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1.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 35(1): 52-57, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366683

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute Myocardial Infarction is a medical emergency, being his early and adequate treatment highly effective mainly in relation to reperfusion therapy. Unfortunately, COVID ­ 19 pandemic, has brought changes in its management due to availability of conditioned hemodynamic rooms, infection risk of the professionals, patient conditions and availability of critical unit beds. A review of the topic was made aimed to give a guide for the management of these patients with the available tools. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A review of the topic was made using the Medline/ Pubmed platform, in English and Spanish. Further, published articles in journals as The journal of the American college of cardiology and Circulation were included. CONCLUSIONS: The reperfusion strategies must be used according to the clinical context of the patient. In the acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation, fibrinolytic treatment may be chosen in low risk and without hemodynamic instability. In patients with hemodynamic instability, not eligible for fibrinolytic treatment or in whom this therapy fails, percutaneous angioplasty is indicated considering the protection of personnel. In the case of acute myocardial infarction without ST elevation, the treatment by urgent percutaneous angioplasty is considered in cases of hemodynamic instability or malignant arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Risk Assessment , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Contraindications, Drug , Tenecteplase/administration & dosage
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 253-270, jun. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125077

ABSTRACT

Una de cada 4 coronariografías realizadas por isquemia miocárdica presenta lesiones menores al 50% Este dato desencadenó un creciente interés en la comunidad médica. La Sociedad Americana de Cardiología publicó recientemente un artículo que describe la posición consensuada de un grupo de expertos sobre la fisiopatología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta entidad. Nuestro trabajo refleja una revisión narrativa y la posición de un grupo de expertos pertenecientes a diferentes instituciones con servicios de Cardiología jerarquizados. Aborda aspectos fisiopatológicos y diagnósticos para comprender el enfoque actual del tratamiento, tanto en pacientes que ingresan con diagnóstico de MINOCA (infa rto de miocardio con lesiones angiográficas no graves) o de INOCA (angina e isquemia demostradas, pero sin lesiones coronarias que justifiquen este síndrome).


One in every four coronarographies performed to study myocardial ischemia shows coronary angiographic stenosis less than 50%. This data triggered an increasing interest in the medical community. The American Society of Cardiology recently published a position paper about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this entity. Our group performed a narrative review reflecting the opinion of cardiology experts from different centers in Argentina. It aims physiopatologic and diagnostic aspect to understand the current approach in patients with MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) e INOCA (demonstrated angina and ischemia but without coronary lesions that justify this syndrome).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Decision-Making , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cineangiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging
3.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 18(1)abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293124

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares siguen siendo ampliamente la primera causa de muerte en el mundo actual. La cardiopatía isquémica conlleva a una importante carga de gastos de Salud Pública, por lo cual es importante conocer la prevalencia, epidemiología, fisiopatología y el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico adecuado del síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). Los hallazgos recientes indican que los primeros pasos en la aterosclerosis son esencialmente inflamatorios. Una respuesta inflamatoria sistémica a menudo acompaña al SCA, y la documentación de su presencia ha sido ampliamente reconocida como un indicador de eventos coronarios a repetición. La medicina basada en la evidencia sugiere fuertemente la importancia de la etiología inflamatoria en el SCA. Los factores tradicionales de riesgo coronario terminan en un pasaje final común que desarrolla un proceso inflamatorio en la pared arterial. El entendimiento mejorado y la comprensión adecuada de la influencia de los procesos inflamatorios en el SCA pueden llevar no solo a una mejor utilización de la terapéutica actualmente disponible sino también al desarrollo de nuevas herramientas terapéuticas. Sin duda alguna los refinamientos constantes en las diferentes estrategias terapéuticas del SCA, sumados a la combinación del entendimiento científico en el uso adecuado de los marcadores inflamatorios, los nuevos agentes farmacológicos y las nuevas técnicas de intervención coronaria percutánea con los nuevos stents y otros dispositivos intracoronarios van a aclarar nuestras dudas y mejorar nuestro manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico del síndrome coronario agudo basado en la evidencia científica


