Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 113
Filter
1.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 135 f p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353763

ABSTRACT

O músculo esquelético é responsável pelo movimento e manutenção da postura, e é um órgão produtor de miocinas e altamente metabólico, onde alterações em sua fisiologia podem ter consequências sistêmicas. Esse tecido é alvo para diferentes arboviroses, e mialgia é um sintoma frequentemente relatado. O músculo esquelético é composto majoritariamente por fibras musculares, e uma pequena população de células progenitoras denominadas células satélites (SC), que em caso de lesão podem ser ativadas, proliferam e se diferenciam, sendo capazes de regenerar o tecido muscular. Recentemente nosso grupo demonstrou que SC em proliferação (mioblastos) são infectadas pelo vírus ZIKA (ZIKV), enquanto células diferenciadas e fusionadas (miotubos) não apresentam proteínas virais. O presente trabalho avaliou alterações miogênicas e o perfil transcricional de mioblastos e miotubos humanos após tratamento com ZIKV, com o objetivo de identificar fatores e mecanismos envolvidos na susceptibilidade e resistência destas células à infecção. Confirmamos infecção produtiva do ZIKV nos mioblastos, que apresentaram uma redução no número de células expressando a molécula KI67 em altas concentrações (característico de células em mitose). A análise de sequenciamento mostrou perturbação das vias do ciclo celular em mioblastos infectados, que ainda apresentaram enriquecimento de vias relacionadas à morte celular. Também confirmamos a ausência de infecção produtiva nos miotubos. Interessantemente, verificamos que o ZIKV entra nas células diferenciadas, mas não consegue replicar o RNA viral, e a análise do transcriptoma identificou um enriquecimento de vias e modulação de genes antivirais maior ou exclusivamente nas células diferenciadas em comparação aos mioblastos infectados. Além disso, miotubos expostos ao ZIKV aparentam ter aumento de fusão/hipertrofia. Ao contrário dos mioblastos, miotubos apresentaram enriquecimento de vias relacionadas a organização da matriz extracelular. Dados preliminares do nosso grupo mostraram que o cultivo de mioblastos sobre a isoforma de laminina 511 levou à redução da infecção pelo ZIKV. Contudo, em nossos ensaios, a infecção pelo ZIKV não modulou a expressão de receptores para LM e o bloqueio do receptor de LM, a integrina α6, não reduziu a infecção pelo ZIKV em mioblastos. Nosso trabalho mostrou que a infecção pelo ZIKV induz resposta imune e antiviral, que foram enriquecidos em mioblastos e miotubos, sendo que estes apresentaram uma assinatura única de vias e genes antivirais, que poderiam explicar a resistência frente ao ZIKV.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Extracellular Matrix , Zika Virus
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 30-39, July. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053221

ABSTRACT

Background: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle mass and is a potent regulator of energy metabolism. However, MSTN knockout have affect mitochondrial function. This research assessed the mitochondrial energy metabolism of Mstn−/+ KO cells, and wondered whether the mitochondria biogenesis are affected. Results: In this study, we successfully achieved Mstn knockout in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 system and measured proliferation and differentiation using the Cell-Counting Kit-8 assay and qPCR, respectively. We found that MSTN dysfunction could promote proliferation and differentiation compared with the behaviour of wild-type cells. Moreover, Mstn KO induced an increase in KIF5B expression. The mitochondrial content was significantly increased in Mstn KO C2C12 cells, apparently associated with the increases in PGC-1α, Cox1, Cox2, ND1 and ND2 expression. However, no differences were observed in glucose consumption and lactate production. Interestingly, Mstn KO C2C12 cells showed an increase in IL6 and a decrease in TNF-1α levels. Conclusion: These findings indicate that MSTN regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. This gene-editing cells provided favourable evidence for animal breeding and metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Myostatin/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Organelle Biogenesis , Immunoblotting , Cell Differentiation , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Myoblasts/cytology , Myoblasts/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Cell Proliferation , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Flow Cytometry , Gene Editing
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 77 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007424

