Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 467
Filter
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 435-445, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364333

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O pterostilbeno (PS), um composto polifenólico natural e antioxidante, surge como uma intervenção promissora para minimizar danos do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho do PS na promoção da homeostase redox nos pulmões e no ventrículo direito (VD) de animais infartados. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos (60 dias de idade) foram randomizados em três grupos: SHAM, IAM (infarto) e IAM+PS (IAM + pterostilbeno). Sete dias após o procedimento de IAM, os ratos foram tratados com PS (100 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem por oito dias. Os animais foram depois sacrificados e os pulmões e VD foram coletados para análise do balanço redox (diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando p<0,05). Resultados Nossos resultados mostram que o IAM desencadeia a interrupção redox no VD e nos pulmões, o que pode contribuir para danos induzido pelo IAM nesses órgãos. Consistentemente, o PS mitigou o estresse oxidativo e restaurou as defesas antioxidantes (Glutationa - GSH nos pulmões: SHAM = 0,79 ± 0,07; IAM = 0,67 ± 0,05; IAM + PS = 0,86 ± 0,14; p<0,05), indicando seu papel protetor neste cenário. Conclusão Nosso trabalho evidencia o potencial do uso de PS como abordagem terapêutica adjuvante após IAM para proteção dos tecidos pulmonares e cardíacos direitos.


Abstract Background Pterostilbene (PS), a natural and antioxidant polyphenolic compound emerges as a promising intervention in improving the myocardial infarction (MI) damages. Objetives This study aimed to evaluate PS actions in promoting redox homeostasis in lungs and right ventricle (RV) of infarcted animals. Methods Male Wistar rats (60 day-old) were randomized into three groups: SHAM, MI (infarcted), and MI+PS (MI+pterostilbene). Seven days after MI procedure, rats were treated with PS (100 mg/kg/day) via gavage for eight days. Animals were euthanized and the lungs and RV were harvested for analyses of redox balance (Differences were considered significant when p<0.05). Results Our results show that MI triggers a redox disruption scenario in RV and lungs, which can contribute to MI-induced damage on these organs. Consistently, PS mitigated oxidative stress and restored antioxidant defenses (GSH in lungs: SHAM= 0.79±0.07; MI=0.67±0.05; MI+PS=0.86±0.14; p<0.05), indicating its protective role in this scenario. Conclusions Our work evidences the PS potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic approach after MI focusing on protecting pulmonary and right-sided heart tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1134-1144, dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350046

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A cardiopatia isquêmica atraiu muito atenção devido às altas taxas de mortalidade, custos do tratamento e a crescente morbidade na população jovem. Estratégias de reperfusão reduziram a mortalidade. Porém, a reperfusão pode levar à morte do cardiomiócito e subsequente dano irreversível ao miocárdio. No momento, não há um tratamento eficiente e direcionado para a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R). Objetivos Avaliar se a dexmedetomidina (DEX) tem efeito protetivo na I/R do miocárdio e explorar os possíveis mecanismos por trás dela. Métodos Corações de ratos foram perfundidos com o sistema de perfusão de Langendorff e aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco grupos: grupo controle, perfundido com solução de Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) por 205 minutos sem isquemia; e quatro grupos de teste que foram submetidos a 40 minutos de isquemia global e 120 minutos de reperfusão. O Grupo DEX, o grupo ioimbina (IO) e o grupo DEX + IO foram perfundidos com DEX (10 nM), IO (1 μM) ou a combinação de DEX e IO antes da reperfusão, respectivamente. A hemodinâmica cardíaca, o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e a histologia do miocárdio foram avaliados. A expressão da proteína-78 regulada pela glicose (GRP78), a proteína quinase do retículo endoplasmático (PERK), a PERK fosforilada, o fator de iniciação eucariótico 2α (eIF2α), eIF2α fosforilado, o fator de transcrição 4 (TCF-4) e a proteína homóloga à proteína ligadora do acentuador CCAAT (CHOP) foram avaliados. P< 0,05 foi considerado para indicar a diferença estatisticamente significativa. Resultados O pré-condicionamento com DEX melhorou a função cardíaca nos corações com I/R, reduziu o infarto do miocárdio, a apoptose do miocárdio e a expressão de GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, TCF-4 e CHOP. Conclusões O pré-tratamento com DEX reduziu a lesão de I/R no miocárdio ao suprimir a apoptose, o que foi induzido pela via PERK.


Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease has attracted much attention due to its high mortality rates, treatment costs and the increasing morbidity in the young population. Strategies for reperfusion have reduced mortality. However, reperfusion can lead to cardiomyocyte death and subsequent irreversible myocardial damage. At present, the timely and targeted treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is often lacking. Objectives To evaluate if dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a protective effect in myocardiual I/R and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Methods Rat hearts were perfused with a Langendorff perfusion system, and randomly assigned to five groups: control group, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution for 205 minutes without ischemia; and four test groups that underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The DEX group, the yohimbine (YOH) group and the DEX + YOH group were perfused with DEX (10 nM), YOH (1 μM) or the combination of DEX and YOH prior to reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hemodynamics, myocardial infarct size, and myocardial histology were evaluated. The expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylated PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were assessed. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results DEX preconditioning improved the cardiac function of I/R hearts, reduced myocardial infarction, myocardial apoptosis, and the expression of GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. Conclusions DEX pretreatment reduced myocardial I/R injury by suppressing apoptosis, which was induced by the PERK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury , Myocardial Ischemia , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 15-25, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285243

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A intervenção coronária percutânea primária é considerada o "padrão-ouro" para reperfusão coronária. Entretanto, quando não disponível, a estratégia fármaco-invasiva é método alternativo, e o eletrocardiograma (ECG) tem sido utilizado para identificar sucesso na reperfusão. Objetivos Nosso estudo teve como objetivo examinar alterações no segmento-ST pós-lise e seu poder de prever a recanalização, usando os escores angiográficos TIMI e blush miocárdio (MBG) como critério de reperfusão ideal. Métodos Foram estudados 2.215 pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supra-ST submetidos à fibrinólise [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] e encaminhados para angiografia coronária em até 24 h pós-fibrinólise ou imediatamente encaminhados à terapia de resgate. O ECG foi realizado pré-TNK e 60 min-pós. Os pacientes foram categorizados em dois grupos: aqueles com reperfusão ideal (TIMI-3 e MBG-3) e aqueles com reperfusão inadequada (fluxo TIMI <3). Foi definido o critério de reperfusão do ECG pela redução do segmento ST >50%. Consideramos p-valor <0,05 para as análises, com testes bicaudais. Resultados O critério de reperfusão pelo ECG apresentou valor preditivo positivo de 56%; valor preditivo negativo de 66%; sensibilidade de 79%; e especificidade de 40%. Houve fraca correlação positiva entre a redução do segmento-ST e os dados angiográficos de reperfusão ideal (r = 0,21; p <0,001) e baixa precisão diagnóstica, com AUC de 0,60 (IC-95%; 0,57-0,62). Conclusão Em nossos resultados, a redução do segmento-ST não conseguiu identificar com precisão os pacientes com reperfusão angiográfica apropriada. Portanto, mesmo pacientes com reperfusão aparentemente bem-sucedida devem ser encaminhados à angiografia brevemente, a fim de garantir fluxo coronário macro e microvascular adequados.


Abstract Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the "gold standard" for coronary reperfusion. However, when not available, the drug-invasive strategy is an alternative method and the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to identify reperfusion success. Objectives Our study aimed to assess ST-Segment changes in post-thrombolysis and their power to predict recanalization and using the angiographic scores TIMI-flow and Myocardial Blush Grade (MBG) as an ideal reperfusion criterion. Methods 2,215 patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing fibrinolysis [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] and referred to coronary angiography within 24 h post-fibrinolysis or immediately referred to rescue therapy were studied. The ECG was performed pre- and 60 min-post-TNK. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with ideal reperfusion (TIMI-3 and MBG-3) and those with inadequate reperfusion (TIMI and MBG <3). The ECG reperfusion criterion was defined by the reduction of the ST-Segment >50%. A p-value <0.05 was considered for the analyses, with bicaudal tests. Results The ECG reperfusion criterion showed a positive predictive value of 56%; negative predictive value of 66%; sensitivity of 79%; and specificity of 40%. There was a weak positive correlation between ST-Segment reduction and ideal reperfusion angiographic data (r = 0.21; p <0.001) and low diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.60 (95%CI: 0.57-0.62). Conclusion The ST-Segment reduction was not able to accurately identify patients with adequate angiographic reperfusion. Therefore, even patients with apparently successful reperfusion should be referred to angiography soon, to ensure adequate macro and microvascular coronary flow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolysis
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 229-235, fev. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153018