Cardiovascular diseases are still widely the leading cause of death in the world today. Ischemic heart disease leads to a significant burden of public health expenses, which is why it is important to know the prevalence, epidemiology, pathophysiology and the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent findings indicate that the first steps in atherosclerosis are essentially inflammatory. A systemic inflammatory response often accompanies ACS, and the documentation of its presence has been widely recognized as an indicator of recurrent coronary events. Evidence based medicine strongly suggests the importance of the inflammatory etiology in ACS. The traditional coronary risk factors end in a common final passage that develops an inflammatory process in the arterial wall. Improved and adequate understanding of the influence of inflammatory processes in ACS can lead not only to a better use of currently available therapeutics but also to the development of new therapeutic tools. Undoubtedly the constant refinements in the different therapeutic strategies of the ACS, combined with the addition of scientific understanding in the proper use of inflammatory markers, new pharmacological agents and new techniques of percutaneous coronary intervention with newer stents and other intracoronary devices will clarify our doubts and improve our diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute coronary syndrome based on scientific evidence


Subject(s)
Public Health , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Troponin
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1293, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055882

ABSTRACT

Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Ventricular Function/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Rats, Wistar , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Heart , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Models, Cardiovascular
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(6): 576-582, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056380

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases, such as acute myocardial infarction, are the main causes of death in the world. The flavonoids present in chocolate can have benefits for people who have risk factors to the development of cardiovascular diseases and have a coadjuvant effect on known therapies. Objective: To analyze the association between chocolate consumption, severity of coronary lesions, risk factors and severity of the first infarction in patients attended at the Cardiology Institute of Santa Catarina and other hospitals in the State of Santa Catarina. Methods: Subanalysis of the Catarina Heart Study cohort, evaluated 350 patients with first myocardial infarction. We evaluated clinical, echocardiographic, hemodynamic laboratorial variables. We used chi square test to evaluate qualitative variables, t student test in the case of parametric variables and U Mann Whitney test in non-parametric variables. We considered significant p < 0,05. Results: Lower prevalence of hypertension (43.2% % vs. 62.3% p = 0.003), diabetes mellitus (13.5% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.027) and smoking (24.3% vs. 37.7%, p = 0.032) among those who consume chocolate. Higher use of alcohol (40.5% vs. 26.4%, p = 0.018) and drugs (9.5% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.023) among those who consumed chocolate. Among the patients who consumed chocolate, there was a negative correlation between amount consumed and Syntax (r = -0.296, p = 0.019). Conclusion: There was association between chocolate consumption and lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and smoking. There was no association between amount of chocolate consumed and post-infarction ventricular function and TIMI frame count. Higher prevalence of alcohol and drug use among those who consume chocolate. Negative correlation between Syntax and the amount of chocolate consumed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Flavonoids/physiology , Cacao , Polyphenols/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension , Myocardial Infarction/diet therapy , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 775-778, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ventricular free wall rupture is a fatal mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction. In some cases it can be represented as subacute clinic and may not cause death in a few minutes. Acute pseudo-aneurysms are extremely unstable and bound to fatal rupture. Herein we report a male patient who suffered dyspnea and mild chest pain, 4 weeks after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Suture Techniques , Coronary Angiography , Heart Ventricles/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 401-408, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Stress is defined as a complicated state that related to homeostasis disturbances, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. Cardiac preconditioning reduces myocardial damages. Objective: This study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of acute physical stress against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; (1) IR (n = 8): rats underwent I/R, (2) Acute stress (St+IR) (n = 8): physical stress induced 1-hour before I/R, (3) Sympathectomy (Symp+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy was done 24-hours before I/R and (4) Sympathectomy- physical stress (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy induced before physical stress and I/R. Chemical sympathectomy was performed using 6-hydroxydopamine (100 mg/kg, sc). Then, the hearts isolated and located in the Langendorff apparatus to induce 30 minutes ischemia followed by 120 minutes reperfusion. The coronary flows, hemodynamic parameters, infarct size, corticosterone level in serum were investigated. P < 0.05 demonstrated significance. Results: Physical stress prior to I/R could improve left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate product pressure (RPP) of the heart respectively, (63 ± 2 versus 42 ± 1.2, p < 0.05, 70 ± 2 versus 43 ± 2.6, p < 0.05) and reduces infarct size (22.16 ± 1.3 versus 32 ± 1.4, p < 0.05) when compared with the I/R alone. Chemical sympathectomy before physical stress eliminated the protective effect of physical stress on I/R-induced cardiac damages (RPP: 21 ± 6.6 versus 63 ± 2, p < 0.01) (LVDP: 38 ± 4.5 versus 43 ± 2.6, p < 0.01) (infarct size: 35 ± 3.1 versus 22.16 ± 1.3, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Findings indicate that acute physical stress can act as a preconditional stimulator and probably, the presence of sympathetic nervous system is necessary.


