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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 493-500, June 2020. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135643

ABSTRACT

There are no studies that characterize the enteric nervous system (ENS) bats. The organization and density of myenteric neurons may vary according to the animal species, as well as the segment of the digestive tube considered. The nitric oxide is one of the key neurotransmitters present in the myenteric neurons, acting as a mediator in the smooth muscle relaxation. These neurons are evidenced by immunohistochemistry of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. In this sense, this study aimed to characterize the total neuronal population and subpopulation NADPH-d+ of the myenteric plexus present in the jejunum of the insectivore species Molossus rufus quantitatively. Five specimens were collected of M. rufus in a buffer area of the "Reserva Biológica das Perobas" in the microregion of Cianorte/PR. After the euthanasia, in a chamber saturated with isoflurane, segments were collected from the small intestine corresponding to the jejunum intended for two techniques for neuronal marking, Giemsa and NADPH-diaphorase, and a fragment to the histological technique of hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. All the procedures were approved by the "Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais Unipar" (CEUA - protocol No. 34347/2017) and the "Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade" (ICMBio - protocol No. 60061-1) The histological sections allowed to highlight the location of the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic. The myenteric plexus had an average of total neuronal population (neurons Giemsa+) of 279.23 neurons/mm2, being the nitrergic neurons (neurons NADPH-d+) represented 20.4% of this total population, with an average of 58.14 neuron/mm2. Therefore, the collected data are consistent with previous studies in other mammalian species concerning the location of the myenteric plexus, as well as the neural myenteric proportion NADPH-d+ compared with the population of neurons Giemsa+. The gaps in the knowledge of ENS of bats limits comparative intraspecific and interspecific studies.(AU)


Não há estudos que caracterizem o sistema nervoso entérico (SNE) destes animais, configurando uma lacuna no conhecimento quanto à biologia destes indivíduos. A organização e densidade dos neurônios mientéricos podem variar de acordo com a espécie animal bem como o segmento do tubo digestório considerado. O óxido nítrico é um dos principais neurotransmissores presentes nos neurônios mientéricos, atuando como mediador no relaxamento do músculo liso gastrointestinal, de modo que estes neurônios são evidenciados igualmente pela imunohistoquímica da óxido nítrico-sintase (NOS) ou pela histoquímica da NADPH-diaforase. Neste sentido, objetivou-se caracterizar quantitativamente a população neuronal total e subpopulação NADPH-d+ do plexo mientérico presente no jejuno da espécie Molossus rufus de hábito alimentar insetívoro. Foram coletados cinco espécimes de M. rufus em área de amortecimento da Reserva Biológica das Perobas na microrregião de Cianorte/PR. Após a eutanásia, em câmara saturada com isoflurano, foram coletados segmentos do intestino delgado correspondentes ao jejuno destinados a duas técnicas para marcação neuronal, Giemsa e NADPH-diaforase e, um fragmento para a técnica histológica de hematoxilina-eosina e tricômio de Masson. Todos os procedimentos realizados foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais da Unipar (CEUA - protocolo nº 34347/2017) e pelo Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio - protocolo nº 60061-1) Os cortes histológicos possibilitaram evidenciar a localização do plexo mientérico entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular. Neurônios Giemsa+ apresentaram uma média de 279,23 neurônios/mm2, já os neurônios nitrérgicos apresentaram em média 20,4% da população neuronal mientérica total, sendo evidenciados 58,14 neurônios NADPH-d+/mm2. Portanto, os dados coletados mostram-se condizentes com estudos anteriores em outras espécies de mamíferos quanto à localização do plexo mientérico, bem como, a proporção neuronal mientérica NADPH-d+ comparada com a população de neurônios Giemsa+. As lacunas existentes quanto ao conhecimento do SNE de morcegos limita possíveis inferências em comparativo intraespecífico e interespecífico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Enteric Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Myenteric Plexus/anatomy & histology , Neurons
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 113-117, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019447

