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1.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 23(40): 27-36, dic.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1401417

ABSTRACT

Determinar el nivel de información sobre factores de riesgo de Infarto agudo de miocardio en los pacientes ambulatorios que asisten a una institución de salud de la provincia de Corrientes año 2021. Metodología: Estudio cuantitativo descriptivo, transversal y observacional. Muestra obtenida mediante muestreo probabilístico aleatorio simple compuesta por 108 pacientes que asistieron a los consultorios de Diabetes, Presurometría y Hospital de Día. Se aplicó un cuestionario validado mediante una prueba piloto. Variables: edad, sexo, nivel de instrucción, Nivel de información sobre alimentación, hábitos nocivos, actividad física y preguntas generales. Los resultados fueron volcados a una matriz diseñada en programa Excel. Resultados: La población en estudio presento una mediana de edad de 43, moda 39 y predomino del sexo masculino 56%, sobre el femenino 44%, en el nivel de instrucción prevaleció el secundario completo 19% seguido de primario incompleto 15%. Abordando los niveles de información sobre factores de riesgo de Infarto agudo de miocardio predominaron los niveles altos en todas las variables trabajadas, obteniendo un nivel general de información alto del 82%, se apreció en la alimentación 65%, hábitos nocivos 70%, aspectos generales un 86% y actividad física 48%. Conclusión: Esta investigación remarca la importancia de la educación permanente y en etapas tempranas sobre los factores de riesgo de Infarto Agudo de Miocardio. La población en estudio presento un nivel alto de información. No obstante, la educación debe fomentarse para llegar al 37% restante que obtuvo niveles inferiores[AU]


To determine the level of information on risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in outpatients attending a health institution in the province of Corrientes in 2021. Methodology: Quantitative descriptive, cross-sectional and observational study. Sample obtained by simple random probabilistic sampling made up of 108 patients who attended the Diabetes, Blood Pressure and Day Hospital clinics. A validated questionnaire was applied by means of a pilot test. Variables: age, sex, level of education, level of information on food, harmful habits, physical activity and general questions. Te results were dumped into a matrix designed in Excel program. Results: Te population under study presented a median age of 43, mode 39 and a predominance of males 56%, over females 44%, on the level of education the complete secondary prevailed 19% followed by incomplete primary 15%. Addressing the levels of information on risk factors for acute myocardial infarction, high levels predominated in all the variables worked on, obtaining a high general level of information of 82%, disaggregating 65%, harmful habits 70%, aspects general 86% and physical activity 48%. Conclusion: Tis research highlights the importance of permanent education and in early stages about the risk factors of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Te study population presented a high level of information. However, education should be encouraged to reach the remaining 37% who obtained lower levels[AU]


: Determinar o nível de informação sobre fatores de risco para infarto agudo do miocárdio em pacientes ambulatoriais atendidos em uma instituição de saúde na província de Corrientes em 2021. Metodologia: Estudo quantitativo descritivo, transversal e observacional. Amostra obtida por amostragem probabilística aleatória simples composta por 108 pacientes atendidos nas clínicas de Diabetes, Pressão Arterial e Hospital Dia. Foi aplicado um questionário validado por meio de teste piloto. Variáveis: idade, sexo, escolaridade, nível de informação sobre alimentação, hábitos nocivos, atividade física e questões gerais. Os resultados foram despejados em uma matriz projetada no programa Excel. Resultados: A população em estudo apresentou mediana de idade de 43 anos, moda 39 e predominância do sexo masculino 56%, sobre o feminino 44%, no nível de escolaridade o ensino médio completo prevaleceu 19% seguido do ensino fundamental incompleto 15%. Abordando os níveis de informação sobre fatores de risco para infarto agudo do miocárdio, predominaram níveis elevados em todas as variáveis trabalhadas, obtendo um nível geral de informação elevado de 82%, desagregando 65%, hábitos nocivos 70%, aspectos gerais 86% e atividade física 48%. Conclusão: Esta pesquisa destaca a importância da educação permanente e precoce sobre os fatores de risco do Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio. A população do estudo apresentou um alto nível de informação. No entanto, a educação deve ser incentivada para atingir os 37% restantes que obtiveram níveis mais baixos[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Exercise , Risk Factors , Diet , Arterial Pressure , Habits , Myocardial Infarction
2.
Medisan ; 26(5)sept.-oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405846