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are central players in cell metabolism, responsible for the vast majority of ATP production in most cells. Although originally thought to be passive organelles focused only in keeping cellular ATP at adequate levels, complex interplay between mitochondrial function and cell signaling has been largely recognized over the last decades. Not surprisingly, given their role, changes in nutritional status promoted by chronic interventions like caloric restriction or short-term situations like fasting in animals or nutrient deprivation in cultured cells are one of the main factors that can activate those signaling mechanisms. One particular way in which this mitochondria-cell crosstalk can occur is through mitochondrial Ca2+ handling, a process in which Ca2+ signals generated by the cell are able to translate into elevations in mitochondrial matrix [Ca2+] due to the presence of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter in the organelle. While the impact of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling on cellular function has been widely studied, the conditions which can modulate the process of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling itself are still not well characterized. In this work, we sought to test the effects of different interventions linked to nutritional status on mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. We found that caloric restriction, physiological fasting and modulations of mitochondrial dynamics resulted in modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling through changes in their maximal Ca2+ retention capacity or Ca2+ uptake rates. These changes were, measured by following mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake using different strategies, employing the fluorescent Ca2+ probe Ca2+ Green 5N for experiments in isolated mitochondria and permeabilized cells and the cytosolic probe Fura2-AM in intact cells. Caloric restriction resulted in higher calcium uptake and retention in liver mitochondria, protecting against pathological conditions of Ca2+ overload during ischemia/reperfusion. On the other hand, overnight and short term fasting resulted in lower mitochondrial Ca2+ retention and oxidative phosphorylation capacity in the liver. Modulating mitochondrial morpholoy in C2C12 myoblasts showed that more fragmented mitochondria were less capable of taking up Ca2+, while more fusioned mitochondria showed the opposite phenotype. This modulation in Ca2+ handling through changes in mitochondrial morphology interfered with the process of Store-Operated Ca2+ entry in the cells, showing that these modulations can have impacts in physiological contexts as well. Overall, this work both establishes novel mechanisms of modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and demonstrates their relevance both in pathology and normal cellular physiology


Mitocôndrias possuem um papel central no metabolismo das células, sendo responsáveis pela maioria da produção de ATP na maioria dos tipos celulares. Embora originalmente se pensasse nas mitocôndrias como organelas estáticas, focadas somente em manter os níveis adequados de ATP na célula, a interação entre a função mitocondrial e a sinalização celular tem sido fortemente reconhecida nas ultimas décadas. Dado este papel, não é surpreendente que mudanças no estado nutricional, tanto crônicas como na restrição calórica quanto em situações como o jejum em animais e a privação de nutrientes em cultura de células foram demonstradas como sendo um dos principais fatores que podem ativar estes mecanismos de sinalização. Uma das formas em que esta interação entre a mitocôndria e a célula ocorre é através do manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial, um processo em que sinais de Ca2+ gerados pela célula podem resultar em aumentos na [Ca2+] na matriz mitocondrial devido à presença do uniportador de Ca2+ mitocondrial na organelaEmbora o impacto do manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial na função da célula tenha sido amplamente estudado, a regulação do processo de manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial em si não é bem conhecida. Neste trabalho, nós nos propusemos a testar os efeitos de diferentes intervenções ligadas ao estado nutricional no manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial e o possível impacto destas modulações nacapacidade de retenção e na taxa de captação de Ca2+ mitochondrial. As intervenções estudadas foram a restrição calórica, jejum e mudanças na dinâmica mitocondrial, e todas elas resultando em mudanças no manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial, que foram medidos acompanhando a captação de Ca2+ em mitocôndrias isoladas ou células permeabilizadas utilizando a sonda Ca2+ Green 5N e em células intactas utilizando a sonda de Ca2+ citosólica Fura2-AM. Enquanto a restrição calórica resultou em uma maior capacidade de retenção de Ca2+ e em maiores taxas de captação, protegendo contra as condições patológicas de desregulação de Ca2+ observadas durante a isquemia/reperfusão, o jejum curto ou pela duração da noite resultou em uma diminuição na capacidade de retenção de Ca2+ e na oxidação fosforilativa mitocondriais. As mudanças observadas modulando a dinâmica mitocôndria (feitas utilizando-se mioblastos da linhagem C2C12) revelaram que mitocôndrias mais fragmentadas são menos capazes de captar Ca2+, enquanto mitocôndrias mais fusionadas possuem o fenótipo oposto. Essas mudanças no manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial interferem com o processo de Store-Operated Ca2+ entry nestas células, demonstrando que essas modulações da captação de Ca2+ mitocondrial também podem ser relevantes em contextos fisiológicos. Em resumo, este trabalho ajudou a estabelecer novos mecanismos de modulação do manejo de Ca2+ mitocondrial que podem ser relevantes tanto em condições patológicas quanto na fisiologia normal das células


