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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 125-133, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-989989

ABSTRACT

Although new studies and guidelines can be considered useful tools, it does not necessarily mean they are put into clinical practice. Objective: The aim of the current analysis was to assess the changes in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and mortality in a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil during a six-year period. Methods: We have included consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary PCI between March 2011 and February 2017. Previous clinical history, characteristics of the procedure, and reperfusion strategies were collected. In-hospital, short and long-term mortalities were also evaluated. The significance level adopted for all tests was 5%. Results: There was an increase in the use of radial access in patients from 20.0% in 2011 to 62.7% in 2016 (ptrend < 0.0001). Moreover, thrombus aspiration decreased significantly from 66.7% in 2011 to less than 3.0% in 2016 (ptrend < 0.0001). In-hospital, short and long-term mortalities remained reasonably stable from 2011 to 2016 (ptrend > 0.05). However, a lower in-hospital mortality was observed in patients treated through radial access (p < 0.001). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 11.1%, without statistical differences in the period (ptrend = 0.39), while long-term mortality rate decreased from 80.0% in 2011 to 27.3% in 2016 in this patient group (ptrend = 0.29). Conclusions: During a 6-year follow-up period, primary PCI characteristics underwent important modifications. Radial access became widely used, with a decrease in mortality with the use of this route, while aspiration thrombectomy became a rare procedure. The incidence of cardiogenic shock remained stable, but has shown a reduction in its mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Tertiary Healthcare , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Shock, Cardiogenic , Coronary Artery Disease , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 163-176, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-989991

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is less frequent in young individuals (≤ 45 years) than in older ones (> 45 years). Young AMI patients differ from older AMI patients in different ways. This article aims to assess the differences between young and older AMI patients. A search was made in the database of Cochrane Library, PubMed, BioMed Central and Embase, sence their establishment to December 2016, using the key words: risk factors, clinical characteristics, acute myocardial infarction and young. Meta-analysis was performed by using the Review Manager 5.3 software, pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of differences. Eight studies with fairly quality, enrolling 13,358 patients in the analysis. Compared with older AMI patients, young AMI patients had a higher rate of smoking and obesity (OR = 2.71,95%CI:1.87 to 3.92; OR = 1.76,95%CI:1.13 to 2.74), higher rate of family history of coronary artery disease and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.36,95%CI:1.22 to 4.59; OR = 1.76,95%CI:1.04 to 2.97). Moreover, Young AMI patients had a lower rate of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR = 0.52,95%CI:0.37 to 0.73; OR = 0.58,95%CI:0.50 to 0.67). No significant differences were observed in hyperlipidemia, a subgroup data-analysis showed a higher total cholesterol, triglyceride lipase, and low-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.05), and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01) in young AMI patients. Smoking, family history of coronary artery disease, obesity and alcohol consumption are the most main risk factors of AMI among young individuals, and young AMI patients have better prognosis than older ones


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Alcohol Drinking , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Smoking , Statistical Analysis , Age Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Meta-Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Young Adult , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Obesity
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 118-124, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-987759

ABSTRACT

Background: Inflammation is a major component of the response to tissue injury caused by myocardial infarction. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels might be a simple marker of the severity of this inflammatory response, providing prognostic information. Objective: To associate hs-CRP level on admission and other clinical characteristics with in-hospital mortality of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with STEMI was carried out. Patients were analyzed regarding clinical characteristics, reperfusion therapy, hs-CRP on admission and outcomes. Continuous variables were analyzed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and categorical variables by chi-square test. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 118 patients analyzed, 20 died during hospitalization. Higher levels of hs-CRP (p = 0.001) and older ages (p = 0.003) were observed among those patients who died. Logistic regression showed that a one unit increase in hs-CRP increased the risk of death by 15% (p = 0.0017), after adjustment for established risk factors. Similarly, each one-year increase in age increases the risk of death by 6.6% (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a strong association between hs-CRP obtained on admission and in-hospital mortality after STEMI. It suggests that hs-CRP can be a marker of inflammatory response to myocardial ischemia, providing prognostic information regarding the risk of death


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , C-Reactive Protein , Biomarkers , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Prognosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation/physiopathology
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 125-133, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-988177

ABSTRACT

Background: Although new studies and guidelines can be considered useful tools, it does not necessarily mean they are put into clinical practice. Objective: The aim of the current analysis was to assess the changes in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and mortality in a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil during a six-year period .Methods: We have included consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary PCI between March 2011 and February 2017. Previous clinical history, characteristics of the procedure, and reperfusion strategies were collected. In-hospital, short and long-term mortalities were also evaluated. The significance level adopted for all tests was 5%. Results: There was an increase in the use of radial access in patients from 20.0% in 2011 to 62.7% in 2016 (ptrend < 0.0001). Moreover, thrombus aspiration decreased significantly from 66.7% in 2011 to less than 3.0% in 2016 (ptrend < 0.0001). In-hospital, short and long-term mortalities remained reasonably stable from 2011 to 2016 (ptrend > 0.05). However, a lower in-hospital mortality was observed in patients treated through radial access (p < 0.001). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 11.1%, without statistical differences in the period (ptrend = 0.39), while long-term mortality rate decreased from 80.0% in 2011 to 27.3% in 2016 in this patient group (ptrend = 0.29). Conclusions: During a 6-year follow-up period, primary PCI characteristics underwent important modifications. Radial access became widely used, with a decrease in mortality with the use of this route, while aspiration thrombectomy became a rare procedure. The incidence of cardiogenic shock remained stable, but has shown a reduction in its mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Tertiary Healthcare , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Shock, Cardiogenic , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 163-176, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-988222

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is less frequent in young individuals (≤ 45 years) than in older ones (> 45 years). Young AMI patients differ from older AMI patients in different ways. This article aims to assess the differences between young and older AMI patients. A search was made in the database of Cochrane Library, PubMed, BioMed Central and Embase, sence their establishment to December 2016, using the key words: risk factors, clinical characteristics, acute myocardial infarction and young. Meta-analysis was performed by using the Review Manager 5.3 software, pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of differences. Eight studies with fairly quality, enrolling 13,358 patients in the analysis. Compared with older AMI patients, young AMI patients had a higher rate of smoking and obesity (OR = 2.71,95%CI:1.87 to 3.92; OR = 1.76,95%CI:1.13 to 2.74), higher rate of family history of coronary artery disease and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.36,95%CI:1.22 to 4.59; OR = 1.76,95%CI:1.04 to 2.97). Moreover, Young AMI patients had a lower rate of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR = 0.52,95%CI:0.37 to 0.73; OR = 0.58,95%CI:0.50 to 0.67). No significant differences were observed in hyperlipidemia, a subgroup data-analysis showed a higher total cholesterol, triglyceride lipase, and low-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.05), and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01) in young AMI patients. Smoking, family history of coronary artery disease, obesity and alcohol consumption are the most main risk factors of AMI among young individuals, and young AMI patients have better prognosis than older ones


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Smoking , Statistical Analysis , Age Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Meta-Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Young Adult , Hypertension , Obesity
6.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20190201, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1043027

ABSTRACT

Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the ranking and percentage variation of the main causes of hospital admissions and death of Brazilian elders between 2005 and 2015, according to gender and age groups. METHOD Retrospective and temporal analysis study. The six main causes of hospitalization and death of elders were collected in DATASUS according to sex and age groups (60 ~ 79, ≥80) in 2017. RESULTS Heart Failure (2005) and pneumonia (2015) were the two main causes of hospital admissions in both sexes and age groups, except for the younger group. Acute Myocardial Infarction was the main cause of death in 2005 and 2015. The second cause in the overall ranking was the Stroke in 2005 and Pneumonia in 2015. CONCLUSION Circulatory and respiratory diseases were the main causes of hospital admissions and death among the elderly, highlighting the impotant increase in pneumonia as a cause of morbimortality.


Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar el ranking y la variación porcentual de las principales causas de internación y muerte de adultos mayores brasileños entre 2005 y 2015, de acuerdo con sexo y grupos de edad. MÉTODO Estudio retrospectivo, de análisis temporal. Las seis principales causas de internación y muerte de adultos mayores fueron recogidas en el DATASUS, según el sexo y grupos de edad (60 ~ 79; ≥80), en 2017. RESULTADOS La Insuficiencia Cardiaca (2005) y la neumonía (2015) fueron las dos las principales causas de hospitalizaciones en ambos sexos y grupos de edad, excepto en ancianos más jóvenes. El infarto agudo de miocardio fue la principal causa de muerte en 2005 y 2015. La segunda causa en el ranking general fue el accidente vascular cerebral en 2005 y la neumonía en 2015. CONCLUSIÓN Las enfermedades del aparato circulatorio y respiratorio fueron las principales causas de hospitalización y muerte entre los ancianos, destacándose el significativo aumento de la neumonía como causa de morbimortalidad.


Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar o ranking e a variação percentual das principais causas de internação e óbito de idosos brasileiros entre 2005 e 2015, de acordo com sexo e grupos etários. MÉTODO Estudo retrospectivo, de análise temporal. As seis principais causas de internação e óbito de idosos foram coletados no DATASUS, segundo o sexo e grupos etários (60~79; ≥80), em 2017. RESULTADOS A Insuficiência Cardíaca (2005) e a pneumonia (2015) foram as duas principais causas de hospitalizações em ambos os sexos e grupos etários, exceto em idosos mais jovens. O Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio foi a principal causa de óbito em 2005 e 2015. Já a segunda causa no ranking geral foi o Acidente Vascular Cerebral em 2005, e a Pneumonia em 2015. CONCLUSÃO As doenças do aparelho circulatório e respiratório foram as principais causas de hospitalização e óbito entre os idosos, destacando-se o significativo aumento da pneumonia como causa de morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cause of Death , Hospital Mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/mortality , Time Factors , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Life Expectancy , Stroke/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
7.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 30(3): 223-230, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1051355

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of death in the world, this occurs in the in-hospital period as well as in the follow-up. It has been much studied what occurs in the in-hospital period, but much less what occurs in the follow-up of patients with this pathology. The objective of this study was to follow patients discharged after myocardial infarction for 1 year and analyze predictors of cardiovascular events. 1174 patients were followed for 1 year, of which 17% presented some serious cardiovascular event, associated with the presence of male sex, older age, arterial hypertension, previous history of angina, hospital treatment only pharmacological, inclusion of positive inotropes in the initial treatment and use of calcium channel blockers, factors already shown by international literature but less analyzed in our country, and furthermore, the demonstration that invasive management with coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery are protective factors of the occurrence of events in this period, which reinforces the idea of a more intensive and invasive management in patients with this pathology. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies
9.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 20(3): 34-44, set.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-989844

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: La mortalidad hospitalaria ha sido uno de los indicadores de calidad asistencial más utilizado, y constituye un valioso instrumento para la planificación y gestión hospitalarias. Objetivo: Determinar los factores derivados de la atención médica que se relacionaron con la mortalidad por infarto agudo de miocardio en el Hospital Provincial General Camilo Cienfuegos de Sancti Spíritus de noviembre de 2014 a junio de 2016. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo con una muestra de 76 pacientes. Se recogieron datos demográficos, clínicos, ecocardiográficos, de laboratorio y derivados del tratamiento empleado. Se prefijó un 90 % de cumplimiento para considerar aquellos indicadores de calidad de atención de tipo cualitativo, como cumplidos satisfactoriamente. Resultados: La letalidad por infarto agudo de miocardio se comportó en un 16.8 %, con un predominio del sexo masculino (60.52 %) y del grupo etario entre los 60 y 79 años (68.4 %). El shock cardiogénico fue la principal causa de muerte en más de la mitad de los fallecidos y se observó un bajo índice de terapia fibrinolítica aplicada; se reconoció el tiempo de isquemia prolongado y el no diagnóstico como las causas que prevalecieron. El uso de doble antiagregación plaquetaria, de las heparinas no fraccionadas y de las estatinas fueron las terapias que cumplieron con el indicador de calidad propuesto. Conclusiones: Se evidenció una elevada letalidad hospitalaria por infarto agudo de miocardio existiendo un bajo cumplimiento de los indicadores de calidad relacionados con las terapias de reperfusión y el empleo del ecocardiograma en la fase aguda.


ABSTRACT Background: Hospital mortality has been one of the most used care quality indicators and constitutes a valuable tool for hospital planning and management. Objective: To determine the factors derived from medical care related to mortality due to acute myocardial infarction at Camilo Cienfuegos General Provincial Hospital in Sancti Spíritus from November 2014 to June 2016. Methodology: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was carried out with a sample of 76 patients. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, laboratory and derivative data from the treatment used were collected. A 90% of fulfillment was prefixed to consider those indicators of qualitative care quality, as satisfactorily fulfilled. Results: The mortality due to acute myocardial infarction behaved in 16.8%, with a predominance of males (60.52%) and from the age group between 60 and 79 years (68.4%). Cardiogenic shock was the main cause of death in more than half of the deceased and a low index of applied fibrinolysis therapy was observed; the time of prolonged ischemia and non-diagnosis was recognized as prevailed causes. The use of double platelet antiaggregation, unfractionated heparins and statins were the therapies that attained the proposed quality indicator. Conclusions: There was high hospital mortality due to acute myocardial infarction, with low fulfillment of quality indicators related to reperfusion therapies and the use of echocardiography in the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
10.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(6): 872-884, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-991293

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen un serio problema de salud a nivel mundial, la cardiopatía isquémica representa gran parte de este problema del cual Cuba no está exenta. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio en la Unidad de cuidados coronarios intensivos del Hospital clínico-quirúrgico Comandante Manuel Fajardo en el período comprendido entre junio 2009 a marzo 2017. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal con un universo de 50 pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio. Resultados: Edad media de 62,6 años ± 7. Predominó el infarto de localización anterior (76 por ciento), unido a los pacientes con Killip-Kimball III - IV y con TIMI de riesgo bajo con un (68 por ciento) y (40 por ciento) respectivamente. El 56 por ciento del universo no recibió terapia de reperfusión y el shock cardiogénico (40 por ciento) fue constatado como complicación más presentada. Conclusiones: Predominaron los pacientes con infarto de cara anterior y los de clasificación de Killip-Kimbal III-IV, sin asociación estadísticamente significativa entre ambas variables. También fueron mayoría los no trombolizados y los que presentaron shock cardiogénico como complicación, aunque estas variables tampoco mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa(AU)


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a serious health problem worldwide. Ischemic Cardiopathy represents a high percentage of this problem, and Cuba is not excluded. Objective: To characterize patients who died after Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Intensive Coronary Care Unit of the Clinical-Surgical Hospital Comandante Manuel Fajardo in the period from June 2009 to March 2017. Material and Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with a universe of 50 patients who died of acute myocardial infarction. Results: The mean age was 62.6 ± 7 years. The anterior myocardial infarction predominated (76 percent), together with patients classified according to Killip-Kimball III-IV criteria that also had low TIMI risk (68 percent and a 40 percent, respectively). 56 percent of the universe of patients was not thrombosed, and cardiogenic shock (40 percent) was confirmed as the most common complication. Conclusions: Patients with anterior myocardial infarction and Killip-Kimbal III-IV classification predominated in the study, without statistically significant association between these two variables. Most patients were not thrombosed and they were the ones who presented cardiogenic shock as a complication, although these variables also showed no statistically significant association(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Care Units/methods , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5): 505-512, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1019901

ABSTRACT

Aerobic exercise exerts cardioprotective effects on myocardial infarction. However, there is lack of information about the possible protective effects of continuous or accumulated aerobic exercise performed prior to myocardial infarction in aging. Objective: To evaluate the preventive effects of continuous or accumulated aerobic exercise on physical capacity, pulmonary congestion and ventricular weight in rats submitted to myocardial infarction. Methods: Old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham control, sedentary infarcted, continuous aerobic exercise submitted to myocardial infarction, and accumulated aerobic exercise submitted to myocardial infarction. Body weight and maximum speed were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Trained groups performed continuous (1 h a day) or accumulated (30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon) exercise. All groups, except the sham control, were submitted to myocardial infarction surgery at the end of the protocol. Heart, skeletal muscles, as well as wet and dry lung were weighed. The significance level in statistical analysis was established at p < 0.05. Results: Both continuous and accumulated exercise caused an increase in physical capacity in rats, as well as prevented its further impairment after myocardial infarction, and in the accumulated exercise group this prevention was greater. The continuous exercise group demonstrated an increase in lung water content, while the accumulated exercise group presented a reduction in body weight and an increase in left ventricle relative weight. Conclusion: In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that accumulated aerobic exercise present a better protective effect than continuous aerobic training in the context of myocardial infarction and aging


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats , Aging , Exercise , Physical Endurance/physiology , Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Statistical Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-914718

ABSTRACT

Background: The SAMe-TT2R2 score was introduced to identify atrial fibrillation patients with a high risk of not achieving a good time in therapeutic range (TTR) during vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate this score in venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients receiving care at the outpatient anticoagulation clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients were classified as having low (score 0-1) or high risk (score ≥2) of not achieving a good TTR. The area under the ROC curve was calculated to assess the ability of the score to predict a TTR ≥ 65%. Adverse event-free survival curves according to the SAMe-TT2 R2 score were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We investigated 111 patients during a median follow-up of 2.3 (0.7-6.4) years. Mean age was 54.1 ± 15.7 years and 71 (64.0%) were women. Low- and high-risk groups had similar mean TTR (51.9 vs. 49.6%; p = 0.593). The two groups did not differ significantly in the percentage of patients achieving a TTR ≥ 65% (35.6 vs. 25.8%; p =0.370). The c-statistic was 0.595 (p = 0.113) for TTR ≥ 65%. Adverse event-free survival during anticoagulation was also similar in both groups (p = 0.136).Conclusions: The SAMe-TT2R2 score does not seem to be a useful tool in oral anticoagulation decision-making for patients with VTE and should not be used in this setting


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants , Decision Support Techniques , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Statistical Analysis , Stroke
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-914756

ABSTRACT

Background: Aerobic exercise exerts cardioprotective effects on myocardial infarction. However, there is lack of information about the possible protective effects of continuous or accumulated aerobic exercise performed prior to myocardial infarction in aging. Objective: To evaluate the preventive effects of continuous or accumulated aerobic exercise on physical capacity, pulmonary congestion and ventricular weight in rats submitted to myocardial infarction. Methods: Old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham control, sedentary infarcted, continuous aerobic exercise submitted to myocardial infarction, and accumulated aerobic exercise submitted to myocardial infarction. Body weight and maximum speed were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Trained groups performed continuous (1 h a day) or accumulated (30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon) exercise. All groups, except the sham control, were submitted to myocardial infarction surgery at the end of the protocol. Heart, skeletal muscles, as well as wet and dry lung were weighed. The significance level in statistical analysis was established at p < 0.05. Results: Both continuous and accumulated exercise caused an increase in physical capacity in rats, as well as prevented its further impairment after myocardial infarction, and in the accumulated exercise group this prevention was greater. The continuous exercise group demonstrated an increase in lung water content, while the accumulated exercise group presented a reduction in body weight and an increase in left ventricle relative weight. Conclusion: In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that accumulated aerobic exercise present a better protective effect than continuous aerobic training in the context of myocardial infarction and aging


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Exercise , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Rats , Analysis of Variance , Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Models, Animal , Physical Endurance/physiology , Statistical Analysis
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-914765

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce mortality of acute myocardial infarction, medical care must be provided within the first hours of the event. Objective: To identify the "front door" to medical care of acute coronary patients and the time elapsed between patients'admission and performance of myocardial reperfusion in the public health system of the city of Joinville, Brazil. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 112 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction by coronary angiography. We identified the place of the first medical contact and calculated the time between admission to this place and admission to the referral hospital, as well as the time until coronary angiography, with or without percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. A descriptive analysis of data was made using mean and standard deviation, and a p < 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Only 16 (14.3%) patients were admitted through the cardiology referral unit. Door-to-angiography time was shorter than 90 minutes in 50 (44.2%) patients and longer than 270 minutes in 39 (34.5%) patients. No statistically significant difference was observed in door-to-angiography time between patients transported directly to the referral hospital and those transferred from other health units (p < 0.240). Considering the time between pain onset and angiography, only 3 (2.9%) patients may have benefited from myocardial reperfusion performed within less than 240 minutes. Conclusion: Management of patients with acute myocardial infarction is not in conformity with current guidelines for the treatment of this condition. The structure of the healthcare system should be urgently modified so that users in need of emergency services receive adequate care in accordance with local conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Failure to Rescue, Health Care , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Therapeutics/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Critical Pathways/trends , Death, Sudden/prevention & control , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospital Care/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Statistical Analysis , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Unified Health System
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-914771

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is defined as the death of cardiomyocytes due to prolonged ischemia, caused by thrombosis and / or vasospasm on an atherosclerotic plaque. Objective: To determine the incidence of patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty; characterize the anthropometric variables and identify the risk factors in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study in which we collected secondary data from medical records of a hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, where the largest number of interventions is via Public Health System, patients with a diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction, undergoing primary coronary angioplasty, from January 2011 to December 2013. Results: The total sample consisted of 437 subjects, 282 male and 155 female. In this study, there was predominance of myocardial infarction in the anterior descending artery ADA (45.51%), followed by right coronary artery RCA (38.46%), in carrying out the rescue angioplasty and stent implantation in 96.62% of cases. There was a predominance of high blood pressure as risk factors for 73.71%, followed by smoking with 41.66% of the sample. Conclusion: According to the present study data, it appears a higher prevalence of infarction occurred in the ADA, with individuals performing the rescue angioplasty procedure and the placement of the stent, and a growing incidence of drug stent placement. We observed a high incidence of risk factors, prevailing hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angiography/methods , Angioplasty/methods , Drug-Eluting Stents , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Risk Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sedentary Behavior , Therapeutics , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Unified Health System
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-914777

ABSTRACT

The development of cardiovascular diseases with atherosclerotic origin is associated with a severe inflammatory process. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are cells sensitive to this type of disorder and their ratio, known as the NLR (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio), has shown to be useful in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the role of NLR in cardiovascular disease risk assessment. We carried out a literature review in the PubMed databases searching for articles published between 2001 to 2017 and found that NLR is in fact a useful marker for cardiovascular disease. Using NLR in patients at cardiovascular risk would be useful to delineate the prognosis of patients with this disease pattern


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Leukocyte Count , Neutrophils , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Biomarkers , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels , Inflammation , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnosis , Prognosis , Risk Factors
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-914814

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the antiretroviral therapy (ART), people infected with HIV are experiencing a significant increase in life expectancy. However, as this population ages, the morbidity and mortality due to events not related to HIV infection and/or treatment become increasingly clear. Cardiovascular diseases are among the major causes of death, and, thus, understanding the factors that trigger this situation is necessary. This review article will assess how the intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to HIV, ART and the associated risk factors can aid the epidemiological transition of mortality in this population. Moreover, we will present the studies on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of each clinical condition related to HIV-infected individuals, in addition to introducing the major markers of cardiovascular disease in this population. Finally, we will point the main issues to be addressed by health professionals for an adequate prognosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , HIV , Acute Retroviral Syndrome , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension/complications , Metabolic Syndrome , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Zidovudine/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(2): 77-79, 20180000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-913361

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão dos plantonistas da emergência na aplicação de um protocolo de dor torácica e o impacto no índice de mortalidade por infarto agudo do miocárdio. MÉ- TODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, realizado de maio de 2016 até maio de 2017. Os dados foram obtidos por relatórios do sistema TASY e mostram todas as admissões por queixa de dor torácica, segundo a CID10. Estas admissões foram tabuladas em planilha Excel. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.657 pacientes com entrada na emergência clínica por queixa de dor torácica, 471 apresentavam síndrome coronariana. Na amostra, 67,39% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59,72 anos. Destes, 92 (19,96%) foram diagnosticados com infarto agudo do miocárdio, 30 (28,26%) apresentavam supradesnivelamento do segmento ST e 62 (71,74%) foram diagnosticados como infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST. Todos os casos que necessitaram de angioplastia tiveram o procedimento executado dentro do prazo estabelecido pelas diretrizes internacionais. Receberam aspirina profilática 469 (99,57%) pacientes. A mortalidade dos pacientes internados com infarto agudo do miocárdio foi de 2,17%. CONCLUSÃO: O gerenciamento deste protocolo permite mapear o processo, bem como verificar eficácia, pontos fortes e fracos, e os riscos.(AU)


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adherence of emergency doctors to the application of the chest pain protocol, and the impact on mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: This is a retrospective study performed from May 2016 to May 2017. Data were obtained from TASY reports and show all admissions for chest pain complaints (ICD-10). These admissions were tabulated in Excel spreadsheet. RESULTS: Of the 1.657 patients admitted to the clinical emergency due to a complaint of chest pain, 471 had a coronary syndrome. In the sample, 67.39% of patients were male, with a mean age of 59.72 years. Of these, 92 (19.96%) were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, 30 (28.26%) presented ST segment elevation, and 62 (71.74%) were diagnosed as acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. All cases requiring angioplasty had the procedure performed within the period established by the international guidelines. Of the patients, 469 (99.57%) received prophylactic aspirin. The mortality of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction was 2.17%. CONCLUSION: The management of this protocol allows mapping the process, checking efficacy, strengths, weaknesses, and risks.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Health Care , Chest Pain/complications , Clinical Protocols , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
19.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(3)jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-908839

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte no Brasil. Marcadores bioquímicos possuem importância diagnóstica e prognóstica nas síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCAs), sendo a troponina o biomarcador preferido. Estudos já demonstram relação positiva entre elevação da troponina ultrassensível (TnUs) e prognóstico. Entretanto, poucos relacionam seus níveis com a complexidade das lesões coronárias. Objetivos: Comparar níveis de TnUs com a complexidade das lesões coronarianas pelo escore SYNTAX e relacionar os escores TIMI e GRACE com os níveis desse biomarcador em pacientes com SCA. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal com 174 indivíduos com SCA. A correlação entre as variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de correlação linear não paramétrico de Spearman e a análise estatística realizada pelo programa SPSS, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: A média de idade foi 63 anos, predominando o sexo feminino (52,9%). A maioria dos pacientes era hipertensa, não diabética e não tabagista. Dos pacientes avaliados, 19,0% apresentaram IAM com SST, 43,1% IAM sem SST e 36,8% angina instável. A maioria encontrava-se em Killip 1 (82,8%). A mediana de TnUs foi de 67pg/ml. As medianas dos escores de risco foram de 3, 121 e 3 pontos nas escalas TIMI, GRACE e SYNTAX, respectivamente. Houve correlação da taxa de TnUs com os escores SYNTAX (p < 0,001, r = 0,440), TIMI (p < 0,001, r = 0,267) e GRACE (p = 0,001, r = 0,261). Conclusão: Encontrada correlação linear positiva entre os níveis de TnUs e complexidade das lesões coronarianas, assim como entre esse biomarcador e os escores clínicos TIMI e GRACE


Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. Biochemical markers have diagnostic and prognostic importance in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), with troponin as the preferred biomarker. Studies have already demonstrated a positive relationship between increased levels of high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) and prognosis. However, few studies have correlated hsTn levels with the complexity of coronary lesions. Objectives: To compare hsTn levels with the complexity of coronary lesions according to the SYNTAX score, and to correlate the levels of this biomarker with the TIMI and GRACE scores in patients with ACS. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study with 174 patients with ACS. The correlation between variables was assessed by the nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation, and statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS program, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Mean age was 63 years, and most patients were women (52.9%), hypertensive, non-diabetic and non-smokers. Nineteen percent of the patients had STEMI, 43.1% NSTEMI, and 36.8% unstable angina. Most were in Killip 1 (82.8%). Median hsTn was 67 pg/mL. Median risk scores were 3, 121 and 3 in the TIMI, GRACE and SYNTAX scores, respectively. There was a correlation of hsTn with SYNTAX (p <0.001, r = 0.440), TIMI (p < 0.001, r = 0.267) and GRACE (p = 0.001, r = 0.261) scores. Conclusion: A positive linear correlation was found of hsTn levels with the complexity of coronary lesions, and with the TIMI and GRACE


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Troponin , Angina, Unstable/diagnosis , Angina, Unstable/therapy , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Hospitalization/economics , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Statistical Analysis
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(2): 94-98, 20170000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-875551

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre maiores níveis da contagem total de leucócitos periféricos e relação neutrófilos/linfócitos obtidos na admissão hospitalar, bem como a morbimortalidade em pacientes diagnosticados com infarto do miocárdio. Métodos: Avaliamos 276 pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio, entre janeiro de 2014 e novembro de 2015. Os dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram obtidos e relacionados a: internação, complicações intra-hospitalares, readmissões e mortalidade em 30 dias pós-internação. Resultados: A idade média foi 61 anos e 66,7% eram homens. Pacientes com complicações, comparados ao grupo sem complicações, eram mais velhos (60,85 vs. 62,54; p=0,053), tinham níveis de leucócitos (10,23 vs. 11,78; p=0,001) e neutrófilos (7,17 vs. 8,38; p=0,020) aumentados, doença multiarterial (38,2% vs. 74,5%; p<0.001) e supradesnivelamento de ST (49,3 vs. 65,1; p=0,039). Dois grupos foram constituídos pela mediana (10,56) dos leucócitos e demonstraram-se incidências mais elevadas de choque cardiogênico (p<0,001) e mortes (p=0,031) no grupo com maior leucocitose. Houve associação significativa entre leucócitos >10,56 e valores superiores de CK-MB (p=0,001) e troponina (p=0,039). Conclusão: Houve associação entre aumento dos níveis de leucócitos e maior incidência de complicações intra-hospitalares, incluindo morte, até 1 mês após alta hospitalar em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio. A contagem de leucócitos mostrou relação mais evidente do que a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e sua fácil acessibilidade colocá-o como ferramenta útil para determinação do prognóstico em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio.(AU)


Objective: To evaluate the association of higher levels of total peripheral leukocytes count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio at admission, as well as morbidity and mortality in patients diagnosed with myocardium infarction. Methods: We evaluated 276 patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction through January 2014 to November 2015. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained and related to hospital stay, inhospital complications, 30 day readmissions and mortality. Results: The average age was 61 years, 66.7% were male. Patients with complications, compared to the group with no complications, are older (60.85 vs 62.54, p=0.053), had increased levels of leucocytes (10.23 vs 11.78, p=0.001) and neutrophils (7.17 vs 8.38, p=0.020) count, multivessel disease (38.2% vs 74.5%, p<0.001) and ST elevation (49.3 vs 65.1, p=0.039). Two groups were formed by leucocyte median, and a higher incidence of cardiogenic shock (p<0.001) and deaths (p=0.031) was shown in the group with higher leuco cytosis. There was significant association between leucocytes >10.56 and higher CKMB (p=0.001) and troponin (p=0.039) values. Conclusion: Our study confirms an association between increased levels of leucocytes count and higher incidence of inhospital complications, including death, up to one month after hospital discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Leucocytes count showed a more evident relation than neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and its easy accessibility poses it as a very useful tool to determine prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Leukocyte Count , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Morbidity
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