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus se encuentra entre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles más comunes en el mundo, y se estima que para el 2030 será diagnosticada en 7,7 % de la población mayor de 18 años, es decir, en 430 millones de individuos. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes diabéticos que presentaron infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, según variables clinicoepidemiológicas, electrocardiográficas, ecocardiográficas y terapéuticas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019, de 137 pacientes con antecedente de diabetes mellitus que presentaron infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, atendidos en el Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron la edad, el sexo, la clase funcional, las complicaciones, la función sistólica y la diastólica del ventrículo izquierdo, la terapia de reperfusión empleada y el estado del paciente al egreso. Resultados: En la serie predominaron el sexo masculino y el grupo etario mayor de 60 y más años. Se observó que el infarto agudo de miocardio en la topografía anterior presentara más complicaciones, así como mayor número de pacientes con tratamiento trombolítico y combinado. Asimismo, la mayoría de los pacientes egresaron vivos, lo cual se correspondió, además, con que recibieran terapia trombolítica. Al analizar a los pacientes con alteraciones segmentarias en el estudio ecocardiográfico, se obtuvo una primacía de los fallecidos en ese grupo en cuestión. Conclusiones: Los pacientes diabéticos que presentan infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST constituyen un grupo independiente con especificidades clínicas y ecocardiográficas y mayor riesgo de complicaciones mortales.


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is not among the most common chronic non communicable diseases in the world, and is considered that by 2030 it will be diagnosed in the 7.7 % of the population over 18 years, that is to say, in 430 million individuals. Objective: To characterize diabetic patients that presented acute heart attack with elevation of the ST segment, according to clinical epidemiological, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and therapeutic variables. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from January to December, 2019 of 137 patients with history of diabetes mellitus that presented acute heart attack with elevation of the ST segment, assisted in the Cardiology Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba. Among the analyzed variables figured the age, sex, functional class, complications, systolic and dyastolic function of the left ventricle, the therapy of reperfusion used and the state of the patient when discharged from the hospital. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the male sex and the 60 and over age group. It was observed that the acute heart attack in the previous topography presented more complications, as well as higher number of patients with thrombolitic and combined treatment. Also, most of the patients were alive when discharged from the hospital, which also corresponded with the thrombolitic therapy received. When analyzing the patients with segmental alterations in the echocardiographic study, a primacy of the deceaseds was obtained in that group. Conclusions: The diabetic patients that present acute heart attack with elevation of the ST segment constitute an independent group with clinical and echocardiographic specificities, and more risk of mortal complications.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Myocardial Infarction , Echocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
3.
Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 213-217, jul.-ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395859

ABSTRACT

La cardiopatía isquémica es un padecimiento que se caracteriza por la falta de oxígeno del músculo cardiaco y es la principal causa de infarto de miocardio. Existen múltiples factores que predisponen al desarrollo de ésta como la obesidad, la hiperlipidemia, el sedenta- rismo, tabaquismo, diabetes e hipertensión. Dadas las características que configuran la fisiopatología de la cardiopatía isquémica, existen diversas consideraciones que deben ser tomadas en cuenta toda vez que el estomatólogo brinde atención a un paciente con este padecimiento. El objetivo del presente artículo es conocer todo lo relacionado con la fisiopatología de la cardiopatía isquémica, sus manifestaciones clínicas, su tratamiento médico y lo más importante, las consideraciones que deben tomarse en el consultorio dental cuando se atienda a un paciente que padezca esta condición (AU)


Ischemic heart disease is a condition characterized by a lack of oxygen in the heart muscle and is the main cause of myocardial infarction. There are multiple factors that predispose to the development of this, such as obesity, hiyperlipidemia, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, diabetes and hypertension. Given the characteristics that make up the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease, there are various considerations that must be taken into account whenever the stomatologist provides care to a patient with this condition. The objective of this article is to know everything related to the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease, its clinical manifestation, its medical treatment and most importantly, the considerations that must be taken in the dental office when caring for a patient with this condition (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Dental Care for Chronically Ill/methods , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Sedentary Behavior , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Nitrates/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 46(1): 271-282, 20220707.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379951