Subject(s)
Calcium/analysis , Nutritional Status , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Cell Death/immunology , Myoblasts/classification , Mitochondria/chemistry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776506

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To apply hypoxia of different oxygen concentration on C2C12 cells to study the changes of Nrf2 antioxidant system under HO.@*METHODS@#The perfect simulative effect time and concentration of HO were chosen. Cell vitality was tested after C2C12 cells cultured in 0.1 mmol/L, 0.25 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L, 0.75 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L and 2 mmol/L HO for 1 or 2 h respectively. The C2C12 cells were divided into different oxygen concentration group: 21%O, 12%O, 8%O, 5%O respectively. And then cells were treated with HO for 1 h, and collected for determination. Immunofluorescence of Nrf2 and the protein expression of Nrf2 were detected. The expressions of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase(CAT), NADPH quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA and cellular ROS levels were tested by high quality fluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#0.5 mmol/L HO for 1 h was selected as the conditions of HOstimulation. Compared with 21% O group, the expressions of Nrf2 mRNA and protein, antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, CAT, HO-1, NQO-1, GPX-1 mRNA were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ROS level was lower (P<0.01) in 12%O group cells; only the expression of GPX-1 mRNA was increased (P<0.05) in 8%O group; the expressions of Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression, antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, NQO-1, GPX-1 mRNA were decreased significantly(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ROS level was higher (P<0.01) in 5%O group.@*CONCLUSION@#Hypoxia can affect the Nrf2 antioxidant system, and the different oxygen concentrations have different impact. In addition, 12% O for 12 h could promote the Nrf2 antioxidant system, and 5% extremely low oxygen may inhibit it.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Hydrogen Peroxide , Mice , Myoblasts , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761811

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial dysfunction is closely associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress in cells. On the other hand, modulation of the cellular antioxidant defense system by changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is largely unknown. To determine the relationship between the cellular mtDNA content and defense system against oxidative stress, this study examined a set of myoblasts containing a depleted or reverted mtDNA content. A change in the cellular mtDNA content modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in myoblasts. In particular, the expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were inversely correlated with the mtDNA content in myoblasts. The depletion of mtDNA decreased both the reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) slightly, whereas the cellular redox status, as assessed by the GSH/GSSG ratio, was similar to that of the control. Interestingly, the steady-state level of the intracellular ROS, which depends on the reciprocal actions between ROS generation and detoxification, was reduced significantly and the lethality induced by H₂O₂ was alleviated by mtDNA depletion in myoblasts. Therefore, these results suggest that the ROS homeostasis and antioxidant enzymes are modulated by the cellular mtDNA content and that the increased expression and activity of GPx and catalase through the depletion of mtDNA are closely associated with an alleviation of the oxidative stress in myoblasts.


Subject(s)
Catalase , DNA, Mitochondrial , Glutathione , Glutathione Disulfide , Glutathione Peroxidase , Hand , Homeostasis , Myoblasts , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761809

ABSTRACT

Anoctamin 5 (ANO5)/TMEM16E belongs to a member of the ANO/TMEM16 family member of anion channels. However, it is a matter of debate whether ANO5 functions as a genuine plasma membrane chloride channel. It has been recognized that mutations in the ANO5 gene cause many skeletal muscle diseases such as limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) and Miyoshi muscular dystrophy type 3 (MMD3) in human. However, the molecular mechanisms of the skeletal myopathies caused by ANO5 defects are poorly understood. To understand the role of ANO5 in skeletal muscle development and function, we silenced the ANO5 gene in C2C12 myoblasts and evaluated whether it impairs myogenesis and myotube function. ANO5 knockdown (ANO5-KD) by shRNA resulted in clustered or aggregated nuclei at the body of myotubes without affecting differentiation or myotube formation. Nuclear positioning defect of ANO5-KD myotubes was accompanied with reduced expression of Kif5b protein, a kinesin-related motor protein that controls nuclear transport during myogenesis. ANO5-KD impaired depolarization-induced [Ca²⁺]i transient and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca²⁺ storage. ANO5-KD resulted in reduced protein expression of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and SR Ca²⁺-ATPase subtype 1. In addition, ANO5-KD compromised co-localization between DHPR and ryanodine receptor subtype 1. It is concluded that ANO5-KD causes nuclear positioning defect by reduction of Kif5b expression, and compromises Ca²⁺ signaling by downregulating the expression of DHPR and SERCA proteins.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Cell Membrane , Chloride Channels , Humans , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Myoblasts , RNA, Small Interfering , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761799