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A dupla antiagregação plaquetária (DAP) é o tratamento fundamental do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo O presente estudo visou investigar a eficácia e a segurança da tripla antiagregação plaquetária (TAP) em pacientes femininas idosas com diabetes e infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST), que foram submetidas à intervenção coronária percutânea ICP. Métodos Trata-se se de um estudo randomizado e mono-cego. O grupo controle A (97 pacientes idosos do sexo masculino com diabetes e STEMI, cujos escores CRUSADE foram < 30) recebeu aspirina, ticagrelor e tirofibana. Um total de 162 pacientes femininas idosas com diabetes e IAMCSST foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o escore CRUSADE. O grupo B (69 pacientes com escore CRUSADE > 31) recebeu aspirina e ticagrelor. O grupo C (93 pacientes com escore CRUSADE < 30) recebeu aspirina, ticagrelor e tirofibana. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Após a PCI, o fluxo sanguíneo grau 3 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) e a perfusão miocárdica TIMI grau 3 foram significativamente menos prevalentes no grupo B, em comparação com o grupo A (p < 0,05). Quando comparada aos grupos A e C, a incidência de complicações adversas maiores foi significativamente maior no grupo B (p < 0,05). Conclusão A TAP pode efetivamente reduzir a incidência de complicações maiores em pacientes idosas com diabetes e IAMCSST. No entanto, atenção cuidadosa deve ser dada à hemorragia em pacientes que recebem TAP. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the cornerstone treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT) in elderly female patients with diabetes and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We designed a randomized, single-blind study. Control group A (97 elderly male patients with diabetes and STEMI, whose CRUSADE scores were < 30) received aspirin, ticagrelor, and tirofiban. A total of 162 elderly female patients with diabetes and STEMI were randomly divided into two groups according to CRUSADE score. Group B (69 patients with CRUSADE score > 31) received aspirin and ticagrelor. Group C (93 patients with CRUSADE score < 30) received aspirin, ticagrelor and tirofiban. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to the findings in group A, post-PCI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 blood flow and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 3 were significantly less prevalent in group B (p < 0.05). When compared to groups A and C, the incidence of major adverse complications was significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05). Conclusion TAPT could effectively reduce the incidence of major complications in elderly female patients with diabetes and STEMI. However, close attention should be paid to hemorrhage in patients receiving TAPT. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 878-884, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921291

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of propofol on the experimental myocardial infarction in rats. The myocardial infarction model was established by ligating the anterior descending branch of left coronary artery in rats. Model rats were treated with propofol. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac hemodynamic changes were detected by multiconductor biorecorder. Pathological changes in the infarcted myocardia were detected by HE staining. The expression levels of cardiac hypertrophy marker genes and fibrosis marker proteins were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, the model group exhibited larger infarct size (> 40%), impaired heart function, and significantly increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Propofol reduced cardiac function impairment and decreased LVEDP in the model group. Propofol significantly reduced lung weight/body weight ratio, heart weight/body weight ratio, left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and left atrial weight/body weight ratio in the model group. Furthermore, after myocardial infarction, the administration of propofol significantly improved the diastolic strain rate, down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of myocardial hypertrophy markers, atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain, and reversed the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) induced by myocardial infarction. These results suggest propofol can reduce adverse ventricular remodeling, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis after myocardial infarction, and has protective effect against the experimental myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery ligation in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardium , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/genetics , Ventricular Remodeling
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879027

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Xinmailong Injection in the treatment of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction. Seven Chinese and English databases, namely CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, SinoMed and PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, were retrieved from the establishment of the database to March 2020. Randomized controlled trials for Xinmailong Injection in the treatment of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction were screened out. Cochrane collaboration network bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the literature quality of the studies included, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. A total of 926 relevant literatures were retrieved, and 12 studies were finally included, involving 972 patients, including 486 patients in the treatment group and 486 patients in the control group. The quality of the literatures included was generally low. The results of Meta-analysis showed that Xinmailong Injection combined with Western medicine could decrease the levels of BNP(SMD=-5.90, 95%CI[-8.45,-3.36], P<0.000 01) and NT-proBNP(SMD=-2.28, 95%CI[-3.13,-1.43], P<0.000 01) and decrease the levels of cTnI(SMD=-2.91, 95%CI[-4.21,-1.60], P<0.000 1), increase LVEF(MD=4.67, 95%CI[4.19, 5.16], P<0.000 01), increased 6 MWT(MD=73.90, 95%CI[67.51, 80.28], P<0.000 01], decreased LVEDD(MD=-5.46, 95%CI[-9.66,-1.25], P=0.01), reduce the level of serum inflammatory factor(hs-CRP, CRP, IL-6). In terms of safety, less adverse reactions occurred in the study, with no impact on the treatment. The results showed that clinical use of Xinmailong Injection combined with Western medicine in the treatment of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction can further alleviate clinical symptoms and relevant indexes, with less adverse reactions. However, due to the limitations in quantity and quality of the clinical studies included, the positive results can only be used as a hint and reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment, and more high-quality studies are needed to further confirm its efficacy.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Injections , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
11.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20190094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1130548

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Comparar desfechos clínicos de óbito, reinfarto e Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) em estudos primários que avaliaram o uso da Terapia Fibrinolítica (TF) em relação à Intervenção Coronariana Percutânea Primária (ICPP) para reperfusão miocárdica em pacientes com Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCST) no atendimento pré-hospitalar. Método: Revisão sistemática de literatura com busca realizada nas bases de dados CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS e Web of Science no período de outubro a dezembro de 2017. Foram incluídos Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados, disponíveis na íntegra, em qualquer idioma, sem recorte temporal. A avaliação da elegibilidade foi realizada em duas etapas e aplicada a Escala de Jadad para avaliação metodológica dos estudos encontrados. Resultados: Foram incluídos cinco Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados. A TF pré-hospitalar apresentou taxas de mortalidade em 30 dias após a intervenção semelhantes à ICPP, enquanto que em cinco anos foram encontrados valores menores para a TF. O tratamento instituído em um período menor que duas horas dos sintomas iniciais apresentou associação com a diminuição da mortalidade quando foi utilizada a TF. O reinfarto não-fatal, acidente vascular encefálico e a hemorragia intracraniana foram maiores quando utilizada a TF, enquanto que o choque cardiogênico apresentou menor frequência. Conclusão: A TF foi mais eficaz no tratamento pré-hospitalar para a redução dos óbitos após cinco anos, entretanto, o reinfarto e o AVE ocorreram de forma semelhante na amostra analisada. O fator tempo reduziu os desfechos clínicos, principalmente quando a terapia implementada ocorreu em até duas horas após a ocorrência do IAMCST. Assim, apesar das intervenções terem apresentado desfechos semelhantes, entretanto, a TF pode representar um tratamento viável em locais onde a ICPP não pode ser alcançada em tempo hábil.


Resumen Objetivo: Comparar resultados clínicos de fallecimiento, reinfarto y accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) en estudios primarios que analizaron el uso de la terapia fibrinolítica (TF) respecto a la intervención coronaria percutánea primaria (ICPP) para reperfusión miocárdica en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con supradesnivel del segmento ST (IAMCST) en la atención prehospitalaria. Método: Revisión sistemática de literatura con búsqueda realizada en las bases de datos CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS y Web of Science en el período de octubre a diciembre de 2017. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, con texto completo disponible, en cualquier idioma, sin recorte temporal. El análisis de elegibilidad se realizó en dos etapas y se aplicó la escala de Jadad para una evaluación metodológica de los estudios encontrados. Resultados: Se incluyeron cinco ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. La TF prehospitalaria presentó índices de mortalidad 30 días después de la intervención semejantes a la ICPP, mientras que en cinco años se encontraron valores menores en la TF. El tratamiento aplicado en un período menor a dos horas desde los síntomas iniciales presentó una relación con la reducción de la mortalidad cuando se utilizó la TF. Los reinfartos no fatales, los accidentes vasculares encefálicos y las hemorragias intracerebrales fueron mayores cuando se utilizó la TF, mientras que los choques cardiogénicos presentaron menor frecuencia. Conclusión: La TF fue más eficaz en el tratamiento prehospitalario para reducir los fallecimientos después de cinco años, sin embargo, los reinfartos y los AVE ocurrieron de forma semejante en la muestra analizada. El factor tiempo redujo los resultados clínicos, principalmente cuando la terapia implementada ocurrió hasta dos horas después del episodio del IAMCST. De esta forma, a pesar de que las intervenciones presentaron resultados semejantes, la TF puede representar un tratamiento viable en lugares donde la ICPP no puede realizarse a tiempo.