ABSTRACT

Capaz de resolver cerca de 80% de todas as necessidades em saúde, a Atenção Primária se tornou uma das principais e mais eficientes estratégias do Sistema Único de Saúde. Diante da histórica carência e má distribuição do profissional médico no Brasil, o Programa Mais Médicos viabilizou o provimento do profissional nas localidades mais longínquas. Em parceria com o Programa Nacional Telessaúde Brasil Redes, o diagnóstico pode chegar em todos os lugares do país, possibilitando assistência e controle das patologias de maior morbimortalidade. Um exemplo é o infarto agudo do miocárdio, no qual "tempo é vida", pois, para cada dez minutos de retardo na instituição da terapia de reperfusão, reduz-se a expectativa de vida do paciente em 120 dias. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar uma experiência exitosa que envolveu a articulação resolutiva da rede pública de saúde a partir da Atenção Primária e do Programa Mais Médicos. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, qualitativo, no qual se buscou descrever a pronta assistência a um paciente com infarto agudo do miocárdio em uma zona rural. O resultado mostrou que uma Atenção Básica resolutiva e integrada aos demais níveis de assistência é possível, permitindo que o paciente infartado seja beneficiado a tempo pela reperfusão miocárdica e impactando de forma positiva seu prognóstico e qualidade de vida. A experiência forneceu estímulo para busca contínua de superação e enfrentamento dos desafios, assim como do aperfeiçoamento da gestão pública da saúde.


Capable of solving nearly 80% of all health needs, Primary Care has become one of the main and most efficient strategies in the Unified Health System. Given the historic shortage and poor distribution of medical professionals in Brazil, the Mais Médicos Program made it possible to provide professionals in remote locations. In partnership with the National Telehealth Brazil Networks Program, diagnosis can reach all parts of Brazil, enabling treatment and control of pathologies with greater morbidity and mortality. One example is acute myocardial infarction, in which "time is life," because for every 10-minute delay in instituting reperfusion therapy, life expectancy is reduced by 120 days. Given this scenario, this paper reports on a successful experience that involved the resolutive articulation of the public health network from Primary Care and the More Doctors Program. This descriptive and qualitative study describes the prompt care of a patient with acute myocardial infarction in a rural area. Results shows that a resolutive Primary Care integrated with other levels of care is possible, allowing the infarcted patient to benefit in time from myocardial reperfusion and positively impacting their prognosis and quality of life. The experience encouraged continuous search to overcome and face the challenges, as well as to improve public health management.


Con la capacidad de resolución de cerca del 80% de todas las necesidades de salud, la Atención Primaria se ha convertido en una de las principales y más eficientes estrategias del Sistema Único de Salud. En vista de la escasez estructural histórica y la mala distribución de los profesionales médicos en Brasil, el Programa Más Médicos hizo posible la provisión de profesionales a lugares más distantes. En una alianza con el Programa Redes Nacionales de Telesalud Brasil, el diagnóstico puede llegar a todos los lugares del país, posibilitando la asistencia y el control de patologías con mayor morbimortalidad. Un ejemplo es el infarto agudo de miocardio, en el que "el tiempo es vida", pues por cada 10 minutos de retraso en la instauración de la terapia de reperfusión, la esperanza de vida se reduce en 120 días. El objetivo de este trabajo es evidenciar una experiencia exitosa que involucró la articulación resolutiva de la red pública de salud con base en la Atención Primaria y el Programa Más Médicos. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, que buscó describir la atención oportuna de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio en una zona rural. El resultado mostró que es posible una Atención Primaria resolutiva e integrada con los demás niveles asistenciales, que permita que el paciente infartado sea beneficiado a tiempo por la reperfusión miocárdica, lo que impacta positivamente en su pronóstico y calidad de vida. La experiencia sirvió de estímulo para la búsqueda continua de superación y enfrentamiento de los desafíos, así como de la mejora de la gestión en salud pública.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Unified Health System , Life Expectancy , Early Diagnosis , Health Consortia , Myocardial Infarction
5.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 75-80, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397652

ABSTRACT

Sudden death is the most serious complication of acute coronary syndromes. The highest percentage occurs at home with a very low survival rate. The highest risk group are patients with ejection fraction under 40% after an acute myocardial infarction. So far the indication of the clinical practice guides are the implantation of ICD as a secondary prevention, and as a primary prevention when the systolic function is severely diminished, however there is an interval of 40 days in which the implant has not managed to demonstrate benefits. In this critical period patients should be managed with beta-blockers. So far, the absolute benefit of using portable cardioverter-defibrillators as a prophylactic bridge to the ICD implant has not been demonstrated. The following revision is based on the most relevant clinical practice guides in the field carried out in relation to a clinical case


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Coronary Angiography , Defibrillators, Implantable
6.
Lima; Perú. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 125 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1373372

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación en versión extensa, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición, la población a la cual se aplicará la GPC:, o sea los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntoma. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) es una emergencia médica, producto de la oclusión de las arterias coronarias, que conllevan a la isquemia miocárdica transmural, y que de persistir lleva a una lesión miocárdica o necrosis. Se ha reportado una mortalidad de la enfermedad del 23 % antes de llegar al hospital, 13% durante el ingreso hospitalario, y de 10% posterior al alta. Lo cual, inclusive, puede aumentar en ausencia de tratamiento entre un 5 a 10% (2). En el caso de Perú, se ha reportado una por IMCEST de aproximadamente 9%, pero con una incidencia de insuficiencia cardíaca posinfarto fue de 28% y de choque cardiogénico de 12% (3). Esta alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad hace hincapié en la necesidad de garantizar una evaluación y manejo adecuado de la enfermedad. Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer lineamientos basados en evidencia para gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición


Subject(s)
Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Wounds and Injuries , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
7.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7516-7527, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372415

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, epidemiológico, clínico e os desfechos dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio em um pronto socorro. Método: estudo descritivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado através de dados secundários de pacientes infartados. Resultados: a idade predominante foi entre 50-59 anos, sendo em sua maioria homens, pardos, casados. Foram acometidos com infarto com Supradesnivelamento de ST, apresentando precordialgia, sendo hipertensos, diabéticos, com sobrepeso/obesidade além de histórico de tabagismo. Os infartados apresentaram quadro hipertensivo na admissão, e durante a internação necessitaram de drogas vasoativas e suporte de oxigênio. O principal tratamento utilizado foi uso de fibrinolíticos, tendo como desfecho a transferência para hospitais cardiológicos. Conclusão: Há necessidade de aprimorar e intensificar a prevenção de fatores de riscos, elaborar protocolos e dispor de recursos capazes de proporcionar um atendimento adequado(AU)


Objective: to identify the sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical profile and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction in an emergency department. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out using secondary data from infarcted patients. Results: the predominant age was between 50-59 years, being mostly men, brown, married. They were affected with infarction with ST elevation, presenting chest pain, being hypertensive, diabetic, overweight/ obese, in addition to a history of smoking. The infarcted patients presented with hypertension on admission, and during hospitalization they required vasoactive drugs and oxygen support. The main treatment used was the use of fibrinolytics, with the outcome being transfer to cardiology hospitals. Conclusion: There is a need to improve and intensify the prevention of risk factors, develop protocols and have resources capable of providing adequate care.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar el perfil sociodemográfico, epidemiológico, clínico y evolución de los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio en un servicio de urgencias. Método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado con datos secundarios de pacientes infartados. Resultados: la edad predominante fue entre 50-59 años, siendo en su mayoría hombres, morenos, casados. Se encontraban afectados de infarto con elevación del segmento ST, presentaban dolor torácico, eran hipertensos, diabéticos, con sobrepeso/obesidad, además de antecedentes de tabaquismo. Los pacientes infartados presentaban hipertensión arterial al ingreso y durante la hospitalización requirieron fármacos vasoactivos y soporte de oxígeno. El principal tratamiento utilizado fue el uso de fibrinolíticos, con resultado de traslado a hospitales de cardiología. Conclusión: Existe la necesidad de mejorar e intensificar la prevención de los factores de riesgo, desarrollar protocolos y contar con recursos capaces de brindar una atención adecuada(AU)


Subject(s)
Risk Factors , Emergency Service, Hospital , Myocardial Infarction
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 556-564, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364349

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Cerca de 40% dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST) no Brasil não recebem terapia de reperfusão. Objetivo A utilização de uma rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® poderia aumentar a porcentagem de pacientes que recebem terapia de reperfusão. Métodos Estudo transversal do tipo antes e depois da organização de uma rede de telemedicina para envio e análise do eletrocardiograma através do WhatsApp® dos pacientes suspeitos de IAMCSST oriundos dos 25 municípios integrantes do Departamento Regional de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII), para hospital terciário que poderia autorizar a transferência imediata do paciente utilizando o mesmo sistema. O desfechos analisados foram a porcentagem de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Considerou-se valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Foram comparados 82 pacientes antes desta rede (1º de fevereiro de 2016 a 31 de janeiro de 2018) com 196 pacientes depois da implantação da mesma (1º de fevereiro de 2018 a 31 de janeiro de 2020). Após a implantação da rede, houve aumento significativo da proporção de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão (60% vs. 92%), risco relativo (RR): 1,594 [intervalo de confiança (IC) 95% 1,331 - 1,909], p <0,0001 e redução da mortalidade intra-hospitalar (13,4% vs. 5,6%), RR: 0,418 [IC 95% 0,189 - 0,927], p = 0,028. Conclusão Rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® associou-se a aumento da porcentagem de pacientes com IAMCSST que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a redução na mortalidade intra-hospitalar.


Abstract Background About 40% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Brazil do not receive reperfusion therapy. Objective The use of a telemedicine network based on WhatsApp® could increase the percentage of patients receiving reperfusion therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study analyzed outcomes before and after the organization of a telemedicine network to send the electrocardiogram via WhatsApp® of patients suspected of STEMI from 25 municipalities that are members of the Regional Health Department of Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII) to a tertiary hospital, which could authorize immediate patient transfer using the same system. The analyzed outcomes included the percentage of patients who received reperfusion therapy and the in-hospital mortality rate. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study compared 82 patients before (February 1, 2016 to January 31, 2018) with 196 patients after this network implementation (February 1, 2018 to January 31, 2020). After implementing this network, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients who received reperfusion therapy (60% vs. 92%), relative risk (RR): 1.594 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.331 - 1.909], p < 0.0001 and decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate (13.4% vs. 5.6%), RR: 0.418 [95%CI 0.189 - 0.927], p = 0.028. Conclusion The use of WhatsApp®-based telemedicine has led to an increase in the percentage of patients with STEMI who received reperfusion therapy and a decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Telemedicine , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality , Electrocardiography
10.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 75-79, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362712

ABSTRACT

Los aneurismas de las arterias coronarias (AAC) son poco comunes, con una incidencia de 0.3-5.3%. Se definen como una dilatación 1.5 veces mayor al diámetro interno de la arteria normal adyacente. La arteria coronaria derecha es la más comúnmente afectada. Su fisiopatología es poco clara, pero se cree que una de sus principales causas es la aterosclerosis. Los AAC son generalmente asintomáticos o pueden estar asociados a isquemia miocárdica. Su tratamiento aún no está bien establecido, debido al desconocimiento general sobre su historia natural, e incluye desde un manejo conservador hasta el tratamiento quirúrgico. A continuación, se reporta el caso de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio y elevación del segmento ST, llevado a coronariografía que evidenció aneurisma de la coronaria derecha, que requirió trombectomía, angioplastia y manejo médico vitalicio ambulatorio.


Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) are a rare entity with an incidence of 0.3-5.3%. They are dilations of 1.5 times larger than normal adjacent artery, with the right coronary artery as the most affected vessel. Its pathophysiology is unclear but atherosclerosis is believed to be the main cause. CAA are generally asymptomatic but can cause coronary ischemia. Its treatment is yet to be established due to general ignorance about its nature. It ranges from conservative management to surgery. In the following text, we report a case of a patient with acute myocardial infarction presenting ST-segment elevation, who showed a right coronary artery aneurysm in coronary angiography. The patient required thrombectomy, angioplasty and subsequent lifetime outpatient medical management.


Os aneurismas das artérias coronárias (AAC) são pouco comuns, com uma incidência de 0.3-5.3%. Se definem como uma dilatação 1.5 vezes maior ao diâmetro interno da artéria normal adjacente. A artéria coronária direita é a mais comumente afetada. Sua fisiopatologia é pouco clara, mas se crê que uma das suas principais causas é a aterosclerose. Os AAC são geralmente assintomáticos ou podem estar associados a isquemia miocárdica. Seu tratamento ainda não está bem estabelecido, devido ao desconhecimento geral sobre sua história natural, e inclui desde um manejo conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. A continuação, se reporta o caso de um paciente com infarto agudo de miocárdio e elevação do segmento ST, levado a coronariografia que evidenciou aneurisma da coronária direita, que requereu trombectomia, angioplastia e manejo médico vitalício ambulatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Ischemia , Angioplasty , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 39-45, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Abdominal obesity has been associated with cardiovascular disease and may be modulated by dietary intake. The deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT) is a body fat compartment that can be estimated by using mathematical formulas. Objectives: To evaluate the association between dSAT estimated by the Deep-Abdominal-Adipose-Tissue (DAAT) index and dietary intake in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to a tertiary hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, and anthropometric (body weight [kg], height [m], waist, hip and neck circumferences [cm]) data were evaluated. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to identify each patient's nutrient intake. The DAAT index was calculated according to specific formulas for men and women. Possible association between food intake and the DAAT index was evaluated by multiple linear regression. The level of significance adopted was 0.05. Results: This study evaluated 138 patients, with a mean age of 61.2±10.8 years. Prevalence of obesity was 29.4% in men and 37.7% in women. Regarding waist circumference, 83% of the women showed values considered to be very high. The DAAT index was significantly higher in men when compared to woman (P < 0.0001) and proved to be positively correlated with proteins (r= 0.22, P= 0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acid (r= 0.18, P= 0.04) intake in the entire sample. After adjustment for sex, alcohol consumption, and levels of physical activity, the DAAT index was associated with the female sex (B= −129.84, P <0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (B= 57.99, P <0.001). Conclusion: dSAT estimated by the DAAT index was not associated with dietary intake in patients with ACS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Eating/physiology , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Alcohol Drinking , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Waist Circumference , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Sedentary Behavior , Myocardial Infarction
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 178-182, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), may be a sign of bad prognosis. AIM: To estimate the long-term survival of patients with AMI who were studied with coronarography during 2013-2014 who had one or more CTO in a non-infarct-related artery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of coronary angiograms performed between 2013 and 2014 to patients with an AMI. Patients were grouped as having or not a CTO in a non-infarct-related artery. Their medical records were reviewed, and mortality was determined requesting their death certificates. RESULTS: Of 993 patients with AMI under-going coronarography, 233 (23.5%) had at least one CTO. Patients with CTO were older (66 and 62 years respectively). They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), kidney failure and moderate to severe systolic ventricular dysfunction. The independent predictors of mortality were CTO, age, DM and kidney failure. Survival at an average follow-up period of 57 months was significantly higher in patients without CTO (89.5 and 80.3% respectively, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CTO in patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and lower long-term survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Coronary Occlusion/complications , Coronary Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 24-32, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360124