ABSTRACT

Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to be a representative skin disorder, it also affects the systemic immune response. In a recent study, myoblasts were shown to be involved in the immune regulation, but the roles of muscle cells in AD are poorly understood. We aimed to identify the relationship between mitochondria and atopy by genome-wide analysis of skeletal muscles in mice. We induced AD-like symptoms using house dust mite (HDM) extract in NC/Nga mice. The transcriptional profiles of the untreated group and HDM-induced AD-like group were analyzed and compared using microarray, differentially expressed gene and functional pathway analyses, and protein interaction network construction. Our microarray analysis demonstrated that immune response-, calcium handling-, and mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology pathway analyses, immune response pathways involved in cytokine interaction, nuclear factor-kappa B, and T-cell receptor signaling, calcium handling pathways, and mitochondria metabolism pathways involved in the citrate cycle were significantly upregulated. In protein interaction network analysis, chemokine family-, muscle contraction process-, and immune response-related genes were identified as hub genes with many interactions. In addition, mitochondrial pathways involved in calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidation-reduction process, and calcium-mediated signaling were significantly stimulated in KEGG and Gene Ontology analyses. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the genome-wide transcriptional changes of HDM-induced AD-like symptoms and the indicated genes that could be used as AD clinical biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Citric Acid , Citric Acid Cycle , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Ontology , Genome , Metabolism , Mice , Microarray Analysis , Mitochondria , Muscle Cells , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Myocardium , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Interaction Maps , Pyroglyphidae , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Skin
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The liver is an organ with remarkable regenerative capacity; however, once chronic fibrosis occurs, liver failure follows, with high mortality and morbidity rates. Continuous exposure to proinflammatory stimuli exaggerates the pathological process of liver failure; therefore, immune modulation is a potential strategy to treat liver fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with tissue regenerative and immunomodulatory potential may support the development of therapeutics for liver fibrosis. METHODS: Here, we induced hepatic injury in mice by injecting carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) and investigated the therapeutic potential of conditionedmedium from tonsil-derivedMSCs (T-MSCCM). In parallel, we used recombinant human IL-1Ra,which, as we have previously shown, is secreted exclusively from T-MSCs and resolves the fibrogenic activation of myoblasts. Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were determined by histological analyses using H&E and Picro-Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that T-MSC CM treatment significantly reduced inflammation as well as fibrosis in the CCl₄-injured mouse liver. IL-1Ra injection showed effects similar to T-MSC CM treatment, suggesting that T-MSC CM may exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects via the endogenous production of IL-1Ra. The expression of genes involved in fibrosis was evaluated, and the results showed significant induction of alpha-1 type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases 1 upon CCl₄ injection, whereas treatment with T-MSC CM or IL-1Ra downregulated their expression. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data support the therapeutic potential of T-MSC CM and/or IL-1Ra for the alleviation of liver fibrosis, as well as in treating diseases involving organ fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Collagen Type I , Culture Media, Conditioned , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Failure , Liver , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metalloproteases , Mice , Mortality , Myoblasts , Transforming Growth Factor beta
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727855

ABSTRACT

Myoblast fusion depends on mitochondrial integrity and intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling regulated by various ion channels. In this study, we investigated the ionic currents associated with [Ca²⁺]i regulation in normal and mitochondrial DNA-depleted (ρ0) L6 myoblasts. The ρ0 myoblasts showed impaired myotube formation. The inwardly rectifying K⁺ current (I(Kir)) was largely decreased with reduced expression of KIR2.1, whereas the voltage-operated Ca²⁺ channel and Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel currents were intact. Sustained inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport by antimycin A treatment (24 h) also decreased the I(Kir). The ρ0 myoblasts showed depolarized resting membrane potential and higher basal [Ca²⁺]ᵢ. Our results demonstrated the specific downregulation of I(Kir) by dysfunctional mitochondria. The resultant depolarization and altered Ca²⁺ signaling might be associated with impaired myoblast fusion in ρ0 myoblasts.


