than >3.5 group [OS: (88.6±4.1)% vs (65.8±5.3)% , P=0.003; PFS: (87.6±4.2)% vs (60.5±5.8)% , P=0.002]. However, there were no significant differences in OS and PFS among the WPSS ≤2 and >2 groups (P=0.584; P=0.565). In addition, the OS and PFS of the improved group based on IPSS-R were significantly better than those of the unimproved group before transplantation [OS: (83.8±4.6)% vs (69.3±5.8)% , P=0.027; PFS: (82.8±4.4)% vs. (64.0±7.2)% , P=0.006]. Multivariate analysis indicated that a pretransplant IPSS-R of >3.5 (P=0.021, HR=2.510, 95% CI 1.151-5.476) and TP53 mutation (P=0.047, HR=2.460, 95% CI 1.014-5.971) were independent risk factors for OS, whereas a pretransplant IPSS-R of >3.5 (P=0.017, HR=2.457, 95% CI 1.175-5.141) and pretransplant cytogenetic poor and very poor (P=0.008, HR=2.765, 95% CI 1.305-5.856) were independent risk factors for PFS. Conclusion: A pretransplantation evaluation of IPSS-R could help determine the prognosis of patients with MDS undergoing allo-HSCT. In addition, patients with improved IPSS-R scores before undergoing allo-HSCT had a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 281-288, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928922

ABSTRACT

DNA hypermethylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in the oncogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Aberrant DNA methylation represses the transcription of promotors of tumor suppressor genes, inducing gene silencing. Realgar (α-As4S4) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of various diseases in the ancient time. Realgar was reported to have efficacy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It has been demonstrated that realgar could efficiently reduce DNA hypermethylation of MDS. This review discusses the mechanisms of realgar on inhibiting DNA hypermethylation of MDS, as well as the species and metabolisms of arsenic in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenicals/therapeutic use , DNA , DNA Methylation/genetics , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Sulfides
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