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O paradoxo do fumante tem sido motivo de debate para pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IM) há mais de duas décadas. Embora haja muitas evidências demonstrando que não existe tal paradoxo, publicações defendendo desfechos melhores em fumantes pós-IM ainda são lançadas. Objetivo Explorar o efeito do fumo na mortalidade de longo prazo após infarto do miocárdio por elevação de ST (STEMI). Métodos Este estudo incluiu pacientes com STEMI que foram diagnosticados entre 2004 e 2006 em três centros terciários. Os pacientes foram categorizados de acordo com a exposição ao tabaco (Grupo 1: não-fumantes; Grupo 2: <20 pacotes*anos; Grupo 3: 2-040 pacotes*anos; Grupo 4: >40 pacotes*anos). Um modelo de regressão de Cox foi utilizado para estimar os riscos relativos para mortalidade de longo prazo. O valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Trezentos e treze pacientes (201 fumantes e 112 não-fumantes) foram acompanhados por um período médio de 174 meses. Os fumantes eram mais novos (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0,001), e a presença de fatores de risco cardiometabólicos foi mais prevalente entre os não-fumantes. Uma análise univariada do impacto do hábito de fumar na mortalidade revelou uma curva de sobrevivência melhor no Grupo 2 do que no Grupo 1. Porém, após ajustes para fatores de confusão, observou-se que os fumantes tinham um risco de morte significativamente maior. O risco relativo tornou-se maior de acordo com a maior exposição (Grupo 2 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 1,141; IC95%: 0,599 a 2.171; Grupo 3 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,130; IC95%: 1,236 a 3,670; Grupo 4 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,602; IC95%: 1,461 a 4,634). Conclusão O hábito de fumar gradualmente aumenta o risco de mortalidade por todas as causas após STEMI.


Abstract Background The smoking paradox has been a matter of debate for acute myocardial infarction patients for more than two decades. Although there is huge evidence claiming that is no real paradox, publications supporting better outcomes in post-MI smokers are still being released. Objective To explore the effect of smoking on very long-term mortality after ST Elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods This study included STEMI patients who were diagnosed between the years of 2004-2006 at three tertiary centers. Patients were categorized according to tobacco exposure (Group 1: non-smokers; Group 2: <20 package*years users, Group 3: 20-40 package*years users, Group 4: >40 package*years users). A Cox regression model was used to estimate the relative risks for very long-term mortality. P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results There were 313 patients (201 smokers, 112 non-smokers) who were followed-up for a median period of 174 months. Smokers were younger (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0.001), and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors were more prevalent in non-smokers. A univariate analysis of the impact of the smoking habit on mortality revealed a better survival curve in Group 2 than in Group 1. However, after adjustment for confounders, it was observed that smokers had a significantly increased risk of death. The relative risk became higher with increased exposure (Group 2 vs. Group 1; HR: 1.141; 95% CI: 0.599 to 2.171, Group 3 vs Group 1; HR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.236 to 3.670, Group 4 vs Group 1; HR: 2.602; 95% CI: 1.461 to 4.634). Conclusion Smoking gradually increases the risk of all-cause mortality after STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Smoking/adverse effects , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 112-121, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353016

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, que ingresa con cuadro clínico caracterizado por dolor precordial de tipo opresivo con irradiación a cuello y mandíbula, cuya intensidad era de 8/10 atendiendo a la escala del dolor visual análoga (EVA). Además, manifestó diaforesis, disnea de pequeños esfuerzos, hiposmia y ageusia. El diagnóstico establecido fue de infección por coronavirus más infarto del miocardio. Las condiciones extraordinarias generadas por la pandemia de Covid-19 provocó que se decidiera una intervención mediante tratamiento fibrinolítico, obteniendo resultados positivos


The case of a 43-year-old male patient is presented, who is admitted with a clinical picture characterized by Chest pain of an oppressive type with irradiation to the neck and jaw, whose intensity was 8/10 according to the analogous visual pain scale (VAS). In addition, he manifes-ted diaphoresis, dyspnea on small efforts, hyposmia and ageusia. The determined diagnosis was coronavirus infection plus myocardial infarction. The extraordinary conditions generated by the Covid-19 pandemic led to an intervention by fibrinolytic treatment being decided, obtaining positive results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Diagnosis , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Patients , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections
16.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e55845, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366721

ABSTRACT

The effects of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis (Ip)and the flavonoid quercetin were tested during the induction of in vivomyocardial ischemia/ reperfusion in Rattus norvegicus. The antioxidant power of the extract and quercetin were chemically determined. The experimental groups were: control, ischemia/reperfusion induction, Iporal treatment, Iporal treatment and ischemia /reperfusion, quercetin oral treatment, and quercetin oral treatment and ischemia/reperfusion. Rats were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and xylazine via intraperitoneal injection and subsequently underwent 15 minutes of ischemia followed by 15 minutes of reperfusion. Ischemia was promoted by tying the left anterior descending coronary artery. Areas of risk and infarction were stained by intravenous Evans blue and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant capacity against peroxylradicals, and lipid peroxidation of the myocardium were quantified. A significant reduction in areas of risk and infarction was detected in the ischemic myocardium treated with Ipand quercetin; ROS generation and lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced, and the antioxidant capacity was elevated. Oral administration of Ippromoted antioxidant benefits in the myocardium during ischemia and reperfusion, which reduced infarction. We suggest that Mate (a hot drink made from steeped dried leaves of Ip) consumption is a potential cardioprotective habit of indigenous people from southern South American countries, which must be better understood scientifically and ethnographically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Flavonoids , Ilex paraguariensis/adverse effects , Ischemia/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Quercetin/analysis , Rats , Reperfusion , Administration, Oral , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Teas, Medicinal/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 698-704, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940909

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore the efficacy and safety of emergency transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods: Data of patients who underwent emergency TAVR in eight centers, namely Fuwai Hospital, Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital, Xijing Hospital, Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between May 2017 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The use of mechanical circulatory support system (MCS) and the results of laboratory tests (N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)) and echocardiography (mean aortic valve cross valve pressure difference and left ventricular ejection fraction) before and after operation were collected. The primary endpoint was all-cause death, and the secondary endpoints were stroke, major bleeding, major vascular complications, myocardial infarction, permanent pacemaker implantation, and acute renal injury. Device success was caculated, which refered to absence of procedural mortality and correct positioning of a single prosthetic heart valve into the proper anatomical location and intended performance of the prosthetic heart valve (mean aortic valve gradient<20 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) or peak velocity<3 m/s, with no moderate or severe prosthetic valve regurgitation). Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate the survival rate of patients during follow-up. Results: This study included 48 patients. The age was (72.5±8.1) years, and 34 patients were males (70.8%). Device success rate was 91.7% (44/48). The mean aortic valve transvalvular pressure was significantly decreased after operation ((12.3±6.4)mmHg vs. (60.2±23.8)mmHg, P<0.000 1). Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly increased ((41.5±11.7)% vs. (31.0±11.3)%, P<0.000 1). NT-proBNP significantly decreased (3 492.0 (1 638.8, 7 165.5) ng/L vs. 12 418.5 (6 693.8, 35 000.0) ng/L, P<0.000 1). In-hospital all-cause mortality was 8.3% (4/48). During hospitalization, the rate of stroke was 2.1% (1/48), major bleeding was 6.3% (3/48), major vascular complications was 10.4% (5/48), myocardial infarction was 4.2% (2/48), permanent pacemaker implantation was 6.3% (3/48), and the rate of acute renal injury was 12.5% (6/48). MCS was used in 20 patients (41.7%). The median follow-up time was 196 days. During the follow-up, one patient died (due to systemic metastasis of pancreatic cancer), two cases suffered new myocardial infarction and one case received permanent pacemaker implantation. The survival rate of 30 days, 1 year and 2 years after the operation were 91.7% (44/48), 89.6% (43/48), 89.6% (43/48), respectively. Conclusion: Emergency TAVR may be a safe and effective treatment for patients with severe decompensated aortic valve stenosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Stroke Volume , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 591-599, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940893

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and conservative medication treatment in chronic total occlusions (CTO) patients. Methods: It was a meta-analysis.Articles on drug therapy and PCI for complete coronary artery occlusion were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science databases. The search time was from the database construction to May 10, 2020, and the following search criteria were used for the search "chronic total occlusion" "percutaneous coronary intervention" and "medical therapy". References from searched literatures were also searched to identify more eligible studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and cohort studies comparing efficacy of PCI versus oral medication as well as medication as initial therapy option for CTO patients with single or multiple lesions were included. The primary endpoints included all-cause death, cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, re-revascularization, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and stroke. Data were analyzed with ReviewManager5.3.0 software. Pooled effect size RR and 95%CI were calculated by randomization effect model. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2. Bege test was used to evaluate publication bias. Subgroup analyses were performed for RCT and cohort studies. Results: A total of 1 079 articles were retrieved and 16 studies (RCT=4, cohort study=12) were included with 12 223 patients. Fourteen publications (RCT=4, cohort study=10) reported all-cause death post PCI and/or drug therapy. Results showed that risk of all-cause death was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group (RR=0.45,95%CI 0.39-0.53,P<0.001);subgroup analysis showed that risk of all-cause death was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group from cohort studies (RR=0.44,95%CI 0.38-0.52,P<0.001),but comparable in RCT (P=0.27). Thirteen studies (RCT=3, cohort study=10) reported cardiac death post PCI and/or drug therapy. Results showed that risk of cardiac death was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group (RR=0.44,95%CI 0.35-0.55,P<0.001);subgroup analysis showed that risk of cardiac death was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group in cohort studies (RR=0.43,95%CI 0.34-0.54,P<0.001),but not in RCT (P=0.25). Fourteen publications (RCT=4, cohort study=10) reported recurrent myocardial infarction post PCI and/or drug therapy. Results showed that risk of recurrent myocardial infarction was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group (RR=0.62,95%CI 0.44-0.88,P=0.007);subgroup analysis showed that risk of recurrent myocardial infarction was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group from cohort studies (RR=0.56,95%CI 0.40-0.78,P=0.000 5),but comparable in RCT (P=0.17). Fourteen publications (RCT=4, cohort study=10) reported re-revascularization post PCI and/or drug therapy. Results showed that risk of re-revascularization was comparable between PCI group and drug therapy group (P=0.91);subgroup analysis showed that risk of re-revascularization was comparable between PCI group and drug therapy group both in cohort study and RCT (P=0.60 and 0.41, respectively). Eleven publications (RCT=3, cohort study=8) reported MACE post PCI and/or drug therapy. Results showed that risk of MACE was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group (RR=0.74,95%CI 0.59-0.93,P=0.03);subgroup analysis showed that risk of MACE was significantly lower in PCI group than in drug therapy group in cohort studies (RR=0.72,95%CI 0.56-0.93,P=0.01), but not in RCT (P=0.8). Six publications (RCT=2, cohort study=4) reported stroke post PCI and/or drug therapy. Results showed that risk of stroke was comparable between PCI and drug therapy groups (RR=0.62,95%CI 0.32-1.20, P=0.15);subgroup analysis showed that risk of stroke was comparable between PCI and drug therapy groups both in cohort studies and RCT (P=0.48 and 0.32, respectively). Conclusion: Compared with oral drug therapy, PCI may have better efficacy for CTO patients based on results from this cohort study.


Subject(s)
Conservative Treatment/adverse effects , Death , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Stroke , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939815

ABSTRACT

In this study, we reported a young male patient with acute chest pain who was diagnosed as myocardial infarction. The regular medication was performed following coronary intervention. Under such condition, this patient had 3 times myocardial infarction within a half month. The laboratory results showed that there might be a state of hypercoagulability. Aspirin combined with clopidogrel and other treatment were administrated. Meanwhile, the examination demonstrated that there was aspirin-resistant in the patient. The antiplatelet drug and extended anticoagulation therapy were carried out. There was no further myocardial infarction, and no coronary arteries stenosis was found in the re-examination angiography. Aspirin resistance and hypercoagulability should be considered when patients occurred the repeated myocardial infarction after regular medication and coronary intervention. Replacement of the antiplatelet treatment or combination with anticoagulant therapy is necessary in similar patient to avoid the sever consequence.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Animals , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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