Resumo Fundamento: O estresse é definido como um estado complicado de distúrbios da homeostase, hiperatividade do sistema nervoso simpático e das respostas do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. O pré-condicionamento cardíaco diminui os danos do miocárdio. Objetivo: Esse estudo avaliou os efeitos cardioprotetores do estresse físico agudo contra a lesão por isquemia-reperfusão (I/R) através da ativação do sistema nervoso simpático. Métodos: Trinta e dois ratos machos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos; (1) IR (n = 8): ratos submetidos a I/R, (2) Estresse agudo (St+IR) (n = 8): estresse físico induzido 1 hora antes da I/R, (3) Simpatectomia (Symp+IR) (n = 8): a simpatectomia química foi realizada 24 horas antes da I/R e (4) Simpatectomia-estresse físico (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): simpatectomia induzida antes do estresse físico e da I/R. A simpatectomia química foi realizada com 6-hidroxidopamina (100 mg/kg, SC). Em seguida, os corações foram isolados e colocados em aparato de Lagendorff por 30 minutos para induzir isquemia, seguida de reperfusão por 120 minutos. Os fluxos coronarianos, os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o tamanho do infarto e os níveis de corticosterona plasmática foram investigados. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: O estresse físico anterior à I/R pode melhorar a pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE) e duplo produto (DP), respectivamente, (63 ± 2 versus 42 ± 1,2, p < 0,05, 70 ± 2 versus 43 ± 2,6, p < 0,05) e reduzir o tamanho do infarto (22,16 ± 1,3 versus 32±1,4, p < 0,05) quando comparado com a I/R isoladamente. A simpatectomia química antes do estresse físico eliminou o efeito protetor do estresse físico sobre os danos cardíacos induzidos pela I/R (DP: 21 ± 6,6 versus 63 ± 2, p < 0,01) (PDVE: 38 ± 4,5 versus 43 ± 2,6, p < 0,01) (tamanho do infarto: 35 ± 3,1 versus 22,16 ± 1,3, p < 0,01). Conclusão: Os achados indicam que o estresse físico agudo pode funcionar como um estimulador pré-condicional e, provavelmente, a presença do sistema nervoso simpático é necessária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Heart/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Corticosterone/blood , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Circulation/physiology
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 201-204, June 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020060

ABSTRACT

El infarto agudo de miocardio es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo, siendo la obstrucción coronaria aterosclerótica el hallazgo más frecuente. Sin embargo, el 6% de los pacientes no presenta lesiones angiográficamente significativas, definidas por obstrucción de la luz vascular mayor al 50%. Estos casos se han definido bajo el término MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries). Suelen ocurrir en mujeres jóvenes, con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, elevación de biomarcadores cardíacos e infradesnivel del segmento ST en el electrocardiograma. Las principales etiologías son la miocarditis, el síndrome de Takotsubo y el infarto subendocárdico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 65 años con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y bloqueo completo de rama izquierda previo, que ingresó con ángor, imagen de bloqueo completo de rama izquierda en el electrocardiograma con criterios de Sgarbossa negativos y biomarcadores cardíacos positivos. En el ecocardiograma evidenció trastorno en la motilidad de la pared inferolateral y en la coronariografía solo una lesión no significativa (40%) en segmento proximal de la arteria circunfleja. La cardiorresonancia, en la secuencia de realce tardío de gadolinio, mostró retención de contraste subendocárdico a nivel de los segmentos inferolateral medial con extensión lateroapical compatible con infarto correspondiente a territorio de arteria circunfleja. Este caso ilustra un ejemplo de MINOCA secundario a infarto subendocárdico con trombólisis espontánea, en el que la presentación clínica fue típica, sin embargo en la coronariografía no se observaron lesiones significativas, por lo que fue necesario complementar con otro método de imágenes: la cardiorresonancia.


Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in the world, being the coronary atherosclerotic obstruction the main finding. Although 6% of all the patients had no significant coronary arteries disease on coronary angiography, defined by lumen vascular obstruction greater than 50%. This type of cases was defined by the term MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries). They are usually young women, with cardiovascular risk factors, high cardiac biomarkers with non-ST elevation in the electrocardiogram. The main etiologies are myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome and subendocardial myocardial infarction. We present the case of a 65 years-old woman with history of hypertension and complete left bundle branch block, who was admitted to the emergency department with typical chest pain, complete left bundle branch block in the electrocardiogram, with negative Sgarbossa criteria and positive cardiac biomarkers. The echocardiography evidenced inferolateral regional wall motion abnormalities, and the coronary angiography a single non-significative lesion (40%) in the proximal segment of the circumflex artery. Cardiac magnetic resonance evidenced subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement in inferolateral medial with latero-apical extension segments consistent with circumflex artery-related infarction. This case illustrates an example of MINOCA secondary to myocardial infarction with posterior spontaneous thrombolysis, in which the clinical presentation was typical, however the coronary angiography showed non obstructive lesions. Therefore, another complementary imaging methods were needed such as the cardiac magnetic resonance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 357-367, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004273

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el infarto agudo de miocardio es una de las formas más graves de cardiopatía isquémica. Representa un problema de salud de relevancia mundial. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento de pacientes portadores de infarto agudo del miocardio tratados por trombolisis en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni", de Camagüey, en el período comprendido desde 2013 a 2015. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de pacientes portadores de infarto agudo de miocardio, tratados por trombolisis en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni", de Camagüey. Materiales y métodos: la muestra la conformó los 146 pacientes que ingresaron, en el período antes mencionado, en el Servicio de Gariatría, Hospital Provincial Docente "Amalia Simoni". Se emplearon métodos de estadística descriptiva y se determinó la frecuencia y el porcentaje. Resultados: reveló un predominio de hombres entre 60 y 79 años, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y en un elevado porcentaje de fumadores, clasificados en Killip Kimball I y II, con excelentes resultados los tratados antes de las 3 h, y con complicaciones inmediatas sobre el músculo cardiaco. Conclusiones: el tratamiento trombólitico es muy efectivo en las 3 h primeras del comienzo de los síntomas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the myocardial acute infarct is one of the forms of the ischemic heart disease, being a health problem around the world. The authors carried out a descriptive study with the objective of determining the behavior of patients suffering a myocardial acute infarct treated by thrombolysis in the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni", of Camagüey, in the period from 2013 to 2015. Objective: to determine the behavior of patients suffering a myocardial acute infarct treated by thrombolysis in the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni", of Camagüey. Material and methods: the simple was formed by all the 146 patients who entered the Teaching Provincial Hospital "Amalia Simoni" in the before-mentioned period with a diagnosis of myocardial acute infarct. Descriptive statistic methods were used and frequency and percentage were determined. Results: the study showed the predominance of men aged 60-79 years, with antecedents of arterial hypertension and a high number of cigarette smokers, classified in Killip&Kimball I and II. The patients treated before 3 hours passed showed excellent results, and with immediate complications on the heath muscle. Conclusions: thrombolytic treatment is very effective in the first 3 hours after the symptoms beginning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptokinase/therapeutic use , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 24-32, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985013

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), each 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) increment is associated with a 3% increase in mortality rates. All strategies applied for reducing blood glucose to this date, however, have not presented encouraging results. METHODOLOGY We searched the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Library databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from 1995 to 2017 that used the intensive strategy or GIK therapy for blood glucose control during the acute stage of the AMI. We included eight studies. In order to identify the effects of GIK or insulin therapy, we calculated a overall risk ratio (RR) with meta-analysis of fixed and random effects models. A two-tail p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS A total of 28,151 patients were included: 1,379 intensively treated with insulin, 13,031 in GIK group, and 13,741 in the control group. The total mortality was 10.5% (n=2,961) and the RR of 1.03 [95%CI 0.96-1.10]; I2 = 31%; p = 0.41 for the combined intensive insulin plus GIK groups in comparison with the control group. In meta-regression analyses, intense reductions in blood glucose (> 36 mg/dL) in relation to the estimated average blood glucose (estimated by HbA1c) were associated with higher mortality, whereas lower reductions in blood glucose (< 36 mg/dL) were not associated with mortality. The lowering of blood glucose in the acute phase of MI compared with the average blood glucose was more effective around 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that there may be a tenuous line between the effectiveness and safety of reducing blood glucose in the acute phase of MI. The targets must not exceed a reduction greater than 36 mg/dL in relation to estimated average blood glucose.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO No infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), cada incremento de 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) se associa a um aumento de 3% na mortalidade. As estratégias de redução da glicemia tentadas até o momento, entretanto, não trouxeram resultados animadores. METODOLOGIA Foram pesquisadas nas bases de dados Medline (PubMed) e Cochrane Library os ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) de 1995 a 2017 que utilizaram estratégia intensiva ou a terapia GIK no controle glicêmico durante a fase aguda do IAM. Foram incluídos oito estudos. Para identificar os efeitos da insulinoterapia ou da terapia GIK, calculamos um risco relativo geral (RR) com meta-análises de modelos de efeitos fixos e aleatórios. Um valor de p-bicaudal < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS Foram incluídos 28.151 pacientes, sendo 1.379 no grupo de tratamento intensivo da glicemia, 13.031 no GIK e 13.741 no controle. A mortalidade total foi de 2.961 (10,5%), computando um risco relativo de 1,03 [95%CI 0,96-1,10]; I 2 = 31%; p = 0,41 para o grupo intensivo ou GIK contra o grupo conservador. Reduções intensas (> 36 mg/dL) em relação à glicemia estimada média se associaram à maior mortalidade, enquanto reduções menores não se associaram com seu incremento ou redução. A redução glicêmica na fase aguda em relação à glicemia estimada média foi mais efetiva e segura na faixa em torno de 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSÃO Esta meta-análise levanta a hipótese de haver um limite tênue entre efetividade e segurança para a redução glicêmica na fase aguda, sendo que os alvos não devem exceder uma redução maior do que 36 mg/dL de glicemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. Results: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). Conclusion: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre sarcopenia e obesidade sarcopênica como preditores de prognóstico em pacientes idosos com infarto agudo do miocárdio internados. Métodos: Estudo transversal envolvendo pacientes idosos com infarto agudo do miocárdio, hospitalizados no período de abril a julho de 2015, em serviço público, no Nordeste brasileiro. A sarcopenia foi determinada por meio das medidas de massa muscular, força muscular e desempenho físico. Foram utilizados os marcadores de risco cardiovascular e de prognóstico, como os valores de troponina e da isoenzima MB da creatinina quinase, classificação do infarto agudo do miocárdio de acordo com a elevação do segmento ST e o escore de risco de trombólise em infarto do miocárdio. Resultados: Foram avaliados 99 pacientes, com média de idade de 71,6 (±7,4) anos. Verificou-se prevalência de sarcopenia de 64,6% e 35,4% de obesidade sarcopênica. A sarcopenia foi mais prevalente no sexo masculino (p=0,017), na faixa etária >80 anos (p=0,008). Dentre os marcadores de risco cardiovascular, apenas o escore de risco trombólise em infarto do miocárdio esteve estatisticamente associado à sarcopenia (p=0,002). Conclusão: A prevalência da sarcopenia foi elevada e se associou com o escore de risco de trombólise em infarto do miocárdio. A obesidade sarcopênica acometeu cerca de um terço dos pacientes e não se associou a nenhum parâmetro preditor prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Muscle Strength/physiology , Sarcopenia/complications , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Obesity/complications , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Geriatric Assessment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(2): 104-107, 20180000. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-913370

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil de pacientes internados com diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico, observacional e transversal, com dados obtidos da análise dos prontuários de cem pacientes internados em um hospital, de fevereiro de 2014 a janeiro de 2015, os quais tiveram diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana aguda e foram regulados para a realização da cineangiocoronariografia. Foi traçado o perfil epidemiológico e fisiopatológico desta população. RESULTADOS: Em nossa amostra, 49 (55,7%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 63,88±13,3 anos, sendo 60,2% acima de 60 anos. O quadro clínico mais prevalente foi angina instável (41%). Constatou-se maior prevalência de portadores de hipertensão arterial (88,7%), além de associação positiva entre os pacientes com idade avançada e doença multiarterial. Também foi encontrada obstrução coronariana significativa em cerca de 90% dos pacientes diabéticos. Cineangiocoronariografia sem lesão significativa foi duas vezes mais identificada, em comparação com dados da American College of Cardiology. CONCLUSÃO: Fatores de risco modificáveis devem ser controlados, visando à redução do número de casos de doenças cardiovasculares agudas e daqueles com desfechos desfavoráveis. Sugere-se que a divulgação dos sintomas de infarto seja ampliada, para que os pacientes cheguem à emergência em tempo hábil de receber o tratamento.(AU)


OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of patients admitted to Hospital with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome METHODS: This is an analytical, observational and crosssectional study with data obtained from the analyses of the medical records of 100 patients admitted to a hospital from February/2014 to January / 2015), who were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome, and were regulated for undergoing coronary angiography. The epidemiological and pathophysiological profile of this population was described. RESULTS: In our sample, there were 49 (55.7 %) male patients with a mean age of 63.88±13.3 years, with 60.2 % being over 60 years. The most prevalent clinical condition was unstable angina (41%). A higher prevalence of patients with hypertension (88.7 %) was found, as well as a positive association of patients with advanced age and multivessel disease. We also find significant coronary obstruction in about 90 % of diabetic patients. Coronary angiographywith no significant lesion was twice as identified if compared with the American College of Cardiology data. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors should be monitored, in order to reduce the number of cases of acute cardiovascular disease and those with unfavorable outcomes. The dissemination of information about infarction should be enhanced for the patients to search for emergent care in a timely manner.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cineangiography/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors
15.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3 (supl)): 372-377, jul.-set. 2018. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964486

ABSTRACT

As emergências cardiovasculares agudas são complicações cardíacas com altos índices de mortalidade e podem ocorrer durante o atendimento odontológico de cardiopatas. Contribuir com medidas de prevenção, diagnóstico e manejo odontológico de emergências cardiovasculares agudas durante o tratamento dentário através de uma revisão integrativa. A anamnese minuciosa associada a medidas de controle de estresse/ ansiedade são as principais formas de prevenir a ocorrência de eventos cardíacos no consultório odontológico. Durante a crise, o conhecimento dos principais sinais e sintomas é fundamental no diagnóstico diferencial de cardiopatias agudas e, após estabelecido, devem-se iniciar os primeiros socorros básicos através do acionamento do serviço de emergência, seguido pelo posicionamento corporal adequado do paciente e administração dos protocolos farmacológicos específicos para cada situação. O consultório odontológico deve obrigatoriamente possuir os equipamentos necessários para monitorização dos sinais vitais durante o evento cardiovascular agudo e garantir a disponibilização de oxigênio para que o cirurgião-dentista possa iniciar os protocolos de ressuscitação caso o paciente evolua para uma parada cardiorrespiratória. O manejo odontológico das emergências cardiovasculares agudas inicia-se com cuidados preventivos específicos, realização do diagnóstico correto da cardiopatia aguda, tomada de conduta adequada das complicações cardíacas que possam ocorrer durante o tratamento odontológico, objetivando a diminuição da morbimortalidade dessas emergências


Acute cardiovascular emergencies are cardiac complications with high mortality rates, and can occur during the dental care of cardiac patients. To contribute to the prevention, diagnosis and dental management of acute cardiovascular emergencies during dental treatment, through an integrative review. A detailed anamnesis, associated with measures of stress/anxiety control, are the main ways to prevent the occurrence of cardiac events in the dental office. During the crisis, a knowledge of the main signs and symptoms is fundamental in the differential diagnosis of acute heart diseases and once established, basic first aid should be given, activating the emergency services followed by the appropriate body positioning of the patient and administration of specific pharmacological protocols for each situation. The dental office must have the equipment needed to monitor the vital signs during the acute cardiovascular event, and ensure the availability of oxygen, so that the dental surgeon can initiate resuscitation protocols if the patient goes into cardiopulmonary arrest. Dental management of acute cardiovascular emergencies begins with specific preventive care, a correct diagnosis of acute cardiopathy, and correct management of cardiac complications that can occur during dental treatment, aiming to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these emergencies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Care/methods , Emergencies , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Diagnosis, Differential , Angina Pectoris
16.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916574

ABSTRACT

Atualmente, os benefícios da reabilitação cardíaca baseada em exercícios para pacientes após IAM são indiscutíveis a longo prazo. Porém, as sessões de exercício físico aumentam acentuadamente o risco de eventos cardiovasculares através dos mecanismos cardíacos, autonômicos, inflamatórios e vasculares. Portanto, conhecer os aspectos relacionados à fisiopatologia, fisiologia do exercício, avaliação, prescrição do exercício e monitorização dos pacientes pós-IAM, recomendados pelas principais diretrizes de tratamento da doença, é de suma importância. Entre as maneiras de reduzir os riscos durante o exercício físico, destaca-se a estratificação de risco do paciente através da anamnese e teste de esforço físico. Além disso, é indicada a prescrição de exercício físico adequada durante as diferentes fases de reabilitação cardíaca, aumentando a intensidade e volume progressivamente com a evolução clínica do paciente. Também é importante a monitorização dos sinais vitais, da percepção de esforço, de possíveis arritmias e isquemias cardíacas, dependendo da fase da reabilitação cardíaca. Com essas medidas, os números de eventos cardíacos fatais e não-fatais indicam que a reabilitação cardíaca baseada em exercícios é considerada segura, desde que sejam seguidas as indicações e contraindicações relativas e absolutas para a prática de exercício físico em indivíduos pós-IAM


he long-term benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for AMI patients are now indisputable. However, physical exercise sessions markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular events through cardiac, autonomic, inflammatory and vascular mechanisms. Therefore, it is important to recognize the aspects related to the pathophysiology, exercise physiology, evaluation, exercise prescription and monitoring of post-AMI patients, as recommended by the main guidelines for the treatment of the disease. Among the ways to reduce the risks during physical exercise, we highlight risk stratification of the patient through anamnesis and the physical exercise test. Prescription of adequate physical exercise during the different phases of cardiac rehabilitation is also indicated, progressively increasing the intensity and volume according to the clinical evolution of the patient. It is also important to monitor the vital signs, perceived exertion, and possible cardiac ischemias and arrhythmias, depending on the phase of cardiac rehabilitation. With these measures, the numbers of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events indicate that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is considered safe, provided the relative and absolute indications and contraindications to the practice of physical exercise in post-AMI patients are followed


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exercise , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Patient Discharge , Patients , Risk Factors , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate , Medical History Taking/methods , Myocardial Revascularization
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 386-395, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the safety and clinical, hemodynamic and tissue improvement ability in mini pigs undergoing cell and gene therapy for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Methods: Thirty-two mini pigs Br1 lineage, 12 months old, undergoing induction of acute myocardial infarction by occlusion of the diagonal branch of the paraconal coronary. They were divided into 4 groups: one control group and 3 treatment groups (cell therapy and gene cell therapy). Echocardiography reviews were performed on three occasions and histopathological analysis was performed after 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Wilcoxon tests, were performed. Results: Association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with angiopoietin1 (Ang1) presented satisfactory results in the improvement of ventricular function following ischemic cardiomyopathy in mini pigs when compared to the results of the other treated groups. Conclusion: The therapy with VEGF and the combination of VEGF with Ang1, promoted recovered function of the myocardium, characterized by reduced akinetic area and induction of neovascularization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Function/physiology , Angiopoietin-1/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Swine , Swine, Miniature , Wound Healing , Echocardiography , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Necrosis
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 383-387, Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038530

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study of myocardial contractility, based on the new anatomical concepts that govern cardiac mechanics, represents a promising strategy of analysis of myocardial adaptations related to physical training in the context of post-infarction. We investigated the influence of aerobic training on physical capacity and on the evaluation parameters of left ventricular contraction mechanics in patients with myocardial infarction. Thirty-one patients (55.1 ± 8.9 years) who had myocardial infarction in the anterior wall were prospectively investigated in three groups: interval training group (ITG) (n = 10), moderate training group (MTG) n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). Before and after 12 weeks of clinical follow-up, patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The trained groups performed supervised aerobic training on treadmill, in two different intensities. A statistically significant increase in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) was observed in the ITG (19.2 ± 5.1 at 21.9 ± 5.6 ml/kg/min, p < 0.01) and in the MTG 18.8 ± 3.7 to 21.6 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min, p < 0.01). The GC did not present a statistically significant change in peak VO2. A statistically significant increase in radial strain (STRAD) was observed in the CG: basal STRAD (57.4 ± 16.6 to 84.1 ± 30.9%, p < 0.05), medial STRAD (57.8 ± 27, 9 to 74.3 ± 36.1%, p < 0.05) and apical STRAD (38.2 ± 26.0 to 52.4 ± 29.8%, p < 0.01). The trained groups did not present a statistically significant change of the radial strain. The present study points to a potential clinical application of the parameters of ventricular contraction mechanics analysis, especially radial strain, to discriminate post-infarction myocardial adaptations between patients submitted or not to aerobic training programs.


Resumo O estudo da contratilidade miocárdica, baseado nos novos conceitos anatômicos que regem a mecânica cardíaca, representa uma estratégia promissora de análise das adaptações do miocárdio relacionadas ao treinamento físico no contexto do pós-infarto. Nós investigamos a influência do treinamento aeróbico na capacidade física e nos parâmetros de avaliação da mecânica de contração do ventrículo esquerdo em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio. Foram prospectivamente investigados 30 pacientes, 55,1 ± 8,9 anos, acometidos por infarto do miocárdio de parede anterior, aleatorizados em três grupos: grupo treinamento intervalado (GTI) (n = 10), grupo treinamento moderado (GTM) (n=10) e grupo controle (GC) (n = 10). Antes e após as 12 semanas de seguimento clínico, os pacientes realizaram teste cardiopulmonar de exercício e ressonância magnética cardíaca. Os grupos treinados realizaram treinamento aeróbico supervisionado, em esteira ergométrica, aplicando-se duas intensidades distintas. Observou-se aumento estatisticamente significante do consumo de oxigênio (VO2) pico no GTI (19,2 ± 5,1 para 21,9 ± 5,6 ml/kg/min, p < 0,01) e no GTM (18,8 ± 3,7 para 21,6 ± 4,5 ml/kg/min, p < 0,01). O GC não apresentou mudança estatisticamente significante no VO2 pico. Houve aumento estatisticamente significante do strain radial (STRAD) somente no GC: STRAD basal (57,4 ± 16,6 para 84,1 ± 30,9%, p < 0,05), STRAD medial (57,8 ± 27,9 para 74,3 ± 36,1%, p < 0,05) e STRAD apical (38,2 ± 26,0 para 52,4 ± 29,8%, p < 0,01). Os grupos treinados não apresentaram mudança estatisticamente significante do strain radial. Os achados do presente estudo apontam para uma potencial aplicação clínica dos parâmetros de análise da mecânica de contração ventricular, notadamente do strain radial, em discriminar adaptações do miocárdio pós-infarto entre pacientes submetidos ou não a programas de treinamento aeróbico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888046

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico deve fazer parte do tratamento de pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de treinamento produzidos por dois modelos distintos (contínuo x intervalado) e sua repercussão sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-IAM com função ventricular normal. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar pós-IAM foram avaliados ecocardiograficamente 21 dias após o evento. Aqueles com FEVE = 50% (n = 29) foram incluídos e randomizados: controle (GC n = 10), treinamento contínuo (GTC n = 9) e treinamento intervalado (GTI n = 10). Após, foi realizado um teste de natação com controle de lactato. A partir do resultado foi definido o limiar de lactato (LL) para determinar as intensidades do treinamento. Após seis semanas, foram reavaliados com ecocardiografia e controle de lactato. Como desfecho, foram avaliados: diâmetros diastólico e sistólico final (DDF, DSF, mL), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE, %), lactato de repouso, livre de carga (LC), lactato com 12 g e 13,5 g de carga adicional. Para a comparação dos grupos em relação às variáveis quantitativas do estudo, foi considerado o modelo de análise da variância com um fator (ANOVA). Nas comparações múltiplas dos grupos foi usado o teste de Newman-Keuls. Na comparação entre as duas avaliações, dentro de cada grupo, foi usado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Com relação à análise intragrupos, entre o período pré- e pós-treinamento foi identificado semelhança para DDF, DSF, FEVE, porém o GC apresentou diferença significativa para a variável DDF (p = 0,008). Houve diferença do GTI para L12g (p = 0,002) e L13,5g (p = 0,032) e para o GTC na variável L12g (p = 0,014). Não houve diferença para as variáveis ecocardiográficas entre os grupos. Houve diferença nas variáveis LC e L12g na segunda avaliação (p = 0,016 e p = 0,031, respectivamente) e entre os grupos: GTI vs. GC (p = 0,019) e GTC vs. GC (p = 0,035). Conclusão: Os dois métodos produziram efeito de treinamento sem alterar a função ventricular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/blood , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
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