Subject(s)
Antimycin A , Down-Regulation , Electron Transport , Ion Channels , Membrane Potentials , Mitochondria , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Oxidative Phosphorylation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739498

ABSTRACT

Sumoylation, the conjugation of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein to a target, has diverse cellular effects. However, the functional roles of the SUMO modification during myogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that basal sumoylation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) enhances the deacetylation of MyoD in undifferentiated myoblasts, whereas further sumoylation of HDAC1 contributes to switching its binding partners from MyoD to Rb to induce myocyte differentiation. Differentiation in C2C12 skeletal myoblasts induced new immunoblot bands above HDAC1 that were gradually enhanced during differentiation. Using SUMO inhibitors and sumoylation assays, we showed that the upper band was caused by sumoylation of HDAC1 during differentiation. Basal deacetylase activity was not altered in the SUMO modification-resistant mutant HDAC1 K444/476R (HDAC1 2R). Either differentiation or transfection of SUMO1 increased HDAC1 activity that was attenuated in HDAC1 2R. Furthermore, HDAC1 2R failed to deacetylate MyoD. Binding of HDAC1 to MyoD was attenuated by K444/476R. Binding of HDAC1 to MyoD was gradually reduced after 2 days of differentiation. Transfection of SUMO1 induced dissociation of HDAC1 from MyoD but potentiated its binding to Rb. SUMO1 transfection further attenuated HDAC1-induced inhibition of muscle creatine kinase luciferase activity that was reversed in HDAC1 2R. HDAC1 2R failed to inhibit myogenesis and muscle gene expression. In conclusion, HDAC1 sumoylation plays a dual role in MyoD signaling: enhancement of HDAC1 deacetylation of MyoD in the basally sumoylated state of undifferentiated myoblasts and dissociation of HDAC1 from MyoD during myogenesis.


Subject(s)
Creatine Kinase, MM Form , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylase 1 , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Luciferases , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Myoblasts , Myoblasts, Skeletal , Sumoylation , Transfection
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of 650 nm laser irradiation on cell oxygen consumption rate in CC myoblasts following different doses.@*METHODS@#CC cells were irradiated with 650 nm laser(λ=650 nm, p=5 mW) with energy densities of 0, 0.4, and 0.8 J/cm. Cell oxidative function was measured by oxygen consumption rate kit. Protein expression of myogenic determination factor (MyoD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its phosphorylation were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared to the control group, the expression levels of MyoD, PGC-1α protein were increased and cell oxygen consumption rate was promoted in the low dose group(<0.05). MyoD and PGC-1α protein expressions were also increased(<0.05), the ratio of mTOR and its phosphorylationwere decreased significantly in the high dose group(<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#650 nm laser irradiation that dose is 0.4 J/cm enhances cell oxidative function, it related to that proper dose laser irradiation promoted the expression of PGC-1a protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Mice , Myoblasts , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxygen Consumption , Transcription Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107083

ABSTRACT

The cytokine-like hormone leptin is a classic adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, increases with weight gain, and decreases with weight loss. Additional studies have, however, shown that leptin is also produced by skeletal muscle, and leptin receptors are abundant in both skeletal muscle and bone-derived mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in muscle-bone crosstalk. Leptin treatment in vitro increases the expression of myogenic genes in primary myoblasts, and leptin treatment in vivo increases the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenesis. Bone marrow adipogenesis is associated with low bone mass in humans and rodents, and leptin can reduce marrow adipogenesis centrally through its receptors in the hypothalamus as well as directly via its receptors in bone marrow stem cells. Yet, central leptin resistance can increase with age, and low circulating levels of leptin have been observed among the frail elderly. Thus, aging appears to significantly alter leptin-mediated crosstalk among various organs and tissues. Aging is associated with bone loss and muscle atrophy, contributing to frailty, postural instability, and the incidence of falls. Therapeutic interventions such as protein and amino acid supplementation that can increase muscle mass and muscle-derived leptin may have multiple benefits for the elderly that can potentially reduce the incidence of falls and fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Adipokines , Aged , Aging , Bone Marrow , Frail Elderly , Humans , Hypothalamus , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Leptin , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , MicroRNAs , Muscle Development , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy , Myoblasts , Osteoporosis , Receptors, Leptin , Rodentia , Sarcopenia , Stem Cells , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222890

ABSTRACT

Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes. The protein level of HOXC10 inversely correlates with brown fat genes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. Expression of HOXC10 in mice suppresses cold-induced browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and abolishes the beneficial effect of cold exposure on glucose clearance. HOXC10 exerts its effect, at least in part, by suppressing PRDM16 expression. The results support that HOXC10 is a key negative regulator of the process of browning in white adipose tissue.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Ectopic Gene Expression , Energy Metabolism , Genes, Homeobox , Glucose , Mice , Myoblasts , Thermogenesis , Transcription Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54238

ABSTRACT

BMP-2 is a well-known TGF-beta related growth factor, having a significant role in bone and cartilage formation. It has been employed to promote bone formation in some clinical trials, and to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. However, it is difficult to obtain this protein in its soluble and active form. hBMP-2 is expressed as an inclusion body in the bacterial system. To continuously supply hBMP-2 for research, we optimized the refolding of recombinant hBMP-2 expressed in E. coli, and established an efficient method by using detergent and alkali. Using a heparin column, the recombinant hBMP-2 was purified with the correct refolding. Although combinatorial refolding remarkably enhanced the solubility of the inclusion body, a higher yield of active dimer form of hBMP-2 was obtained from one-step refolding with detergent. The refolded recombinant hBMP-2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity in mouse myoblasts, at ED₅₀ of 300-480ng/ml. Furthermore, the expressions of osteogenic markers were upregulated in hPDLSCs and hDPSCs. Therefore, using the process described in this study, the refolded hBMP-2 might be cost-effectively useful for various differentiation experiments in a laboratory.


Subject(s)
Alkalies , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Cartilage , Detergents , Heparin , Humans , Inclusion Bodies , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Mice , Myoblasts , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Solubility , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the expression levels of p65 and S100 in the rat masseter muscle after the injection of different concentrations of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A). METHODS: We injected either 5 or 10 U of BTX-A into both masseter muscle of rats. As a control group, the same volume of saline was injected. After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed. Subsequently, a biopsy and immunohistochemical staining of the samples were performed using a p65 or S100 antibody. RESULTS: The cross-sectional area of each myofibril was significantly reduced by BTX-A injection (P < 0.001). The expression of p65 and S100 increased significantly with increasing concentrations of BTX-A (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The injection of BTX-A into the masseter muscle induced muscle atrophy. Subsequently, p65 and S100 expression in myoblasts were increased for the protection of muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Biopsy , Masseter Muscle , Muscle Cells , Muscular Atrophy , Myoblasts , Myofibrils , Rats
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57437

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Exosomes , Flow Cytometry , Microarray Analysis , MicroRNAs , Microscopy, Confocal , Myoblasts , Rats , S Phase , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Trypan Blue
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78632

ABSTRACT

Replication-independent incorporation of variant histone H3.3 has a profound impact on chromatin function and numerous cellular processes, including the differentiation of muscle cells. The histone chaperone HIRA and H3.3 have essential roles in MyoD regulation during myoblast differentiation. However, the precise mechanism that determines the onset of H3.3 deposition in response to differentiation signals is unclear. Here we show that HIRA is phosphorylated by Akt kinase, an important signaling modulator in muscle cells. By generating a phosphospecific antibody, we found that a significant amount of HIRA was phosphorylated in myoblasts. The phosphorylation level of HIRA and the occupancy of phosphorylated protein on muscle genes gradually decreased during cellular differentiation. Remarkably, the forced expression of the phosphomimic form of HIRA resulted in reduced H3.3 deposition and suppressed the activation of muscle genes in myotubes. Our data show that HIRA phosphorylation limits the expression of myogenic genes, while the dephosphorylation of HIRA is required for proficient H3.3 deposition and gene activation, demonstrating that the phosphorylation switch is exploited to modulate HIRA/H3.3-mediated muscle gene regulation during myogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Phospho-Specific , Chromatin , Histones , Muscle Cells , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Transcriptional Activation
18.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 21(2): 58-68, jul.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-776363

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La función tisular se basa en la asociación celular y la comunicación mediante uniones intercelulares o la matriz extracelular, que compone el tejido conectivo. La isquemia conlleva a cambios de lesión a los cuales las células responden según duración e intensidad del estímulo de lesión. En periodos cortos de isquemia y prolongados de reperfusión, el tejido muscular estriado esquelético presenta cambios en la predominancia de los tipos de fibras musculares y en los componentes de la matriz extracelular intramuscular. Objetivo: Establecer los cambios que se presentan en el músculo esquelético durante la reperfusión prolongada, tanto en las fibras musculares como en su matriz extracelular. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática mediante la búsqueda de artículos en inglés y español publicados en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos Ovid Medline, PubMed, Wiley y Science Direct. Los descriptores MESH utilizados fueron skeletal muscle, ischemia, reperfusion, fiber type fast twitch, fiber type slow twitch, sarcomere and myoblast. Se acoplaron los términos histology y tissue. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 81 publicaciones y se complementó con imágenes de músculos esqueléticos provenientes de muestras procesadas en el Laboratorio de Histología de la Universidad del Valle, Colombia. Conclusión: La recuperación del músculo durante la reperfusión seguida de isquemia, tiende hacia el patrón histológico y funcional normal. En algunos casos es un proceso lento y que aún después de varios meses no ha finalizado. Así mismo, pueden persistir alteraciones leves o moderadas en la contracción muscular, dados los cambios que se presentan en la matriz extracelular intramuscular.


Introduction: The tissue function is based on the cell association andcommunication through junctions or the extracellular matrix, which comprisesconnective tissue. Ischemia injury leads to changes to which the cells respondand it depends on duration and intensity of stimulus injury. In short periodsof prolonged ischemia and reperfusion, skeletal striated muscle tissue showschanges in the predominance of muscle fiber types and components of theextracellular matrix intramuscular. Objective: To determine the changes whichoccur in skeletal muscle during prolonged reperfusion in both muscle fibersin its extracellular matrix. Methods: A systematic review was performed bysearching for articles in English and Spanish published in journals indexed indatabases Ovid Medline, PubMed, Science Direct and Wiley. MeSH descriptorsused were skeletal muscle, ischemia, reperfusion, fast twitch fiber type, slowtwitch fiber type, sarcomere and myoblast. The terms tissue and histology werecoupled. Results: 81 relevant publications were selected and supplementedwith images of skeletal muscles from samples processed at the Laboratory ofHistology of the Universidad del Valle, Colombia. Conclusion: The recoveryof muscle during ischemia followed by reperfusion, tends toward the normalhistological and functional pattern. In some cases it is a slow process and evenafter several months has not been completed. Likewise, they may persist mildor moderate alterations in muscle contraction, given the changes that occur inthe intramuscular extracellular matrix.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemia , Muscle, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Reperfusion
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(4): 764-772, July-Aug. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa) is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs). Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD) into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI)–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Desmin/metabolism , MyoD Protein/genetics , Myoblasts/cytology , RNA, Double-Stranded , Stem Cells/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , MyoD Protein/metabolism , Myoblasts/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Promoter Regions, Genetic/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stem Cells/metabolism , Transfection , Transcriptional Activation/physiology , Urethra/pathology , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/genetics , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317811

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study investigated the role and mechanism of calcineurin (CaN)-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway in the myoblast apoptosis induced by cyclic tensile strain.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Myoblasts were cultured using an in vitro-mechanical stimulation model and imposed with tension for different hours with a multi-channel cell stress loading system. Cyclosporine (CsA) was used as CaN inhibitor to clarify the role of CaN in the apoptosis induced by cyclic stress. Hochest 33258 staining and flow cytometry detection were performed to detect the apoptotic cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted to detect the mRNA expression of CaN and NFAT. Protein levels of NFAT3 were evaluated by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The apoptosis rate increased with the extension of loading time. The mRNA expression of the CaN subunits, CnA and CnB, and the protein levels of NFAT3 also increased. When the myoblasts were incubated with CsA, the apoptosis rate decreased, the mRNA expression of CnA and NFAT3 significantly decreased, and the NFAT3 protein expression levels became significantly lower than those of the groups without CsA.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Continuous cyclic tensile stress can induce myoblast apoptosis. The CaN-NFAT signaling pathway may be involved in the cyclic stretch-induced apoptosis of myoblasts.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Calcineurin , Genetics , Cyclosporine , Flow Cytometry , Myoblasts , Physiology , NFATC Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL