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2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 375-381, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346472

ABSTRACT

Los síndromes coronarios agudos sin lesiones coronarias han cobrado relevancia en los últimos años, pero aún no se dispone de datos locales. Analizamos un registro de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio, en 45 centros del país con residencias de cardiología. Se analizaron 1182 participantes de los cuales 33 (2.8%) no presentaron lesiones coronarias en angiografía, mientras que 89.5% tenían lesiones graves y 7.7% lesiones intermedias. La edad promedio de los pacientes sin lesiones coronarias fue 64.5 ± 13.0 años, 69.7% eran varones, sin diferencias respecto a aquellos con enfermedad epicárdica. La presentación electrocardiográfica más frecuente fue la desviación del segmento ST (13 supradesnivel y 10 infradesnivel del segmento). Además, este subgrupo presentó biomarcadores más bajos (CPK pico 203.5 UI/l, rango [RIC] 102- 422.5 vs. 895.5 UI/l RIC 350-1891, p < 0.0001). La mediana de días de internación fue 4.0 (RIC 3-5.5), siendo menor que la del grupo con enfermedad coronaria intermedia y grave (5.5 días, RIC 4-7, y 6 RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). Al alta, aquellos sin lesiones coronarias recibieron menor prescripción de IECA/ARA II (54.6% vs. 78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) y estatinas (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). Ninguno de este subgrupo falleció durante la inter nación. Nuestros datos sugieren que los infartos sin lesiones coronarias significativas son frecuentes en nuestro medio, aunque probablemente se encuentren subdiagnosticados. Si bien su pronóstico parece más favorable, resulta importante señalar que recibieron menos fármacos para prevenir su recurrencia. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para profundizar el conocimiento de esta enfermedad.


Abstract Acute coronary syndromes without coronary lesions have gained relevance in recent years. However, local data on this condition is scarce. We aimed to explore this entity in a National registry of acute myocardial infarction that was carried out prospectively in hospitals with cardiology residence programs from Ar gentina. We included 1182 patients from 45 centers, where 33 did not present coronary lesions on angiography. The mean age was 64.5 ±13.0 and 69.7% were male, without differences compared to participants with epicardial disease. The most common electrocardiographic presentation was ST segment deviation. In addition, presented lower biomarkers (peak CPK 203.5 IU / l, range [IQR] 102-422.5 vs. 895.5 IU / l IQR 350-1891, p < 0.0001). The median hospitalization was 4.0 days (IQR 3-5.5), lower than the group with intermediate and severe coronary disease (5.5 days, RIC 4-7, and 6, RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). At discharge, less use of ACE/ARB (54.6% vs.78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) and statins (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). No deaths during hospitalization were reported. Our data suggested that infarcts without significant coronary lesions are frequent, although they are probably underdiagnosed. Their prognosis seems to be more favorable, but they receive fewer drugs to prevent recurrence. New studies are necessary to deepen the knowledge of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Argentina/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Registries , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 916-924, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142262

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (STEMI) é uma das principais apresentações clínicas da cardiopatia isquêmica. Dados de base populacional são relevantes para entendimento contemporâneo da epidemiologia da doença. Objetivo: Descrever incidência, manejo terapêutico, desfechos clínicos hospitalares e eventos cardiovasculares do primeiro ano de seguimento dos indivíduos hospitalizados por STEMI. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva de base populacional com registro consecutivo das hospitalizações por STEMI em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil entre 2011 e 2014. Foram incluídos indivíduos com STEMI que apresentaram sintomas de isquemia miocárdica aguda nas últimas 72 horas. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: A incidência anual de hospitalizações por STEMI foi de 108 casos por 100.000 habitantes. A incidência ajustada foi maior entre os mais velhos (risco relativo 64,9; IC95% 26,9 - 156,9; p para tendência linear < 0,001) e entre os homens (risco relativo 2,8; IC95% 2,3 - 3,3; p < 0,001). Ocorreram 530 hospitalizações durante o período avaliado e a taxa de reperfusão foi de 80,9%. A mortalidade hospitalar e a taxa de eventos cardiovasculares em 1 ano foram, respectivamente, 8,9% e 6,1%. Os mais velhos apresentaram maior mortalidade hospitalar (risco relativo 3,72; IC95% 1,57 - 8,82; p para tendência linear = 0,002) e mais eventos cardiovasculares em 1 ano (hazard ratio 2,35; IC95% 1,12 - 4,95; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este registro demonstra abordagem terapêutica e mortalidade hospitalar semelhante às observadas em países desenvolvidos. Entretanto, a taxa de hospitalizações foi maior comparada com esses países.


Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the main clinical manifestations of ischemic heart disease. Population-based data are relevant to better understand the current epidemiology of this condition. Objective: To describe the incidence, therapeutic management, hospital clinical outcomes and cardiovascular events in the first year of follow-up of individuals hospitalized for STEMI. Methods: Population-based prospective cohort study with consecutive registries of hospitalization for STEMI in a city in southern Brazil from 2011 to 2014. It included patients with STEMI who presented acute myocardial ischemia symptoms in the last 72 hours. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The annual incidence of STEMI hospitalizations was 108 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Adjusted incidence was higher among older individuals (relative risk 64.9; 95% CI 26.9-156.9; p for linear trend < 0.001) and among men (relative risk 2.8; 95% CI 2.3-3.3; p < 0.001). There were 530 hospitalizations in the period under evaluation and the reperfusion rate reached 80.9%. Hospital mortality and the one-year follow-up cardiovascular event rate were, respectively, 8.9% and 6.1%. The oldest patients had higher hospital mortality (relative risk 3.72; 95% CI 1.57-8.82; p for linear trend = 0.002) and more one-year follow-up cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.12-4.95; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study shows that both the therapeutic approach and hospital mortality are similar to the ones found in developed countries. However, the hospitalization rate was higher in these countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Registries , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 341-346, Jul.-Sep. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131053

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento de posibles causas predisponentes de muerte súbita (MS) intrahospitalaria luego de un infarto agudo de miocardio (IMA) en registros cubanos. Material y método: Se realizó una búsqueda de registros clínicos de pacientes con IMA en Cuba en las bases de datos de revistas nacionales, Scientific Library On-line (ScieLO) y Medline. Se priorizaron los artículos publicados desde 2016 para ser incluidos. Se definió como muerte súbita aquélla secundaria a arritmias ventriculares malignas (TV y FV), así como los pacientes con rotura cardíaca y actividad eléctrica sin pulso o asistolia como forma de presentación. Con posterioridad se evaluó la relación de este parámetro con la aparición de muerte súbita en 710 pacientes del Registro de Síndromes Coronarios Agudos (RESCUE). Resultados: En el contexto extrahospitalario, más de la mitad de las muertes súbitas cardíacas son secundarias a un infarto agudo de miocardio. En el hospital, la mortalidad en Cuba por IMA es homogénea. Sólo los centros con intervencionismo coronario escapan a este fenómeno. Aunque no del todo letales, las arritmias ventriculares malignas se relacionan con un peor pronóstico y su prevalencia no es homogénea en los registros revisados. Conclusiones: La muerte súbita luego de infarto agudo de miocardio será aún en Cuba una de las principales causas de muerte en los pacientes de fase aguda.


Abstract Objective: To analyze possible predisposing causes of in hospital sudden cardiac death (SCD) after an acute myocardial infarction (IMA) in Cuban registries. Material and methods: A search of clinical records of patients with IMA in Cuba was performed in the databases of national journals, Scientific Library On-line and Medline. Those articles published since 2016 were prioritized for inclusion. Sudden death is defined as that secondary to malignant ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation) as well as patients with cardiac rupture with pulseless electrical activity or asystole as a form of presentation. Subsequently, the relationship of this parameter with the occurrence of sudden death was evaluated in 710 patients from the Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (RESCUE). Results: In the out-of-hospital setting, more than half of SCD are secondary to an IMA. Once in the hospital, mortality in Cuba from IMA is homogeneous. Only centers with coronary interventionism escape this phenomenon. Although not totally lethal, the presence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias is associated with a worse prognosis and its prevalence is not homogeneous in the reviewed records. Conclusions: Sudden death after IMA will continue to be one of the main causes of death of patients in the acute phase in Cuba.


Subject(s)
Humans , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Ventricular Fibrillation/mortality , Ventricular Fibrillation/epidemiology , Registries , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Cuba , Hospitals , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 550-559, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Many publications on coronary surgery and carotid stenosis (CS) can be found, but we do not have enough information about the relationship between ischemic stroke, CS and non-coronary cardiac surgery. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors associated with the stroke and CS ≥50% in patients undergoing non-coronary surgeries. Objectives: We assessed 241 patients, aged 40 years or older, between 2009 and 2016, operated in Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil. We perform carotid Doppler in patients 40 years of age or older before any cardiac surgery as a routine. The incidence and possible risk factors for CS ≥50% and perioperative stroke were analyzed by univariate statistical analysis. Results: 11 patients (4.56%) presented perioperative stroke. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50%: OR=5.3750 (1.2909-22.3805), P=0.0208. Eighteen patients (7.46%) had CS ≥50% and their risk factors were extracardiac arteriopathy: OR=18.6607 (6.3644-54.7143), P<0.0001; COPD: OR=3.9040 (1.4491-10.5179), P=0.0071; diabetes mellitus: OR=2.9844 (1.0453-8.5204), P=0.0411; recent myocardial infarction: OR=13.8125 (1.8239-104.6052), P=0.0110; EuroSCORE II higher P=0.0056. Conclusion: The incidences of stroke and CS ≥50% were 4.56% and 7.46%, respectively. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50% and for CS ≥50% were extracardiac arteriopathy, COPD, diabetes mellitus, recent myocardial infarction and higher EuroSCORE II.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 357-367, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004273

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el infarto agudo de miocardio es una de las formas más graves de cardiopatía isquémica. Representa un problema de salud de relevancia mundial. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento de pacientes portadores de infarto agudo del miocardio tratados por trombolisis en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni", de Camagüey, en el período comprendido desde 2013 a 2015. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de pacientes portadores de infarto agudo de miocardio, tratados por trombolisis en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni", de Camagüey. Materiales y métodos: la muestra la conformó los 146 pacientes que ingresaron, en el período antes mencionado, en el Servicio de Gariatría, Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni". Se emplearon métodos de estadística descriptiva y se determinó la frecuencia y el porcentaje. Resultados: reveló un predominio de hombres entre 60 y 79 años, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y en un elevado porcentaje de fumadores, clasificados en Killip Kimball I y II, con excelentes resultados los tratados antes de las 3 h, y con complicaciones inmediatas sobre el músculo cardiaco. Conclusiones: el tratamiento trombólitico es muy efectivo en las 3 h primeras del comienzo de los síntomas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the myocardial acute infarct is one of the forms of the ischemic heart disease, being a health problem around the world. The authors carried out a descriptive study with the objective of determining the behavior of patients suffering a myocardial acute infarct treated by thrombolysis in the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni", of Camagüey, in the period from 2013 to 2015. Objective: to determine the behavior of patients suffering a myocardial acute infarct treated by thrombolysis in the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni", of Camagüey. Material and methods: the simple was formed by all the 146 patients who entered the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni" in the before-mentioned period with a diagnosis of myocardial acute infarct. Descriptive statistic methods were used and frequency and percentage were determined. Results: the study showed the predominance of men aged 60-79 years, with antecedents of arterial hypertension and a high number of cigarette smokers, classified in Killip&Kimball I and II. The patients treated before 3 hours passed showed excellent results, and with immediate complications on the heath muscle. Conclusions: thrombolytic treatment is very effective in the first 3 hours after the symptoms beginning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptokinase/therapeutic use , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
9.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 30(3): 223-230, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051355

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of death in the world, this occurs in the in-hospital period as well as in the follow-up. It has been much studied what occurs in the in-hospital period, but much less what occurs in the follow-up of patients with this pathology. The objective of this study was to follow patients discharged after myocardial infarction for 1 year and analyze predictors of cardiovascular events. 1174 patients were followed for 1 year, of which 17% presented some serious cardiovascular event, associated with the presence of male sex, older age, arterial hypertension, previous history of angina, hospital treatment only pharmacological, inclusion of positive inotropes in the initial treatment and use of calcium channel blockers, factors already shown by international literature but less analyzed in our country, and furthermore, the demonstration that invasive management with coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery are protective factors of the occurrence of events in this period, which reinforces the idea of a more intensive and invasive management in patients with this pathology. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies
10.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 33: e33591, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1098706

ABSTRACT

Objetivo caracterizar a apresentação clínica de adultos jovens diagnosticados com infarto agudo do miocárdio. Método pesquisa documental com abordagem quantitativa. Utilizou-se um formulário sobre aspectos sociodemográficos e clínicos. A amostra foi composta por 12 prontuários, de pacientes com idade entre 25 e 45 anos. Os dados coletados foram tabulados em uma planilha do Excel e, após análise, foram apresentados em frequências absolutas. Resultados predominou o sexo masculino, com Supra de ST, faixa etária entre 35 e 45 anos de idade, com sobrepeso e sem antecedentes familiares. Dor torácica foi encontrada em 91,66% dos jovens, 58,33% não faziam uso de medicação contínua e 100% tiveram elevação da troponina e realizaram cateterismo cardíaco. Conclusão o quadro de apresentação clínica na população jovem estudada ficou dentro dos parâmetros gerais para o diagnóstico do infarto agudo do miocárdio.


Objetivo caracterizar el cuadro clínico de adultos jóvenes con diagnóstico de infarto agudo de miocardio. Método investigación documental con enfoque cuantitativo. Se utilizó un formulario sobre aspectos sociodemográficos y clínicos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 12 registros médicos de pacientes entre 25 y 45 años de edad. Los datos se recolectaron en una planilla de Excel y, después del análisis, se presentaron en frecuencias absolutas. Resultados se registró un predominio del sexo masculino, con Supra de ST, grupo etario de 35 a 45 años, con sobrepeso y sin antecedentes familiares. Se encontró dolor de tórax en el 91,66% de los jóvenes, el 58,33% no tomaban ningún medicamento en forma continua y el 100% tuvo una suba de la troponina y se sometían a cateterismo cardíaco. Conclusión el cuadro de presentación clínica en la población joven estudiada estuvo dentro de los parámetros generales correspondientes al diagnóstico de infarto agudo de miocardio.


Objective to characterize the clinical presentation of young adults diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Method a documentary research with a quantitative approach. A form on sociodemographic and clinical aspects was used. The sample consisted of 12 medical records, from patients aged between 25 and 45 years old. The collected data were tabulated in an Excel spreadsheet and, after analysis, were presented in absolute frequencies. Results predominantly males, with Supra ST, aged between 35 and 45 years old, overweight and without family history. Chest pain was found in 91.66% of the young people, 58.33% did not use continuous medication and 100% had troponin elevation and cardiac catheterization. Conclusion the clinical presentation in the studied young population was within the general parameters for acute myocardial infarction diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Nursing , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
11.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 18(32): 5-14, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1005446

ABSTRACT

El infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) representa la tercera causa de morbimortalidad en el país. Tener datos sobre la realidad de esta entidad en la institución es de suma importancia como punto de partida para el desarrollo de políticas de prevención, así también mejorar el tratamiento, cuidado y calidad de atención al paciente. OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil epidemiológico de la población que se les indica tratamiento con Tirofiban durante infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM)...


Acutemyocardialinfarction (AMI) represents the third cause ofmorbidity and mortality in the country. Having information about the reality of this entity in the institution is of the utmost importance as a starting point for the development of prevention policies, as well as improving the treatment, care and quality of patientcare. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological profile of the population that is being treated with Tirofiban during acute myocardialinfarction (AMI)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Angioplasty , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Nursing Care
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(6): 2883-2890, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977614

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To outline the clinical-epidemiological profile of patients submitted to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Reference Hospital in Urgent Cardiology Clinic of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Method: This is a descriptive, exploratory, prospective study with a quantitative approach developed in a Brazilian University Hospital with patients submitted to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Data collection occurred between April and October 2017. Results: The sample consisted of 222 patients, of whom 58.10% underwent Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and 41.89% were primary, 65.3% males, with a mean age of 62.7. In comorbidities "Hypertension", "Acute Myocardial Infarction", "Current Smoking" and "Physical Inactivity" were highlighted. Conclusion: In the elective patients, there was a high prevalence of risk factors and in patients with urgent cases, high time of total ischemia. It is necessary to create strategies to structure the care line, to improve the effectiveness of treatment and to minimize adverse outcomes.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Trazar el perfil clínico-epidemiológico de los pacientes sometidos a la Intervención Coronaria Percutánea en un Hospital de referencia en urgencia cardiológica del estado de Rio Grande do Norte. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, prospectivo con abordaje cuantitativo, desarrollado en un Hospital Universitario brasileño con pacientes sometidos a la Intervención Coronaria Percutánea. La recolección de datos ocurrió entre abril y octubre de 2017. Resultados: La muestra compuesta por 222 pacientes. De esos, 58,10% fueron sometidos a la Intervención Coronaria Percutánea electiva y el 41,89% a la primaria, el 65,3% del sexo masculino; la media de edad fue de 62,7. En las comorbilidades, se destacaron Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica, Infarto Agudo de Miocardio previo, tabaquismo actual y sedentarismo. Conclusión: En los pacientes electivos, hubo alta prevalencia de factores de riesgo y en los pacientes de urgencia, elevado tiempo de isquemia total. Se hace necesario la creación de estrategias para estructurar la línea de cuidado, mejorar la eficacia del tratamiento y minimizar los resultados adversos.


RESUMO Objetivo: Traçar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos à Intervenção Coronária Percutânea em um Hospital de referência em urgência cardiológica do estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, prospectivo, com abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido em um Hospital Universitário brasileiro com pacientes submetidos à Intervenção Coronária Percutânea. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre abril e outubro de 2017. Resultados: Amostra composta por 222 pacientes, destes, 58,10% foram submetidos à Intervenção Coronária Percutânea eletiva e 41,89% à primária, 65,3% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 62,7. Nas comorbidades, destacaram-se "Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica", "Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio Prévio", "Tabagismo Atual" e "Sedentarismo". Conclusão: Nos pacientes eletivos, houve alta prevalência de fatores de risco e nos pacientes da urgência, elevado tempo de isquemia total. Faz-se necessário a criação de estratégias para estruturar a linha de cuidado, melhorar a eficácia do tratamento e minimizar os desfechos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1233-1240, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985696

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varies according to seasonality, being higher in winter. The effect of sex on this phenomenon is not clear. Aim: To evaluate the effect of seasonality in men and women hospitalized for AMI at different ages. Material and Methods: We included all patients with a primary diagnosis of AMI admitted in public and private hospitals in Chile during 2002-2011 (codes I21-I22, of the tenth international classification of diseases). We obtained data from the National Discharge databases available at the Ministry of Health website. We estimated the number of discharges per month and per seasonality (cold /template), and the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) with the formula: number of observed cases/expected cases (average annual hospitalizations), stratified by sex and age (< 50 years, 50-64 years, 6574 years, ≥ 75 years). We evaluated the effect of sex with binomial regressions for the different age strata. Results: We assessed 59,557 AMI hospitalizations (69% men, with and without ST elevation segment). May, June and July (austral winter) had a SIR of 1.10; 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Women had a 20% excess of hospitalizations during cold seasons at any age. In men, the excess of hospitalizations increased from 9% in those aged < 50 years to 21% in those ≥ 75 years (p = 0.043). When comparing women and men, women aged < 50 years showed the higher risk of being hospitalized during cold seasons (adjusted risk ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence intervals 1.01-1.13). Conclusions: Women have a stronger seasonal pattern in AMI hospitalizations than men. While this effect increases with age in men, in women it remains constant at all ages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Binomial Distribution , Chile/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
15.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(2): 83-86, set. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989215

ABSTRACT

Carbon monoxide poisoning pose significant public health consequence and management can be challenging in resource-poor countries. This is a commentary of a 40 year-old farmer with a five day history of loss of consciousness following overnight inhalation of carbon monoxide. Neuroimaging and electrophysiologic studies showed bilateral internal capsule and myocardial infarction. He had unsuccessful treatment with normobaric oxygen therapy in the absence of hyperbaric oxygen. This case depicts the brain-heart connection in carbon monoxide poisoning and highlights the challenges of management in a resource poor setting.


La intoxicación por monóxido de carbono representa un significativo problema para la salud pública de cualquier país y su manejo puede resultar en un gran desafío en los países emergentes, con escasez de recursos para la atención de este tipo de pacientes. Se presenta el caso de un agricultor de 40 años de edad, con antecedentes de cinco días previos de pérdida de la conciencia, posterior a la inhalación de monóxido de carbono. Las evaluaciones realizadas: tomografía axial computada de cerebro y electrocardiograma, mostraron la presencia concomitante de infarto cerebral, con compromiso de ambas cápsulas internas e Infarto de miocardio, respectivamente. Se inició tratamiento con oxígeno normobárico, falleciendo el paciente dentro de las 24 horas posteriores a su admisión. Este caso representa la conexión en la afectación de corazón y cerebro, en intoxicaciones por monóxido de carbono y sirve para destacar los desafíos de su manejo en entornos con limitaciones de recursos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/complications , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/epidemiology , Cerebral Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Developing Countries
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(2): 104-107, 20180000. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-913370

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil de pacientes internados com diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico, observacional e transversal, com dados obtidos da análise dos prontuários de cem pacientes internados em um hospital, de fevereiro de 2014 a janeiro de 2015, os quais tiveram diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana aguda e foram regulados para a realização da cineangiocoronariografia. Foi traçado o perfil epidemiológico e fisiopatológico desta população. RESULTADOS: Em nossa amostra, 49 (55,7%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 63,88±13,3 anos, sendo 60,2% acima de 60 anos. O quadro clínico mais prevalente foi angina instável (41%). Constatou-se maior prevalência de portadores de hipertensão arterial (88,7%), além de associação positiva entre os pacientes com idade avançada e doença multiarterial. Também foi encontrada obstrução coronariana significativa em cerca de 90% dos pacientes diabéticos. Cineangiocoronariografia sem lesão significativa foi duas vezes mais identificada, em comparação com dados da American College of Cardiology. CONCLUSÃO: Fatores de risco modificáveis devem ser controlados, visando à redução do número de casos de doenças cardiovasculares agudas e daqueles com desfechos desfavoráveis. Sugere-se que a divulgação dos sintomas de infarto seja ampliada, para que os pacientes cheguem à emergência em tempo hábil de receber o tratamento.(AU)


OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of patients admitted to Hospital with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome METHODS: This is an analytical, observational and crosssectional study with data obtained from the analyses of the medical records of 100 patients admitted to a hospital from February/2014 to January / 2015), who were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome, and were regulated for undergoing coronary angiography. The epidemiological and pathophysiological profile of this population was described. RESULTS: In our sample, there were 49 (55.7 %) male patients with a mean age of 63.88±13.3 years, with 60.2 % being over 60 years. The most prevalent clinical condition was unstable angina (41%). A higher prevalence of patients with hypertension (88.7 %) was found, as well as a positive association of patients with advanced age and multivessel disease. We also find significant coronary obstruction in about 90 % of diabetic patients. Coronary angiographywith no significant lesion was twice as identified if compared with the American College of Cardiology data. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors should be monitored, in order to reduce the number of cases of acute cardiovascular disease and those with unfavorable outcomes. The dissemination of information about infarction should be enhanced for the patients to search for emergent care in a timely manner.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cineangiography/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(5): 1621-1634, Mai. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890566

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se analisar o efeito da idade-período e coorte (APC) de nascimento na mortalidade por infarto agudo do miocárdio no Brasil e regiões geográficas, segundo sexo, no período de 1980 a 2009. Os dados foram extraídos do Sistema de Informação Sobre Mortalidade e foram corrigidos e ajustados, por meio da redistribuição proporcional dos registros com sexo e idade ignorados, causas mal definidas, e também se realizou a correção do sub-registro de morte. O APC foi calculado pelo modelo de regressão de Poisson, utilizando funções estimáveis. A análise APC nos dois sexos e em todas as regiões do país evidenciou progressiva redução no risco de morte nas coortes de nascimento a partir da década de 1940, exceto na região nordeste. Nessa região, verificou-se aumento progressivo do risco de morte a partir da década de 1940 para ambos os sexos, até a década de 1950 para os homens e a década de 1960 para as mulheres. Concluiu-se que as diferenças observadas no risco de morte nas regiões brasileiras é fruto das desigualdades socioeconômicas e de acesso aos serviços de saúde existente no território brasileiro, favorecendo a mortalidade precoce por essa causa sobretudo em localidades mais pobres.


Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of age-period and cohort (APC) of birth on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and its geographic regions, according to sex in the period from 1980 to 2009. The data was extracted from the Mortality Information System and was corrected and adjusted by means of proportional redistribution of records with sex and age ignored, ill-defined causes, and corrections were made based on the death sub-register. The APC was calculated using the Poisson regression model with estimable functions. The APC analysis on both sexes and in all regions of the country showed gradual reductions in the risk of death in birth cohorts from the decade of the 1940s, except in the Northeast. In this region, there have been progressive increases in the risk of death from the late 1940s for both sexes. This was up until the 1950s for men and the 1960s for women. It was concluded that the observed differences in the risk of death in Brazilian regions is the result of socio-economic inequalities and poor access to health services within the Brazilian territory, favoring early mortality for this cause especially in poorer areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Health Status Disparities , Health Services Accessibility , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Sex Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
18.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 74 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-912824

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: Sabe-se que o risco cardiovascular (CV) aumenta com a falta de controle pressórico, além de outros fatores como diabetes mellitus, lesão em órgãos-alvo, obesidade, altas taxas de ingestão de sódio, sexo feminino e raça negra. Além disso, as doenças CV são causa de morte de 17,5 milhões de pessoas no mundo todos os anos, sendo a hipertensão arterial responsável por 14% das mortes no Brasil. Objetivos: O presente estudo avaliou (1) a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares ¿ acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), infarto do miocárdio (IM) e morte ¿ assim como, (2) os fatores associados à ocorrência de tais eventos, na população de hipertensos resistentes em ambulatórios especializados entre os anos de 1998 e 2017. Desenho de estudo e Métodos: Este estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu 156 pacientes com hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR) regularmente atendidos e acompanhados em ambulatórios especializados a partir de 1998 - Hospitais de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) e Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP). Foram avaliadas características gerais (idade, raça, gênero), exames bioquímicos, parâmetros antropométricos (índice de massa corporal), clínicos (pressão arterial ambulatorial e de consultório, hipertrofia cardíaca, microalbuminúria) e medicações em uso em dois períodos distintos, sendo a primeira e última consultas dos pacientes em seguimento. Resultados: Observou-se que, após a média de cinco anos de seguimento em ambulatórios especializados, 9% dos pacientes HAR apresentaram evento CV: AVC (6%); IM (3%) e morte (0,6%). Os pacientes HAR, ao final do seguimento, apresentaram um perfil clínico mais favorável em comparação ao momento inicial, quando foram observadas: (1) melhora do perfil pressórico de consultório (PAS: -18mmHg; PAD: -12mmHg) e 24h ( PAS 24h: -9mmHg; PAD 24h: -7mmHg) e (2) dos níveis de LDL-colesterol (-9,03mg/dL). A redução dos parâmetros pressóricos foi decorrente de alterações na conduta terapêutica, com aumento da prescrição de diferentes classes de anti-hipertensivos. De maneira interessante, o diabetes e uso de betabloqueadores no início do seguimento, foram associados, de maneira independente, à redução da pressão arterial sistólica no final do seguimento, assim como as estatinas. Por outro lado, a presença de obesidade foi associada inversamente à redução desses níveis. Os pacientes HAR que apresentaram algum evento CV tinham, tanto o nível pressórico de 24h quanto o de triglicérides, mais elevados em relação aos pacientes HAR que não apresentaram nenhum evento. Conclusão: Através do tratamento farmacológico otimizado, a redução dos parâmetros pressóricos e do perfil lipídico, pode ter sido favorável à baixa ocorrência de eventos CV na população estudada. Esses dados sugerem a importância de se prestar atendimento individualizado aos pacientes de alto risco CV. Além disso, o conhecimento dos fatores de risco CV pode contribuir para melhor se guiar a terapia farmacológica e, consequentemente, proporcionar maior sobrevida a grupos de alto risco CV, como o de pacientes HAR(AU)


Abstract: Background: It is known that cardiovascular (CV) risk increases with lack of blood pressure (BP) control, in addition to other factors such as diabetes mellitus, target organ damage, obesity, high sodium intake, female sex and black race. In addition, CV diseases are responsible for the deaths of 17.5 million people worldwide, it being known that hypertension accounts for 14% of deaths in Brazil. Objectives: This study evaluated (1) the occurrence of CV events - stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and death - as well as (2) factors associated with the occurrence of such events in the population of hypertensive specialized outpatient clinics between 1998 and 2017. Design and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 156 patients with resistant hypertension (RH) regularly attended and followed up in specialized outpatient clinics from 1998 ¿ in Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and Medical School of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP). General characteristics (age, race, gender), biochemical tests, anthropometric parameters (body mass index), clinical parameters (ambulatory and office BP, cardiac hypertrophy, microalbuminuria) and medications in use were evaluated in two distinct periods: at the beginning and at the end of this follow-up. Results: It was observed that, after a follow-up in specialized outpatient clinics that lasted, in average, five years, 9% of RH patients presented CV event: stroke (6%); MI (3%) and death (0.6%). At the end of the follow-up, the RH patients presented a more favorable clinical profile compared to the initial moment, when: (1) improvement of the office BP profile (SBP: -18mmHg; DBP: -12mmHg) and 24h: -9mmHg, DBP 24h: -7mmHg) and (2) LDL-cholesterol levels (-9.03mg/dL). The reduction in BP parameters was due to changes in therapeutic management, with an increase in the prescription of different classes of antihypertensives. Interestingly, diabetes and the use of beta-blockers at the beginning of follow-up were associated with a reduction in systolic BP in an independent way at the end of follow-up, as well as statins. On the other hand, the presence of obesity was inversely associated with the reduction of these levels. The RH patients who had a CV event had the 24h BP and the triglyceride levels higher than the RH patients who did not present any events. Conclusion: Through optimized pharmacological treatment the reduction of pressure parameters and lipid profile could have been favorable to the low occurrence of CV events in the study population. These data suggest the importance of providing individualized care to patients at high risk CV. In addition, knowledge of CV risk factors may contribute to better guiding pharmacological therapy and, consequently, providing greater survival rates to high-risk CV groups, such as in RH patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Abnormalities , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Antihypertensive Agents , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular System , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Stroke , Stroke/epidemiology , Therapeutics
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 333-338, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142139

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El dolor torácico es un importante motivo de atención en salas de urgencia a nivel mundial. Se evaluó la relación entre el score HEART modificado y la presencia de eventos cardiacos mayores a los 30 días. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional en un solo centro hospitalario. En pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos en urgencias por dolor torácico, en los cuales se aplicó el score HEART modificado al ingreso y se relacionó con la presencia de eventos cardiacos mayores (infarto de miocardio, muerte, re hospitalización por causa cardiaca y revascularización coronaria percutánea o quirúrgica) a los 30 días de seguimiento. Resultados: De 158 pacientes analizados, 17 eventos adversos (10.8%) se encontraron al mes de seguimiento. El score HEART modificado pudo predecir eventos adversos en el 4; 21,4 y 100% de pacientes con scores 0-3, 4-6 y 7-10 respectivamente (p = 0.0001). Un score HEART modificado mayor o igual a 4 se relacionó con más eventos adversos (OR: 4.52; IC: 2.76-7.39) con una sensibilidad del 70% y una especificidad del 84%. Conclusiones: La aplicación del score HEART modificado estratifica a los pacientes con dolor torácico en urgencias de manera adecuada en bajo, moderado y alto riesgo de complicaciones cardiovasculares, lo cual permite que las unidades de urgencia mejoren sus protocolos de triaje y diagnóstico de los síndromes coronarios agudos.


Abstract Objective: Chest pain is a major reason for emergency room care worldwide. The relationship between the Modified Heart Score and the presence of major cardiac events at 30 days after emergency admission was evaluated. Methods: Retrospective, observational study in a single centre on patients older than 18 years, who were treated for chest pain. The Modified HEART Score was applied at admission and related to the presence of major cardiac events (myocardial infarction, death, hospital re-admission due to cardiac causes, and percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularisation) at 30 days of follow-up. Results: Of 158 patients analysed, 17 (10.8%) adverse events were found at follow-up. The modified HEART score could predict adverse events in 4%; 21.4%, and 100% of patients with scores 0-3; 4-6, and 7-10, respectively (P = .0001). A modified HEART score greater than or equal to 4 was associated with more adverse events (OR: 4.52; 95% CI 2.76-7.39) with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 84%. Conclusions: The application of the modified HEART score is useful for stratifying patients with chest pain into low, moderate, and high risk of cardiovascular complications, which should help the emergency units to improve their protocols for triage and diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chest Pain/etiology , Triage/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
20.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(5): 412-418, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899444

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and associated factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A cross-sectional study using the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria in order to select patients seen at primary or secondary health care units in Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, in 2014. The presence of ischemic heart disease was defined as an acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery that has occurred after diagnosis. Fischer's exact test, Wald's linear trend test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the associations. Results: Among 296 patients (83.1% female) with a mean age of 56.6 years and a mean rheumatoid arthritis duration of 11.3 years, 13 reported having acute myocardial infarction requiring a percutaneous or surgical reperfusion procedure, a prevalence of 4.4% (95% CI 2.0-6.7). Diabetes Mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 4.9 [95% CI 1.6-13.8]) and disease duration >10 years (OR 8.2 [95% CI 1.8-39.7]) were the only factors associated with an ischemic disease that remained in the final model, after the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The prevalence of acute myocardial infarction was similar to that observed in other studies. Among the traditional risk factors, Diabetes Mellitus, and among the factors related to rheumatoid arthritis, disease duration, were the variables associated with comorbidity.


Resumo Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência da doença isquêmica cardíaca e os fatores associados em pacientes com artrite reumatoide. Métodos: Estudo transversal que usou o critério diagnóstico do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia para selecionar pacientes atendidos nas unidades de saúde da atenção primária ou secundária em Blumenau, Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil, em 2014. A presença de doença cardíaca isquêmica foi definida com infarto agudo do miocárdio com intervenção coronariana percutânea ou cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio que tenha ocorrido depois do diagnóstico. Para testar as associações usou-se o teste exato de Fischer, o teste de tendência linear de Wald e a análise de regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: Entre 296 pacientes, 83,1% de mulheres, com média de 56,6 anos, tempo médio de artrite reumatoide de 11,3 anos, 13 relatam ter tido infarto agudo do miocárdio que necessitou de procedimento de reperfusão percutânea ou cirúrgica, prevalência de 4,4% (IC 95% 2,0-6,7). O diabetes melittus (razão de chance de 4,9 [IC 95% 1,6-13,8]) e o tempo de doença maior do que 10 anos (razão de chance de 8,2 [IC 95% 1,8-39,7]) foram os únicos fatores associados com a doença isquêmica que permaneceram no modelo final após análise multivariada. Conclusão: A prevalência de infarto agudo do miocárdio foi semelhante com a observada em outros estudos. Entre os fatores de risco tradicionais e entre os fatores relacionados à artrite reumatoide, o diabetes melittus e o tempo de doença foram as variáveis associadas à comorbidade


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Brazil , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Self Report , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
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