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few studies regarding arthritic diseases have been performed to verify the presence of the neurodegeneration. Given the increased oxidative stress and extra-articular effects of the rheumatoid arthritis, the gastrointestinal studies should be further investigated aiming a better understanding of the systemic effects the disease on enteric nervous system. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the rheumatoid arthritis affects the nitrergic density and somatic area of the nNOS- immunoreactive (IR) myenteric neurons, as well as the morphometric areas of CGRP and VIP-IR varicosities of the ileum of arthritic rats. METHODS: Twenty 58-day-old male Holtzmann rats were distributed in two groups: control and arthritic. The arthritic group received a single injection of the Freund's Complete Adjuvant in order to induce arthritis model. The whole-mount preparations of ileum were processed for immunohistochemistry to VIP, CGRP and nNOS. Quantification was used for the nitrergic neurons and morphometric analyses were performed for the three markers. RESULTS: The arthritic disease induced a reduction 6% in ileal area compared to control group. No significant differences were observed in nitrergic density comparing both groups. However, arthritic group yielded a reduction of the nitrergic neuronal somatic area and VIP-IR varicosity areas. However, an increase of varicosity CGRP-IR areas was also observed. CONCLUSION: Despite arthritis resulted in no alterations in the number of nitrergic neurons, the retraction of ileal area and reduction of nitrergic somatic and VIP-IR varicosity areas may suggest a negative impact the disease on the ENS.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Poucos estudos sobre doenças artríticas têm sido realizados para verificar a presença de neurodegeneração. Diante do aumento do estresse oxidativo e dos efeitos extra-articulares da artrite reumatoide, estudos gastrointestinais devem ser investigados visando uma melhor compreensão dos efeitos sistêmicos da doença no sistema nervoso entérico. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a artrite reumatoide afeta a densidade nitrérgica e a área somática dos neurônios mioentéricos imunorreativos ao nNOS (nNOS-IR), bem como para as áreas morfométricas das varicosidades CGRP-IR e VIP-IR do íleo de ratos artríticos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Holtzmann, com 58 dias de idade, foram distribuídos em dois grupos: controle e artrítico. O grupo artrítico recebeu uma única injeção do adjuvante completo de Freund para induzir o modelo de artrite. Os preparados totais de íleo foram processados para imuno-histoquímica ao VIP, CGRP e nNOS. A quantificação foi utilizada para os neurônios nitrérgicos e as análises morfométricas foram realizadas para os três marcadores. RESULTADOS: A doença artrítica induziu uma redução de 6% na área ileal em relação ao grupo controle. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na densidade nitrérgica comparando os dois grupos. No entanto, o grupo artrítico produziu uma redução da área somática neuronal nitrérgica e da área das varicosidades do VIP-IR. Entretanto, foi observado um aumento das áreas das viricosidades CGRP-IR. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da artrite não resultar em alterações no número de neurônios nitrérgicos, a retração da área ileal e a redução das áreas somática nitrérgica e das varicosidades do VIP-IR podem sugerir um impacto negativo da doença no sistema nervoso entérico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Enteric Nervous System/physiopathology , Nitrergic Neurons/physiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Nitrergic Neurons/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/physiology , Myenteric Plexus/physiopathology , Myenteric Plexus/metabolism
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies from Korea have described chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) patients with transition zone (TZ) in the colon. In this study, we evaluated the pathological characteristics and their association with long-term outcomes in Korean colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) patients with TZ. METHODS: We enrolled 39 CPO patients who were refractory to medical treatment and underwent colectomy between November 1989 and April 2016 (median age at symptoms onset: 45 [interquartile range, 29–57] years, males 46.2%). The TZ was defined as a colonic segment connecting a proximally dilated and distally non-dilated segment. Detailed pathologic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Among the 39 patients, 37 (94.9%) presented with TZ and 2 (5.1%) showed no definitive TZ. Median ganglion cell density in the TZ adjusted for the colonic circumference was significantly decreased compared to that in proximal dilated and distal non-dilated segments in TZ (+) patients (9.2 vs 254.3 and 150.5, P < 0.001). Among the TZ (+) patients, 6 showed additional pathologic findings including eosinophilic ganglionitis (n = 2), ulcers with combined cytomegalovirus infection (n = 2), diffuse ischemic changes (n = 1), and heterotropic myenteric plexus (n = 1). During follow-up (median, 61 months), 32 (82.1%) TZ (+) patients recovered without symptom recurrence after surgery. The presence of pathological features other than hypoganglionosis was an independent predictor of symptom recurrence after surgery (P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoganglionosis can be identified in the TZ of most Korean CPO patients. Detection of other pathological features in addition to TZ-associated hypoganglionosis was associated with poor post-operative outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cell Count , Colectomy , Colon , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Eosinophils , Follow-Up Studies , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Korea , Male , Myenteric Plexus , Pathology , Recurrence , Ulcer
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764505

ABSTRACT

KBG syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome presenting with macrodontia, distinctive facial features, skeletal anomalies, and neurological problems caused by mutations in the ankyrin repeat domain 11 (ANKRD11) gene. The diagnosis of KBG is difficult in very young infants as the characteristic macrodontia and typical facial features are not obvious. The youngest patient diagnosed to date was almost one year of age. We here describe a 2-month-old Korean boy with distinctive craniofacial features but without any evidence of macrodontia due to his very early age. He also had a congenital megacolon without ganglion cells in the rectum. A de novo deletion of exons 5–9 of the ANKRD11 gene was identified in this patient by exome sequencing and real-time genomic polymerase chain reaction. As ANKRD11 is involved in the development of myenteric plexus, a bowel movement disorder including a congenital megacolon is not surprising in a patient with KBG syndrome and has possibly been overlooked in past cases.


Subject(s)
Ankyrin Repeat , Diagnosis , Exome , Exons , Ganglion Cysts , Hirschsprung Disease , Humans , Infant , Male , Movement Disorders , Myenteric Plexus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742134

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by loss of ganglionic neurons within the myenteric plexus of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resulting in failure of the LES to relax. Clinically this disorder presents with simultaneous dysphagia to solids and liquids, and if left untreated, leads to esophageal dilation, which can give rise to many adverse consequences. Extrinsic compression of respiratory structures is one such consequence, and rarely, cases of tracheal compression secondary to achalasia have been reported. However, cases of extrinsic bronchial compression are yet rarer. Here, we present a case series comprised of two patients with achalasia who presented with extrinsic bronchial compression by a dilated esophagus secondary to achalasia.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Cardia , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease characterized by intestinal dysmotility, the mechanism of which remains elusive. We aim to determine whether the high-affinity choline transporter 1 (CHT1), a determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, modulates intestinal motility associated with stress-induced IBS. METHODS: A rat IBS model was established using chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). Colonic pathological alterations were evaluated histologically and intestinal motility was assessed by intestinal transit time and fecal water content (FWC). Visceral sensitivity was determined by visceromotor response to colorectal distension. RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunostaining were performed to identify colonic CHT1 expression. Contractility of colonic muscle strips was measured using isometric transducers. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure acetylcholine (ACh). We examined the effects of MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, on colonic motility. RESULTS: After 10 days of WAS, intestinal transit time was decreased and fecal water content increased. Visceromotor response magnitude in WAS rats in response to colorectal distension was significantly enhanced. Protein and mRNA CHT1 levels in the colon were markedly elevated after WAS. The density of CHT1-positive intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons in WAS rats was higher than in controls. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate partly reversed CHT1 upregulation and alleviated colonic hypermotility in WAS rats. Pharmacological enhancement of CHT1 activity by MKC-231 enhanced colonic motility in control rats via upregulation of CHT1 and elevation of ACh production. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of CHT1 in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons is implicated in chronic stress-induced colonic hypermotility by modulation of ACh synthesis via nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Ammonium Compounds , Animals , Blotting, Western , Choline , Colon , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Transducers , Up-Regulation , Water
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158121

ABSTRACT

Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) is common in laryngologic practice. In Korea, up to 1 out of every 5 patients who visit otorhinolaryngology clinic is supposed to have LPRD with symptoms and physical findings. Major symptoms of LPRD include hoarseness, cough, reflux symptom and mild dysphagia. Even though LPRD is common, its diagnosis may be difficult, because its symptoms are nonspecific and the laryngeal findings are not always associated with symptom severity. In Recent study, 66.4% of Patient who has LPRD also associated with esophageal motility disorders. Esophageal achalasia is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by an absence of peristalsis in the body of esophagus and nonrelaxing hypertension of the lower esophageal sphincter. Common cause is loss of ganglion cells in Auerbachs plexus. The classic triad of symptoms in achalasia includes dysphagia, regurgitation and weight loss. LPRD and esophageal achalasia have similar symptoms but have different treatment of choice. The Differentiation diagnosis of theses disease is important and should be established by history, radiologic examination and endoscopic examination. We recently assessed a 59-year-old female patient who complained of an epigastric pain, dysphagia and chronic cough. LPRD was initially diagnosed on Laryngoscopic examination and Reflux Symptom Index, but patient was not relieved of any symptoms after treatment of Proton Pump Inhibitor for 3 months. After high resolution manometry, esophageal achalasia was finally diagnosed. We report this case regarding the diagnosis and treatment with review of literatures because we have to think about esophageal motility disorders as a differential diagnosis in laryngology.


Subject(s)
Cough , Deglutition Disorders , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Female , Ganglion Cysts , Hoarseness , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Manometry , Middle Aged , Myenteric Plexus , Otolaryngology , Peristalsis , Proton Pumps , Weight Loss
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38094

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis is a disorder characterized by infiltration of the Auerbach myenteric plexus by eosinophils. As a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO), eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis has been rarely reported and the majority of the reported cases in the literature were children. We experienced a case of eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis associated with CIPO in a 53-year-old female patient. Histologic examination of the resected descending colon showed moderate eosinophilic infiltrates with hypogangliosis in the myenteric plexus. Immunohistochemical study revealed increased number of CD4-positive lymphocytes and stronger but scantier glial fibillary acid protein expression in the inflamed myenteric plexus.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Child , Colon, Descending , Eosinophils , Female , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Middle Aged , Myenteric Plexus
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myenteric plexus interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) are involved in the generation of gut pacemaker activity and neuronal communication. We performed patch clamp on ICC-MY in situ to observe the changes of pacemaker activity in response to neural modulations. METHODS: A fresh longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus (LMMP) from mouse jejunum was prepared. ICC-MY and ganglion neurons embedded in the layer of longitudinal muscles were targeted by patch clamping in whole-cell configuration in a model of current or voltage clamp. Neurogenic modulators were applied to evaluate their effects on ICC pacemaker activity. RESULTS: In situ ICC-MY showed spontaneous and rhythmical voltage oscillations with a frequency of 27.2 ± 3.9 cycles/min, amplitude of 32.6 ± 6.3 mV, and resting membrane potential of −62.2 ± 2.8 mV. In situ neurons showed electrically evocable action potential in single or multiple spikes. Pacemaker activity was modulated by neuronal activators through receiving a neuronal input. Application of tetrodotoxin depolarized pacemaker potentials in a dose dependent manner, and decreased the amplitude at tetrodotoxin 0.3 μM for about 40 ± 10%; capsaicin (1 μM) ameliorated ICC-MY K+ current for about 49 ± 14.8%; and, nitric oxide hyperpolarized pacemaker potential and decreased the amplitude and frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The in situ preparation patch clamp study further demonstrates that the pacemaker activity is an intrinsic property of ICC. The neurogenic activators change and shape pacemaker potential and activity in situ. LMMP preparation in situ patch clamp provides an ideal platform to study the functional innervation of the ICC and the enteric neural system, thereby, for evaluating the neural regulation of pacemaker activity, especially in disorder models.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Capsaicin , Constriction , Enteric Nervous System , Ganglion Cysts , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Jejunum , Membrane Potentials , Mice , Muscles , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Tetrodotoxin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuronal degeneration and changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mechanisms of age-related constipation. This study aims to compare the distribution of ICCs and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to age-related changes between the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) in 6-, 31-, and 74-week old and 2-year old male Fischer-344 rats. METHODS: The amount of fecal pellet and the bead expulsion times were measured. Fat proportion in the muscle layer of the colon was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression were analyzed with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Isovolumetric contractile measurements and electrical field stimulation were used to assess smooth muscle contractility. RESULTS: Colon transit and bead expulsion slowed with senescence. Fat in the muscle layer accumulated with age in the AC, but not in the DC. The proportion of KIT-immunoreactive ICCs in the submucosal and myenteric plexus was higher in the DC than in the AC, and it declined with age, especially in the AC. In contrast, the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive neurons in the myenteric plexus was higher in the AC than in the DC, and both decreased in older rats. Nitric oxide levels declined with age in the DC. Muscle strip experiments showed that the inhibitory response mediated by nitric oxide in the circular direction of the DC was reduced in 2-year old rats. CONCLUSION: The AC and DC differ in their distribution of ICCs and nNOS, and age-related loss of nitrergic neurons more severely affects the DC than the AC.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colon, Descending , Constipation , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitrergic Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proto-Oncogenes , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. [194] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870913

ABSTRACT

Admite-se que mais de 40% das crianças são acometidas pela desnutrição crônica em Moçambique (África Oriental). A doença pode estar relacionada, entre outros fatores, à qualidade da dieta que é oferecida à população, já que é bastante precária, pois exibe sérias deficiências de ferro, gordura e, principalmente, proteína animal em sua composição. Essa insuficiência proteica poderia acarretar em prejuízo ao desenvolvimento do organismo, pois a proteína animal é considerada uma boa fonte de aminoácidos essenciais, em decorrência de sua maior digestibilidade e absorção no intestino delgado, quando comparadas às fontes de origem vegetal. Na presente pesquisa foi reproduzida em laboratório, a dieta básica da população de Moçambique (DM), com o objetivo de avaliar seus efeitos nos componentes do plexo mioentérico e na mucosa dos segmentos do intestino delgado de ratos Wistar. Para isso, os animais foram divididos nos grupos Controle, com dieta AIN-93G com adição de 20% de caseína (NN21 e NN42); Dieta de Moçambique (DM21 e DM42) e Dieta Moçambique suplementada, acrescida de 20% de caseína (NM21 e NM42); e grupo Renutrido (RM42), composto por animais do grupo DM21 que, a partir do 22º dia, receberam a dieta NM até atingirem 42 dias de vida. Os segmentos foram coletados e submetidos às técnicas histoquímicas da NADH-diaforase e da NADPH-diaforase para evidenciação de neurônios do plexo mioentérico; histológicas (HE, Picro-sírius, Weigert) para avaliação da parede intestinal, mucosa, gânglios e seu tecido conjuntivo associado; de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) para observação da estrutura da mucosa; e de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) para a ultraestrutura dos componentes ganglionares. Estatisticamente, o peso corporal e o comprimento dos animais submetidos à dieta de Moçambique estavam abaixo dos valores encontrados para os animais controle. Na análise qualitativa, observou-se a presença de fibras elásticas, elaunínicas e oxitalânicas,...


It is assumed that more than 40% of children are affected by chronic malnutrition in Mozambique (East Africa). The disease may be related, among other factors, the quality of diet that is offered to the population, since it is quite precarious, because it displays serious deficiencies of iron, fat and especially animal protein in their composition. This protein failure could result in damage to the development of the organism, as animal protein is considered a good source of essential amino acids, due to its higher digestibility and absorption in the small intestine when compared to vegetable sources. In this research has been reproduced in the laboratory, the staple diet of the population of Mozambique (DM), in order to evaluate its effects on components of the myenteric plexus and the mucosa of the small intestine segments of Wistar rats. For this, the animals were divided into control groups with AIN-93G diet with the addition of 20% casein (NN21 and NN42); Diet Mozambique (DM21 and DM42) and diet supplemented Mozambique, plus 20% casein (NM21 and NM42); and Refeeding group (RM42), consisting of the animals DM21 group, from the 22th day, given NM diet until they reached 42 days of life. The segments were collected and submitted to histochemical techniques of NADH-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase for disclosure of neurons of the myenteric plexus; histologic (HE, Sirius red, Weigert) for evaluation of the intestinal wall, mucosa, lymph nodes and its associated connective tissue; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for observation of mucosal structure; and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ultrastructure to ganglion components. Statistically, body weight and length of the animals submitted to Mozambique diet were below the values found for control animals. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of elastic fibers, and elauninic oxytalan, and predominance of type I collagen fibers in the NN42 and DM42 groups, and type III in the NM42 and RM42 groups around...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Enteric Nervous System , Gastrointestinal Motility , Intestine, Small , Malnutrition , Myenteric Plexus , Neuronal Plasticity
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. METHODS: The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS). The intestinal transit was measured by administering powdered carbon by gastric gavage. Double immunohistochemical fluorescence staining with whole-mount preparations of SMP and MP of enteric nervous system was used to assess changes in expression of choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or nitric oxide synthase in relation to the pan neuronal marker, anti-Hu. RESULTS: The intestinal transit ratio increased significantly from control values of 50.8% to 60.6% in the CAS group. The numbers of enteric ganglia and neurons in the SMP were increased in the CAS group. The proportions of choline acetyltransferase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the SMP were increased (82.1 ± 4.3% vs. 76.0 ± 5.0%, P = 0.021; 40.5 ± 5.9% vs 28.9 ± 3.7%, P = 0.001), while nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the MP were decreased compared with controls (23.3 ± 4.5% vs 32.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: These morphological changes in enteric neurons to CAS might contribute to the dysfunction in motility and secretion in IBS with diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon , Choline , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diarrhea , Enteric Nervous System , Fluorescence , Ganglia , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gastrointestinal Tract , Ileum , Intestine, Small , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Rats , Stress, Psychological , Submucous Plexus , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. METHODS: The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1-100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. RESULTS: Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1-1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. CONCLUSIONS: Neurotensin (0.1-1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Baths , Colon , In Vitro Techniques , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Lidocaine , Myenteric Plexus , Neural Conduction , Neurotensin , Peristalsis , Rats , Receptors, Neurotensin , Video Recording
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 124-129, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40884

ABSTRACT

Maturation of neurons of the myenteric plexus (MP) of human fetal sigmoid colon was studied at various weeks of gestation (WG). There is abundant literature on the development of MP in various segments of the gut but there are fewer reports on the development of MP in human sigmoid colon which is a site of various disorders. Sigmoid colonic segments from 12 aborted foetuses aged 14-23WG were processed for NADPH histochemistry. Stereologic evaluation of the neuronal cell profiles, numerical density, number of neurons per ganglion and myenteric fraction was conducted using using imageJ software. According to gestational age, foetuses were assigned into two groups (group 1 [n=7], less than 17WG). The overall size of neuronal cell profiles in the MP was significantly increased (P<0.05). The numerical density of neurons decreased in group 2 in comparison to group 1, the number of neurons per ganglion and myenteric fraction were increased in group 2 but all these were not statistically significant. This study revealed that the maturational event increases after 17WG and extensive innervations is established at 23WG. During prenatal life there is an increase in the neuronal cell size from 14-23WG signifying maturational process. Such studies are essential for clinicians and surgeons to correlate the normal and pathologic development of the enteric nervous system.


Subject(s)
Cell Size , Colon, Sigmoid , Enteric Nervous System , Ganglion Cysts , Gestational Age , Humans , Myenteric Plexus , NADP , Neurons , Pregnancy
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 529-532, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725808

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se existem ou não vasos sanguíneos no interior de gânglios do plexo mientérico do esôfago e cólon humano. Foram examinados 15 casos de necrópsias de natimortos, recém-nascidos e crianças de até dois anos de idade, sem alterações gastrintestinais, que faleceram por doenças em outros órgãos. Foram analisados anéis do esôfago e cólon, fixados em formol e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes histológicos escalonados foram corados pelas técnicas de hematoxilina-eosina, Giemsa e imuno-histoquímica para caracterização das células endoteliais, utilizando-se os anticorpos anti-fator VIII e CD 31. Foram identificados vasos sanguíneos no interior de gânglios do plexo mientérico do esôfago em todos os casos e não foram vistos vasos sanguíneos em nenhum gânglio do cólon. Concluímos que os gânglios do plexo mientérico do esôfago são vascularizados e, os do cólon, avasculares. A vascularização no interior dos gânglios do esôfago pode facilitar a entrada de agentes infecciosos, bem como o desenvolvimento de respostas inflamatórias (ganglionite) e denervação, como encontrados na doença de Chagas e na acalásia idiopática. Isso pode explicar a frequência maior de megaesôfago comparado com megacólon.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Colon/innervation , Esophagus/innervation , Ganglia, Autonomic/blood supply , Myenteric Plexus/blood supply , Cadaver , Immunohistochemistry
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 51-60, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703645

ABSTRACT

Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Colon/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Esophagus/parasitology , Myenteric Plexus/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Autopsy , Acute-Phase Reaction/parasitology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/pathology , Colitis/parasitology , Colon/pathology , Disease Progression , Esophageal Achalasia/parasitology , Esophagitis/parasitology , Esophagus/pathology , Megacolon/parasitology , Species Specificity
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85477

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a rare esophageal motilty disorder characterized by loss of myenteric neurons leading to aperistalsis of the esophageal body and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Esophageal peristalsis and relaxation of the LES are mediated by myenteric neurons. Achalasia may be an autoimmune disease targeting esophageal myenteric neurons with cell-mediated and antibody-mediated attack to an unidentified antigen. It is still unknown how these immunologic attacks begin and why these are functionally limited to the esophagus. Initial immunologic reactions can begin in genetically predisposed persons who had viral infection, such as herpes simplex virus 1. The type of immune response and the intensity of the cytotoxic T-cell attack can determine the clinical presentation of the disease. Patients with Chicago Classification type III achalasia may present with chronic inflammation in the absence of neuronal loss, where as patients with Chicago Classification type I or II achalasia present with a predominantly cytotoxic immune response with progressive loss of myenteric neurons. Further well controlled researches which reveal the unknown facts of pathogenesis are needed.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Classification , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Humans , Inflammation , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Peristalsis , Relaxation , T-Lymphocytes
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85474

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a rare motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by the absence of peristalsis of the esophageal body and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is caused by loss of ganglionic cells of myenteric plexus. Medical therapy is usually ineffective and pneumatic dilation and esophagocardiomyotomy are known to be the treatment of choice. In the past, pneumatic dilation was preferred because of the invasiveness of myotomy even though, the posttreatment outcome was better in myotomy than in pneumatic dilation. However, after introduction of minimally invasive surgery for myotomy, such preference is moving towards myotomy. In this article, current trends of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of achalasia and the surgical outcome of minimally invasive myotomy in comparison with that of pneumatic dilation are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Ganglion Cysts , Laparoscopy , Myenteric Plexus , Peristalsis , Relaxation , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50172

ABSTRACT

The colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) is a critical neurally mediated rhythmic propulsive contraction observed in the large intestine of many mammals. It seems to be equivalent to the high amplitude propagating contractions (HAPCs) in humans. This review focuses on the probable neural mechanisms involved in producing the CMMC or HAPC, their likely dependence on mucosal and neuronal serotonin and pacemaker insterstitial cells of Cajal networks and how intrinsic neural reflexes affect them. Discussed is the possibility that myenteric 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons are not only involved in tonic inhibition of the colon, but are also involved in generating the CMMC and modulation of the entire enteric nervous system, including coupling motility to secretion and blood flow. Mucosal 5-HT appears to be important for the initiation and effective propagation of CMMCs, although this mechanism is a longstanding controversy since the 1950s, which we will address. We argue that the slow apparent propagation of the CMMC/HAPC down the colon is unlikely to result from a slowly conducting wave front of neural activity, but more likely because of an interaction between ascending excitatory and descending (serotonergic) inhibitory neural pathways interacting both within the myenteric plexus and at the level of the muscle. That is, CMMC/HAPC propagation appears to be similar to esophageal peristalsis. The suppression of inhibitory (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) motor neurons and mucosal 5-HT release by an upregulation of prostaglandins has important implications in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, especially slow transit constipation.


Subject(s)
Colon , Constipation , Enteric Nervous System , Humans , Intestine, Large , Mammals , Motor Neurons , Mucous Membrane , Myenteric Plexus , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , Neural Pathways , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Peristalsis , Prostaglandins , Reflex , Serotonin , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Digestion of dietary protein elevates intraluminal concentrations of glutamate in the small intestine, some of which gain access to the enteric nervous system (ENS). Glutamate, in the central nervous system (CNS), is an excitatory neurotransmitter. A dogma that glutamatergic neurophysiology in the ENS recapitulates CNS glutamatergic function persists. We reassessed the premise that glutamatergic signaling in the ENS recapitulates its neurotransmitter role in the CNS. METHODS: Pharmacological analysis of actions of receptor agonists and antagonists in concert with immunohistochemical localization of glutamate transporters and receptors was used. Analysis focused on intracellularly-recorded electrical and synaptic behavior of ENS neurons, on stimulation of mucosal secretion by secretomotor neurons in the submucosal plexus and on muscle contractile behavior mediated by musculomotor neurons in the myenteric plexus. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity for glutamate was expressed in ENS neurons. ENS neurons expressed immunoreactivity for the EAAC-1 glutamate transporter. Neither L-glutamate nor glutamatergic receptor agonists had excitatory actions on ENS neurons. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptor agonists did not directly stimulate neurogenic mucosal chloride secretion. Neither L-glutamate nor the metabotropic glutamatergic receptor agonist, aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD), changed the mean amplitude of spontaneously occurring contractions in circular or longitudinal strips of intestinal wall from either guinea pig or human small intestinal preparations. CONCLUSIONS: Early discoveries, for excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission in the CNS, inspired enthusiasm that investigation in the ENS would yield discoveries recapitulating the CNS glutamatergic story. We found this not to be the case.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG , Animals , Central Nervous System , Dietary Proteins , Digestion , Enteric Nervous System , Glutamic Acid , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Intestine, Small , Intestines , Muscles , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Neurophysiology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Proteolysis , Receptors, Glutamate , Submucous Plexus , Synaptic Transmission
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