Abstract Objective: To compare clinical outcomes of death, reinfarction, and stroke in primary studies assessing Fibrinolytic Therapy (FT) use in relation to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) for myocardial reperfusion in patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in prehospital care. Method: A systematic literature review conducted in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases from October to December 2017. Randomized Clinical Trials, available in full, in any language, without temporal clipping were included. The eligibility assessment was carried out in two stages and applied to the Jadad Scale for methodological assessment of the studies found. Results: Five Randomized Clinical Trials were included. Prehospital FT presented mortality rates at 30 days after the intervention similar to PPCI, while in five years lower values were found for FT. The treatment instituted in a period of less than two hours of the initial symptoms was associated with the decrease in mortality when FT was used. Non-fatal reinfarction, stroke and intracranial hemorrhage were higher when FT was used, while cardiogenic shock showed lower frequency. Conclusion: FT was more effective in prehospital treatment to reduce deaths after five years, however, reinfarction and stroke occurred similarly in the sample analyzed. The time factor reduced clinical outcomes, especially when the implemented therapy occurred within two hours after the occurrence of STEMI. Thus, although the interventions presented similar outcomes. However, FT may represent a viable treatment in places where PPCI cannot be achieved in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
13.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(3): 218-224, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058067

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El tratamiento del Infarto Agudo del Miocardio con supradesnivel del segmento ST debe iniciarse en el escenario prehospitalario, en el sitio del primer contacto médico. El diagnóstico electrocardiográfico precoz debe ser realizado, idealmente, dentro de los primeros 10 min después de la consulta y confirmado por un especialista. A este respecto, la teletransmisión del electrocardiograma a un centro de llamados atendido por especialistas en horario 24/7 es un modelo muy eficiente, idealmente como parte de una red de tratamiento. El control del dolor y la administración de agentes antiplaquetarios son imperativos y si la intervención coronaria percutánea (angioplastia primaria) no es factible dentro de las ventanas de tiempo universalmente recomendadas, se debiera realizar un tratamiento fibrinolítico, seguido por angioplastia diferida.


ABSTRACT: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction should be initiated in the prehospital scenario at the site of first medical contact. Prompt electrocardiographic diagnosis should be performed ideally within 10min after consultation and diagnosis confirmed by a specialist. Teletransmission of the electrocardiogram to a call center staffed with specialists on a 24/7 basis is a very efficient model, ideally as part of a network of treatment. Pain control and administration of antiplatelets agents are mandatory and if primary percutaneous intervention is not feasible within time limits universally recommended, prehospital fibrinolyisis should be performed followed by deferred angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Remote Consultation/methods , Electrocardiography , Prehospital Services , Fibrinolysis
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 357-367, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004273

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el infarto agudo de miocardio es una de las formas más graves de cardiopatía isquémica. Representa un problema de salud de relevancia mundial. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento de pacientes portadores de infarto agudo del miocardio tratados por trombolisis en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni", de Camagüey, en el período comprendido desde 2013 a 2015. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de pacientes portadores de infarto agudo de miocardio, tratados por trombolisis en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni", de Camagüey. Materiales y métodos: la muestra la conformó los 146 pacientes que ingresaron, en el período antes mencionado, en el Servicio de Gariatría, Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni". Se emplearon métodos de estadística descriptiva y se determinó la frecuencia y el porcentaje. Resultados: reveló un predominio de hombres entre 60 y 79 años, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y en un elevado porcentaje de fumadores, clasificados en Killip Kimball I y II, con excelentes resultados los tratados antes de las 3 h, y con complicaciones inmediatas sobre el músculo cardiaco. Conclusiones: el tratamiento trombólitico es muy efectivo en las 3 h primeras del comienzo de los síntomas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the myocardial acute infarct is one of the forms of the ischemic heart disease, being a health problem around the world. The authors carried out a descriptive study with the objective of determining the behavior of patients suffering a myocardial acute infarct treated by thrombolysis in the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni", of Camagüey, in the period from 2013 to 2015. Objective: to determine the behavior of patients suffering a myocardial acute infarct treated by thrombolysis in the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni", of Camagüey. Material and methods: the simple was formed by all the 146 patients who entered the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni" in the before-mentioned period with a diagnosis of myocardial acute infarct. Descriptive statistic methods were used and frequency and percentage were determined. Results: the study showed the predominance of men aged 60-79 years, with antecedents of arterial hypertension and a high number of cigarette smokers, classified in Killip&Kimball I and II. The patients treated before 3 hours passed showed excellent results, and with immediate complications on the heath muscle. Conclusions: thrombolytic treatment is very effective in the first 3 hours after the symptoms beginning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptokinase/therapeutic use , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 24-32, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985013

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), each 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) increment is associated with a 3% increase in mortality rates. All strategies applied for reducing blood glucose to this date, however, have not presented encouraging results. METHODOLOGY We searched the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Library databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from 1995 to 2017 that used the intensive strategy or GIK therapy for blood glucose control during the acute stage of the AMI. We included eight studies. In order to identify the effects of GIK or insulin therapy, we calculated a overall risk ratio (RR) with meta-analysis of fixed and random effects models. A two-tail p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS A total of 28,151 patients were included: 1,379 intensively treated with insulin, 13,031 in GIK group, and 13,741 in the control group. The total mortality was 10.5% (n=2,961) and the RR of 1.03 [95%CI 0.96-1.10]; I2 = 31%; p = 0.41 for the combined intensive insulin plus GIK groups in comparison with the control group. In meta-regression analyses, intense reductions in blood glucose (> 36 mg/dL) in relation to the estimated average blood glucose (estimated by HbA1c) were associated with higher mortality, whereas lower reductions in blood glucose (< 36 mg/dL) were not associated with mortality. The lowering of blood glucose in the acute phase of MI compared with the average blood glucose was more effective around 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that there may be a tenuous line between the effectiveness and safety of reducing blood glucose in the acute phase of MI. The targets must not exceed a reduction greater than 36 mg/dL in relation to estimated average blood glucose.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO No infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), cada incremento de 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) se associa a um aumento de 3% na mortalidade. As estratégias de redução da glicemia tentadas até o momento, entretanto, não trouxeram resultados animadores. METODOLOGIA Foram pesquisadas nas bases de dados Medline (PubMed) e Cochrane Library os ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) de 1995 a 2017 que utilizaram estratégia intensiva ou a terapia GIK no controle glicêmico durante a fase aguda do IAM. Foram incluídos oito estudos. Para identificar os efeitos da insulinoterapia ou da terapia GIK, calculamos um risco relativo geral (RR) com meta-análises de modelos de efeitos fixos e aleatórios. Um valor de p-bicaudal < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS Foram incluídos 28.151 pacientes, sendo 1.379 no grupo de tratamento intensivo da glicemia, 13.031 no GIK e 13.741 no controle. A mortalidade total foi de 2.961 (10,5%), computando um risco relativo de 1,03 [95%CI 0,96-1,10]; I 2 = 31%; p = 0,41 para o grupo intensivo ou GIK contra o grupo conservador. Reduções intensas (> 36 mg/dL) em relação à glicemia estimada média se associaram à maior mortalidade, enquanto reduções menores não se associaram com seu incremento ou redução. A redução glicêmica na fase aguda em relação à glicemia estimada média foi mais efetiva e segura na faixa em torno de 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSÃO Esta meta-análise levanta a hipótese de haver um limite tênue entre efetividade e segurança para a redução glicêmica na fase aguda, sendo que os alvos não devem exceder uma redução maior do que 36 mg/dL de glicemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism
16.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 18(32): 5-14, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1005446

ABSTRACT

El infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) representa la tercera causa de morbimortalidad en el país. Tener datos sobre la realidad de esta entidad en la institución es de suma importancia como punto de partida para el desarrollo de políticas de prevención, así también mejorar el tratamiento, cuidado y calidad de atención al paciente. OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil epidemiológico de la población que se les indica tratamiento con Tirofiban durante infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM)...


Acutemyocardialinfarction (AMI) represents the third cause ofmorbidity and mortality in the country. Having information about the reality of this entity in the institution is of the utmost importance as a starting point for the development of prevention policies, as well as improving the treatment, care and quality of patientcare. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological profile of the population that is being treated with Tirofiban during acute myocardialinfarction (AMI)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Angioplasty , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Nursing Care
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1363-1369, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893143

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Reportamos recientemente que el estrés crónico súbito (ECS) induce disfunción ventricular izquierda (DVI) en ratas, la que fue inhibida por la quercetina un agente cardioprotector. En base de estos hallazgos y debido a que la mayoría de los pacientes con infarto de miocardio (IM) pueden desarrollar DVI e insuficiencia cardíaca, se buscó producir un modelo animal de IM y DVI en ratas, utilizando este modelo para probar la hipótesis de que la quercetina puede prevenir la inducción potencial de IM por ECS. Las ratas fueron expuestas a ECS usando una variedad de factores de estrés de quercetina (50 mg / kg de peso corporal / día) durante 21 días. Se registró la presión sanguínea y el electrocardiograma (ECG) en todos los grupos de ratas junto con el examen de homogeneizados de tejido del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) y secciones para confirmar la producción del modelo animal. Asociamos los recientes hallazgos sobre el papel de la apoptosis en la patología de DVI y, finalmente, IM. Las mediciones de la presión arterial y la grabación de ECG confirmaron el desarrollo de hipertensión sistémica y del IM en el grupo modelo de ratas expuestas a ECS. Además, la tinción histológica confirmó que el daño del VI se produjo en el mismo grupo. Tambien se obervó un aumento del gen proapoptótico Bax y de los biomarcadores inflamatorios, TNF-α e IL-6. El tratamiento simultáneo con quercetina redujo la presión sanguínea y evitó sustancialmente el IM, bloqueando el aumento del segmento ST en el ECG. Por lo tanto, el IM inducido por ECS en ratas asociado con el aumento de los biomarcadores de lesión tisular, fueron impedidos por la quercetina, lo que concuerda con nuestros hallazgos recientes de un posible papel terapéutico de la quercetina en la disfunción cardíaca inducida por ECS.


SUMMARY: We recently reported that chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) in rats, which was inhibited by the cardioprotective agent quercetin. Based on these findings and because majority of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) can develop LVD and heart failure, we sought to produce an animal model of MI and LVD in rats and use this model to test the hypothesis that quercetin is able to prevent the potential MI induction by CUS. Rats were exposed to CUS using a variety of stressors in the presence and absence of quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days. Blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded in all rat groups together with the examination of left ventricle (LV) tissue homogenates and sections to confirm the production of the animal model. We further extend on our recent findings on the role of apoptosis in the pathology of LVD and eventually MI. Blood pressure measurements and ECG recording confirmed the development of systemic hypertension and MI in the model group of rats exposed to CUS. In addition, histological staining confirmed that LV damages occurred in the same group. Furthermore, the proapoptotic gene Bax and the inflammatory biomarkers, TNF-α and IL-6 were augmented in LV homogenates by CUS. Simultaneous quercetin treatment lowered blood pressure and substantially prevented MI since it blocked the elevation of ST segment on the ECG and maintained a normal ECG reading. Quercetin suppressed the expression of Bax RNA messages, and significantly (p<0.05) blocked CUS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 upregulation. Thus, CUS induced MI in rats associated with augmentation of tissue injury biomarkers were prevented by quercetin, which further endorses our recent findings of a potential therapeutic role for quercetin in CUS induced cardiac dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Stress, Physiological , Biomarkers , Disease Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar
18.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 209-220, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899588

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar algunos mecanismos moleculares por los cuales la activación de ROCK cardíaca post infarto del miocardio (IAM) participa en el remodelado y en deterioro de la función sistólica. Métodos: Determinación simultánea de niveles de proteínas blanco de ROCK cardíaca, de función sistólica in vivo del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) y de fibrosis e hipertrofia cardíaca en ratas con IAM en condiciones de inhibición de ROCK con fasudil. Resultados : Siete días post IAM la masa ventricular relativa aumentó significativamente en un 30% en el grupo MI y se redujo con fasudil. La disfunción sistólica VI mejoró significativamente con fasudil mientras que la activación de ROCK cardíaca se redujo a niveles del grupo control. El inhibidor de ROCK también redujo significativamente los niveles cardíacos elevados de las isoformas ROCK1 y ROCK2, de MHC-β y del colágeno miocárdico. En el grupo con IAM aumentaron significativamente los niveles de fosforilación de ERK 42 y ERK 44 (en 2 veces y en 63%, respectivamente), mientras que en el grupo IAM tratado con fasudil estos niveles fueron similares a los del grupo control. El IAM aumentó significativamente los niveles fosforilados del factor de transcripción GATA-4, que se normalizaron con el inhibidor de ROCK. Conclusiones: La disfunción sistólica post IAM se asoció fuertemente con la activación del ROCK cardíaca y con la fosforilación de proteínas río abajo de ROCK que promueven remodelado cardíaco como β-MHC y la vía ERK / GATA-4.


Abstracts: Objective: to determine some molecular mechanisms by which cardiac ROCK activation after myocardial infarction (MI) intervene in cardiac systolic function decline and remodeling. Methods: simultaneous measurement of different cardiac ROCK target proteins levels, in vivo left ventricular (LV) systolic function, myocardial fibrosis, and hypertrophy in rats with MI under ROCK inhibition with fasudil were performed. Results: seven days after MI the relative ventricular mass increased significantly by 30% in the MI groupand was reduced with fasudil. LV systolic dysfunction improved significantly with fasudil whereas at the same time cardiac ROCK activation was reduced to sham levels. The ROCK inhibitor also reduced increased cardiac levels of both ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms, β-MHC levels and myocardial collagen volume fraction decline. MI significantly increased phosphorylation levels of ERK 42 and ERK 44 by 2-fold and 63% respectively whereas in the fasudil-treated MI group these levels were similar to those in the sham group. MI significantly increased phosphorylated levels of the transcription factor GATA-4 which were normalyzed by the ROCK inhibitor. Conclusion: LV systolic dysfunction after MI was strongly associated to cardiac ROCK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of ROCK target proteins that promote ventricular remodeling, such as β-MHC and the ERK/GATA-4 pathway. ROCK inhibition with fasudil significantly improved systolic function, diminished myocardial fibrosis, and normalized β-MHC and ERK/GATA-4 phosphorylation levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/analogs & derivatives , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , rho-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Organ Size/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Blotting, Western , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomegaly/drug therapy , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction/enzymology
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(2): 144-150, Apr.-Jun. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887507

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Mexico has been positioned as the country with the highest mortality attributed to myocardial infarction among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This rate responds to multiple factors, including a low rate of reperfusion therapy and the absence of a coordinated system of care. Primary angioplasty is the reperfusion method recommended by the guidelines, but requires multiple conditions that are not reached at all times. Early pharmacological reperfusion of the culprit coronary artery and early coronary angiography (pharmacoinvasive strategy) can be the solution to the logistical problem that primary angioplasty rises. Several studies have demonstrated pharmacoinvasive strategy as effective and safe as primary angioplasty ST-elevation myocardial infarction, which is postulated as the choice to follow in communities where access to PPCI is limited. The Mexico City Government together with the National Institute of Cardiology have developed a pharmaco-invasive reperfusion treatment program to ensure effective and timely reperfusion in STEMI. The model comprises a network of care at all three levels of health, including a system for early pharmacological reperfusion in primary care centers, a digital telemedicine system, an inter-hospital transport network to ensure primary angioplasty or early percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis and a training program with certification of the health care personal. This program intends to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction.


Resumen: México se ha posicionado como el país con mayor mortalidad atribuible al infarto del miocardio entre los países de la Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico. Esta tasa responde a múltiples factores, incluyendo una baja tasa de reperfusión y la ausencia de un sistema único y coordinado para la atención del infarto. Aun cuando la angioplastia es el método de reperfusión recomendado, requiere un sistema coordinado con personal entrenado y recursos materiales, condiciones que no siempre pueden ser alcanzadas. La reperfusión farmacológica temprana, seguida de angiografía coronaria temprana (estrategia farmacoinvasiva) es la solución al problema logístico que representa la angioplastia primaria. Múltiples estudios han demostrado que la estrategia farmacoinvasiva es tan segura y efectiva como la angioplastia primaria en el infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, y se plantea como la estrategia de elección en comunidades donde el acceso a angioplastia está limitado por factores económicos, geográficos o socioculturales. El gobierno de la Ciudad de México en conjunto con el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología ha desarrollado un programa de estrategia farmacoinvasiva para asegurar la reperfusión temprana en el infarto del miocardio. El modelo comprende una red de atención en los 3 niveles, incluyendo un sistema de reperfusión farmacológica en centros de primer contacto, transferencia de electrocardiogramas mediante telemedicina entre el primer nivel y el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, una red de transporte interhospitalario y un programa de entrenamiento y educación continua. El objetivo de este programa es reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad asociadas al infarto del miocardio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/trends , Combined Modality Therapy , Mexico , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
20.
Clinics ; 71(11): 635-638, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have revealed a relationship between beta-blocker use and worse prognosis in acute coronary syndrome, mainly due to a higher incidence of cardiogenic shock. However, the relevance of this relationship in the reperfusion era is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome that started oral beta-blockers within the first 24 hours of hospital admission (group I) compared to patients who did not use oral beta-blockers in this timeframe (group II). METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective and multicentric study with 2,553 patients (2,212 in group I and 341 in group II). Data regarding demographic characteristics, coronary treatment and medication use in the hospital were obtained. The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The groups were compared by ANOVA and the chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was conducted by logistic regression and results were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between the groups in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, enoxaparin, and statins; creatinine levels; ejection fraction; tabagism; age; and previous coronary artery bypass graft. Significant differences were also observed between the groups in mortality (2.67% vs 9.09%, OR=0.35, p=0.02) and major adverse cardiovascular events (11% vs 29.5%, OR=4.55, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent early intervention with oral beta-blockers during the first 24 hours of hospital admission had a lower in-hospital death rate and experienced fewer major adverse cardiovascular events with no increase in cardiogenic shock or sustained ventricular arrhythmias compared to patients who did not receive oral beta-blockers within this timeframe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Cardiogenic/mortality , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL