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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 556-564, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364349

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Cerca de 40% dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST) no Brasil não recebem terapia de reperfusão. Objetivo A utilização de uma rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® poderia aumentar a porcentagem de pacientes que recebem terapia de reperfusão. Métodos Estudo transversal do tipo antes e depois da organização de uma rede de telemedicina para envio e análise do eletrocardiograma através do WhatsApp® dos pacientes suspeitos de IAMCSST oriundos dos 25 municípios integrantes do Departamento Regional de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII), para hospital terciário que poderia autorizar a transferência imediata do paciente utilizando o mesmo sistema. O desfechos analisados foram a porcentagem de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Considerou-se valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Foram comparados 82 pacientes antes desta rede (1º de fevereiro de 2016 a 31 de janeiro de 2018) com 196 pacientes depois da implantação da mesma (1º de fevereiro de 2018 a 31 de janeiro de 2020). Após a implantação da rede, houve aumento significativo da proporção de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão (60% vs. 92%), risco relativo (RR): 1,594 [intervalo de confiança (IC) 95% 1,331 - 1,909], p <0,0001 e redução da mortalidade intra-hospitalar (13,4% vs. 5,6%), RR: 0,418 [IC 95% 0,189 - 0,927], p = 0,028. Conclusão Rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® associou-se a aumento da porcentagem de pacientes com IAMCSST que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a redução na mortalidade intra-hospitalar.


Abstract Background About 40% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Brazil do not receive reperfusion therapy. Objective The use of a telemedicine network based on WhatsApp® could increase the percentage of patients receiving reperfusion therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study analyzed outcomes before and after the organization of a telemedicine network to send the electrocardiogram via WhatsApp® of patients suspected of STEMI from 25 municipalities that are members of the Regional Health Department of Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII) to a tertiary hospital, which could authorize immediate patient transfer using the same system. The analyzed outcomes included the percentage of patients who received reperfusion therapy and the in-hospital mortality rate. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study compared 82 patients before (February 1, 2016 to January 31, 2018) with 196 patients after this network implementation (February 1, 2018 to January 31, 2020). After implementing this network, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients who received reperfusion therapy (60% vs. 92%), relative risk (RR): 1.594 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.331 - 1.909], p < 0.0001 and decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate (13.4% vs. 5.6%), RR: 0.418 [95%CI 0.189 - 0.927], p = 0.028. Conclusion The use of WhatsApp®-based telemedicine has led to an increase in the percentage of patients with STEMI who received reperfusion therapy and a decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Telemedicine , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality , Electrocardiography
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 784-792, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285193

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico tem sido considerado uma importante terapia não farmacológica para a prevenção e tratamento das doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, seus efeitos na remodelação cardíaca leve não são claros. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do exercício aeróbico sobre a capacidade funcional, estrutura cardíaca, função ventricular esquerda (VE) e expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno (IM). Métodos: Três meses após a indução do IM, ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Sham; IM sedentário (IM-SED); e IM exercício aeróbico (IM-EA). Os ratos se exercitaram em uma esteira três vezes por semana durante 12 semanas. Um ecocardiograma foi realizado antes e após o treinamento. O tamanho do infarto foi avaliado por histologia e a expressão gênica por RT-PCR. O nível de significância para análise estatística foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: Ratos com IM menor que 30% da área total do VE foram incluídos no estudo. A capacidade funcional foi maior no IM-EA do que nos ratos Sham e IM-SED. O tamanho do infarto não diferiu entre os grupos. Ratos infartados apresentaram aumento do diâmetro diastólico e sistólico do VE, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo e massa do VE, com disfunção sistólica. A espessura relativa da parede foi menor no grupo IM-SED do que nos grupos IM-EA e Sham. A expressão gênica das subunidades NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4, p22phox e p47phox não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclusão: Infarto do miocárdio pequeno altera a estrutura cardíaca e a função sistólica do VE. O exercício aeróbico tardio pode melhorar a capacidade funcional e a remodelação cardíaca por meio da preservação da geometria ventricular esquerda. A expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase não está envolvida na remodelação cardíaca, nem é modulada pelo exercício aeróbico em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno.


Abstract Background: Physical exercise has been considered an important non-pharmacological therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effects on minor cardiac remodeling are not clear. Objective: To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on the functional capacity, cardiac structure, left ventricular (LV) function, and gene expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in rats with small-sized myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Three months after MI induction, Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Sham; sedentary MI (MI-SED); and aerobic exercised MI (MI-AE). The rats exercised on a treadmill three times a week for 12 weeks. An echocardiogram was performed before and after training. The infarction size was evaluated by histology, and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The significance level for statistical analysis was set at 5%. Results: Rats with MI lower than 30% of the LV total area were included in the study. Functional capacity was higher in MI-AE than in Sham and MI-SED rats. The infarction size did not differ between groups. Infarcted rats had increased LV diastolic and systolic diameter, left atrial diameter, and LV mass, with systolic dysfunction. Relative wall thickness was lower in MI-SED than in the MI-AE and Sham groups. Gene expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2, NOX4, p22phox, and p47phox did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Small-sized MI changes cardiac structure and LV systolic function. Late aerobic exercise is able to improve functional capacity and cardiac remodeling by preserving the left ventricular geometry. NADPH oxidase subunits gene expression is not involved in cardiac remodeling or modulated by aerobic exercise in rats with small-sized MI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Heart
4.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1023-1028, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of interleukin (IL) -23/IL-17 axis and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the infarcted tissue in rats with myocardial infarction (MI), and to explore the mechanism of EA on alleviating MI injury.@*METHODS@#Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a sham-operation plus EA group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each group. The MI models were established by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in the model group and EA group, while only threading was performed in the sham-operation group and sham-operation plus EA group. The rats in the sham-operation plus EA group and EA group were treated with EA at "Neiguan" (PC 6), disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz, 2 mA, once a day, 20 min each time, for 3 days. After the intervention, the ejection fraction (EF) was measured by echocardiography to evaluate the cardiac function; the infarct area was measured by TTC staining; the HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of myocardial tissue; the levels of IL-23 and IL-17 in infarcted tissue were detected by ELISA; the protein expression of TLR4 in infarcted tissue was detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the EF was decreased (@*CONCLUSION@#EA may alleviate the excessive inflammatory response after MI by inhibiting the expression of IL-23/IL-17 axis in MI rats, and TLR4 may be involved during the process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-23/genetics , Male , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics
5.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(5/6): 487-490, sept.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224145

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO Informar Sobre Un Caso De Infarto Simultáneo Cardio-Cerebral Y Sus Características, Comparado Con Lo Descrito En La Actualidad. CASO CLÍNICO Paciente Femenina De 64 Años, Con Infarto Simultáneo Cardio-Cerebral (Isquemia En Territorio De Arteria Cerebral Media Derecha Y Elevación Del Segmento St En Cara Antero Inferior), Tratada Con Fibrinólisis. RESULTADOS Evoluciona Con Sensorio Fluctuante, Requiriendo Intubación Orotraqueal Y Manejo En Unidad De Terapia Intensiva Por Sangrado Cerebral CONCLUSIONES El infarto simultáneo cardio-cerebral es infrecuente y representa un desafío para el equipo de salud a fin de evitar que el manejo temprano de una condición retrase la otra


OBJETIVE To Report On A Case Of Simultaneous Cardio-Cerebral Infarction And Its Characteristics, Compared With What Is Currently Described. CLINICAL CASE A 64-year-old female patient with simultaneous cardio-cerebral infarction (ischemia in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and elevation of the st segment in the lower anterior aspect), treated with fibrinolysis. RESULTS It evolves with fluctuating sensory, requiring orotracheal intubation and management in intensive therapy unit due to cerebral bleeding. CONCLUSIONS The Simultaneous Cardio-Cerebral Infarction Is Infrequent And Represents A Challenge For The Health Team In Order To Avoid That The Early Management Of One Condition Delays The Other


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 916-924, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142262

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (STEMI) é uma das principais apresentações clínicas da cardiopatia isquêmica. Dados de base populacional são relevantes para entendimento contemporâneo da epidemiologia da doença. Objetivo: Descrever incidência, manejo terapêutico, desfechos clínicos hospitalares e eventos cardiovasculares do primeiro ano de seguimento dos indivíduos hospitalizados por STEMI. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva de base populacional com registro consecutivo das hospitalizações por STEMI em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil entre 2011 e 2014. Foram incluídos indivíduos com STEMI que apresentaram sintomas de isquemia miocárdica aguda nas últimas 72 horas. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: A incidência anual de hospitalizações por STEMI foi de 108 casos por 100.000 habitantes. A incidência ajustada foi maior entre os mais velhos (risco relativo 64,9; IC95% 26,9 - 156,9; p para tendência linear < 0,001) e entre os homens (risco relativo 2,8; IC95% 2,3 - 3,3; p < 0,001). Ocorreram 530 hospitalizações durante o período avaliado e a taxa de reperfusão foi de 80,9%. A mortalidade hospitalar e a taxa de eventos cardiovasculares em 1 ano foram, respectivamente, 8,9% e 6,1%. Os mais velhos apresentaram maior mortalidade hospitalar (risco relativo 3,72; IC95% 1,57 - 8,82; p para tendência linear = 0,002) e mais eventos cardiovasculares em 1 ano (hazard ratio 2,35; IC95% 1,12 - 4,95; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este registro demonstra abordagem terapêutica e mortalidade hospitalar semelhante às observadas em países desenvolvidos. Entretanto, a taxa de hospitalizações foi maior comparada com esses países.


Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the main clinical manifestations of ischemic heart disease. Population-based data are relevant to better understand the current epidemiology of this condition. Objective: To describe the incidence, therapeutic management, hospital clinical outcomes and cardiovascular events in the first year of follow-up of individuals hospitalized for STEMI. Methods: Population-based prospective cohort study with consecutive registries of hospitalization for STEMI in a city in southern Brazil from 2011 to 2014. It included patients with STEMI who presented acute myocardial ischemia symptoms in the last 72 hours. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The annual incidence of STEMI hospitalizations was 108 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Adjusted incidence was higher among older individuals (relative risk 64.9; 95% CI 26.9-156.9; p for linear trend < 0.001) and among men (relative risk 2.8; 95% CI 2.3-3.3; p < 0.001). There were 530 hospitalizations in the period under evaluation and the reperfusion rate reached 80.9%. Hospital mortality and the one-year follow-up cardiovascular event rate were, respectively, 8.9% and 6.1%. The oldest patients had higher hospital mortality (relative risk 3.72; 95% CI 1.57-8.82; p for linear trend = 0.002) and more one-year follow-up cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.12-4.95; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study shows that both the therapeutic approach and hospital mortality are similar to the ones found in developed countries. However, the hospitalization rate was higher in these countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Registries , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization
8.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(2): 108-113, 30/06/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess clinical and coronary angiographic characteristics, previous medical history, and clinical course, by age group, in older adults after myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). METHODS: Single-center, cohort study that enrolled all patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent pPCI at a specialized cardiology reference center in the South of Brazil. Older adults were defined as age ≥60 years, as set out in Brazilian legislation. Patients in the following age groups were compared: 60 to 64 years, 65 to 69 years, 70 to 74 years, 75 to 79 years, and ≥80 years. Patients' clinical course was assessed at initial hospital admissions and after 2 years of clinical follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19, and significance was established at p <0.05. RESULTS: From December 2015 to December 2018, a total of 636 patients were enrolled consecutively. Angiographic success rates were around 90% in all age groups. There were no differences in medications used, except for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, which were more frequently used in patients of lower age groups. Older patients had more in-hospital acute renal failure and higher in-hospital mortality. Predictors of mortality were age over 75, chronic renal failure, need for ventilatory support, severe arrhythmia, and sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: pPCI in older adult patients is a safe procedure with a high success rate.


OBJETIVOS: Avaliar características clínicas e angiográficas, história clínica pregressa e evolução clínica, por faixa etária, em idosos submetidos a intervenção coronária percutânea primária (ICPp) após infarto do miocárdio. METODOLOGIA: Estudo de coorte, de centro único, que incluiu todos os pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST submetidos ICPp em um centro de referência especializado em cardiologia no sul do Brasil. Os idosos foram definidos como aqueles com idade ≥60 anos, conforme estabelecido na legislação brasileira. Os pacientes nas seguintes faixas etárias foram comparados: 60 a 64 anos, 65 a 69 anos, 70 a 74 anos, 75 a 79 anos e ≥80 anos. O curso clínico dos pacientes foi avaliado nas admissões hospitalares iniciais e após 2 anos de acompanhamento clínico. Os dados foram analisados usando o SPSS 19, e p <0,05 foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: De dezembro de 2015 a dezembro de 2018, 636 pacientes foram incluídos consecutivamente. As taxas de sucesso angiográfico foram de cerca de 90% em todas as faixas etárias. Não houve diferenças nos medicamentos utilizados, com exceção dos inibidores da glicoproteína IIb/IIIa, que foram mais frequentemente utilizados em pacientes em faixas etárias mais baixas. Pacientes mais velhos apresentaram mais insuficiência renal aguda intra-hospitalar e maior mortalidade hospitalar. Os preditores de mortalidade foram: idade superior a 75 anos, insuficiência renal crônica, necessidade de suporte ventilatório, arritmia grave e sepse. CONCLUSÕES: O ICPp em pacientes idosos é um procedimento seguro e com alta taxa de sucesso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angioplasty , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Brazil , Health Services for the Aged
9.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30(supl.4): S33-S40, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152270

ABSTRACT

Introdução. O infarto agudo do miocárdio apresenta significativas taxas de morbimortalidade. A reperfusão precoce por angioplastia primária é a intervenção que reduz a mortalidade e as complicações, e deve ser iniciada em até 12 horas, a fim de impedir a perda muscular irreversível. O tempo entre chegada do paciente ao hospital e a abertura da artéria acometida, tempo porta-balão, determina a morbimortalidade do paciente. Objetivo. Esse estudo busca analisar o potencial benefício do tratamento da reperfusão coronariana precoce, os fatores de risco, as possíveis complicações e o Killip em pacientes que sofreram infarto agudo do miocárdio relacionando-os a sua morbimortalidade. Materiais e métodos. Estudo observacional transversal realizado por meio de coleta de dados dos prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a angioplastia primária de um hospital privado. Resultados. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi a variável mais prevalente (75%), e que houve predomínio no sexo masculino (71%) e associação com a progressão da idade. 61% dos pacientes apresentaram um tempo porta balão menor que 90 minutos. Houve significância estatística entre o tempo porta balão e a evolução do Killip, evidenciando um tempo porta-balão maior que 90 minutos na maioria dos pacientes que obtiveram aumento da pontuação do Killip. Conclusão. A precocidade da intervenção no paciente com IAM impacta na morbimortalidade, visto que o tempo porta balão está diretamente associado a evolução da do Killip. Logo, deve-se identificar os fatores que interferem no atendimento, a fim de proporcionar uma intervenção otimizada. (AU)


Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction has significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Early reperfusion by primary angioplasty is the intervention that reduces mortality and complications, and should be started within 12 hours in order to prevent irreversible muscle loss. The time between the patient's arrival at the hospital and the opening of the affected artery, door-to-balloon time, determines the patient's morbidity and mortality. Objective. The proposition of this study is to analyze the potential benefits of early coronary reperfusion, associated with the risk factors, possible complications, and the Killip score in patients whit acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the relation of those factors with the morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods. This is a transversal observational study and uses data collected of medical records of patients subjected to primary angioplasty in a private hospital. Results. Systemic arterial hypertension was the most prevalent one (75%), it was more common in males (71%) and associated with a higher age. In 61% of the patients port-balloon time was less than 90 minutes. There was statistical significance between port-balloon time and Killip score evaluation, that showed a higher score in patient with a port-balloon time that exceeded 90 minutes. Conclusion. Early intervention in patients with AMI impacts morbimortality, once that the port-balloon time is directly associated with the Killip score results. Therefore, all factors that can lead to a delay in their care of those patients should be identified with the objective of optimize the intervention. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Time Factors , Myocardial Reperfusion/instrumentation , Myocardial Infarction , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/therapy
10.
Clinics ; 75: e1293, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055882

ABSTRACT

Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Ventricular Function/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Rats, Wistar , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Heart , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Models, Cardiovascular
11.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(3): 218-224, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058067

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El tratamiento del Infarto Agudo del Miocardio con supradesnivel del segmento ST debe iniciarse en el escenario prehospitalario, en el sitio del primer contacto médico. El diagnóstico electrocardiográfico precoz debe ser realizado, idealmente, dentro de los primeros 10 min después de la consulta y confirmado por un especialista. A este respecto, la teletransmisión del electrocardiograma a un centro de llamados atendido por especialistas en horario 24/7 es un modelo muy eficiente, idealmente como parte de una red de tratamiento. El control del dolor y la administración de agentes antiplaquetarios son imperativos y si la intervención coronaria percutánea (angioplastia primaria) no es factible dentro de las ventanas de tiempo universalmente recomendadas, se debiera realizar un tratamiento fibrinolítico, seguido por angioplastia diferida.


ABSTRACT: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction should be initiated in the prehospital scenario at the site of first medical contact. Prompt electrocardiographic diagnosis should be performed ideally within 10min after consultation and diagnosis confirmed by a specialist. Teletransmission of the electrocardiogram to a call center staffed with specialists on a 24/7 basis is a very efficient model, ideally as part of a network of treatment. Pain control and administration of antiplatelets agents are mandatory and if primary percutaneous intervention is not feasible within time limits universally recommended, prehospital fibrinolyisis should be performed followed by deferred angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Remote Consultation/methods , Electrocardiography , Prehospital Services , Fibrinolysis
12.
Medisan ; 23(1)ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990178

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva de 41 pacientes con antecedentes de infarto agudo del miocardio, que formaron parte de un programa de rehabilitación cardiovascular en el Servicio de Terapia Física y Rehabilitación del Hospital General Docente Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde mayo de 2017 hasta igual mes de 2018, con vistas a evaluar el efecto del entrenamiento físico sobre la función cardiovascular de estos. Se examinó la función cardiovascular a través del ecocardiograma y el electrocardiograma, antes y después de aplicado el programa, y al final del estudio se obtuvo una modificación positiva de las variables eco- y electrocardiográficas, con un mayor grado de recuperación de la contractilidad segmentaria. Pudo concluirse que el programa tuvo un papel importante en la restauración de la función cardíaca y, con ello, se mejoró la capacidad física y psicológica de los pacientes, de manera que fue beneficioso para estos y para la sociedad.


A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective investigation of 41 patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction who were part of a program of cardiovascular rehabilitation in the Service of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation from Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from May, 2017 to the same month in 2018, with the aim of evaluating the effect of the physical training on their cardiovascular function. The cardiovascular function was examined through the echocardiogram and the electrocardiogram, before and after the program was applied, and at the end of the study a positive modification of the echocardiographical and electrocardiographical variables was obtained with a higher degree of recovery of the segmental contractility. It could be concluded that the program had an important role in the restoration of the heart function and, with it, the physical and psychological capacity of the patients improved, so that it was beneficial for them and for the society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Exercise Therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Exercise , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Myocardial Contraction
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914761

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred treatment in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. At night period, the delay until performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention may be determinant to prognosis worsening. Objective: To analyze the results of primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed at day and night periods. Methods: Cohort study that included patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention from December 2013 until December 2016 in a ST-elevation myocardial infarction reference hospital of a metropolitan region in Brazil, followed from admission to hospital discharge or death, compared according to time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (night or day). Statistical analysis comprehended the Chi-square test, the Fisher test, the Student's t-test and the analysis of variance, with significance level of 5%. Results: 446 patients were submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, 159 (35.6%) at night time and 287 (64.4%) at day time. No differences were found between the two groups concerning clinical baseline characteristics. Door-to-balloon time (101 ± 81 minutes vs. 99 ± 78 minutes; p = 0,59) and onset-to-ballon time (294 ± 158 minutes vs. 278 ± 174 minutes; p = 0,32) did not differ between the groups. The incidence of combined major adverse cardiac events (15.1% vs. 14.3%; p = 0,58) and in-hospital mortality (9.4% vs. 8.0%; p = 0,61) were similar between the groups, as well as length of hospital stay (6.0 ± 4 days vs. 4.9 ± 4 days; p = 0,91). Conclusion: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention at night time showed similar results as the procedure performed at day time, without significant increase of in-hospital adverse events, length of stay or mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Night Care/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Analysis of Variance , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy/methods , Drug-Eluting Stents , Electrocardiography/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Statistical Analysis , Stents
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914765

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce mortality of acute myocardial infarction, medical care must be provided within the first hours of the event. Objective: To identify the "front door" to medical care of acute coronary patients and the time elapsed between patients'admission and performance of myocardial reperfusion in the public health system of the city of Joinville, Brazil. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 112 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction by coronary angiography. We identified the place of the first medical contact and calculated the time between admission to this place and admission to the referral hospital, as well as the time until coronary angiography, with or without percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. A descriptive analysis of data was made using mean and standard deviation, and a p < 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Only 16 (14.3%) patients were admitted through the cardiology referral unit. Door-to-angiography time was shorter than 90 minutes in 50 (44.2%) patients and longer than 270 minutes in 39 (34.5%) patients. No statistically significant difference was observed in door-to-angiography time between patients transported directly to the referral hospital and those transferred from other health units (p < 0.240). Considering the time between pain onset and angiography, only 3 (2.9%) patients may have benefited from myocardial reperfusion performed within less than 240 minutes. Conclusion: Management of patients with acute myocardial infarction is not in conformity with current guidelines for the treatment of this condition. The structure of the healthcare system should be urgently modified so that users in need of emergency services receive adequate care in accordance with local conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Failure to Rescue, Health Care , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Therapeutics/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Critical Pathways/trends , Death, Sudden/prevention & control , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospital Care/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Statistical Analysis , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Unified Health System
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914771

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is defined as the death of cardiomyocytes due to prolonged ischemia, caused by thrombosis and / or vasospasm on an atherosclerotic plaque. Objective: To determine the incidence of patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty; characterize the anthropometric variables and identify the risk factors in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study in which we collected secondary data from medical records of a hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, where the largest number of interventions is via Public Health System, patients with a diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction, undergoing primary coronary angioplasty, from January 2011 to December 2013. Results: The total sample consisted of 437 subjects, 282 male and 155 female. In this study, there was predominance of myocardial infarction in the anterior descending artery ADA (45.51%), followed by right coronary artery RCA (38.46%), in carrying out the rescue angioplasty and stent implantation in 96.62% of cases. There was a predominance of high blood pressure as risk factors for 73.71%, followed by smoking with 41.66% of the sample. Conclusion: According to the present study data, it appears a higher prevalence of infarction occurred in the ADA, with individuals performing the rescue angioplasty procedure and the placement of the stent, and a growing incidence of drug stent placement. We observed a high incidence of risk factors, prevailing hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angiography/methods , Angioplasty/methods , Drug-Eluting Stents , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Risk Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sedentary Behavior , Therapeutics , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Unified Health System
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(8): 921-926, ago. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978776

ABSTRACT

Advances in cardiovascular diseases research have shown that there are differences in social groups, which have been solely explained by biomedical dimensions. Although there have been advances in the biological understanding of these diseases, they do not account for the complexity of the phenomenon. To address this, the introduction of psychosocial variables have shown that they may be useful to understand the manifestations and evolution of these conditions. Thus, gender gaps should not be studied exclusively from a biomedical perspective. This article reviews the explanations about the gender gaps in the expression of acute myocardial infarction based on gender stereotypes, as an alternative to the biomedical approach. Stereotypes can predict different consequences when they are used by health professionals or patients. Finally, alternatives are proposed to reduce the negative results of the gender stereotype activation when an acute myocardial infarction is suffered. Also new development lines in theoretical, methodological and interdisciplinary work are proposed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stereotyping , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
18.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(4): 421-427, out.-dez. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970567

ABSTRACT

Os fibrinolíticos pertencem a uma classe de medicamentos especializada em promover a lise da fibrina e a consequente dissolução do trombo. Esse efeito baseia-se na transformação do plasminogênio em plasmina, potente enzima proteolítica. A sua aplicação nas diferentes síndromes cardiovasculares agudas alterou o curso natural do infarto agudo do miocárdio, da embolia pulmonar e do acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo. Na prática, temos três gerações de fibrinolíticos disponíveis: estreptoquinase, alteplase e tenecteplase, essa última com alta afinidade à fibrina. As complicações hemorrágicas, embora raras, devem ser identificadas e tratadas de forma precoce. Isso se deve aos distúrbios da coagulação, especialmente, queda do fibrinogênio e outros fatores de coagulação, mais predominantes com a estreptoquinase. A correção baseia-se na administração de crioprecipitado e plasma fresco, ricos, respectivamente, em fibrinogênio e fatores de coagulação. A inexperiência ao administrar tais medicamentos e o receio hemorrágico tem sido fator agravante na sobrevida dessas doenças. Campanhas educacionais poderão amenizar tal cenário, especialmente, em centros mais carentes de recursos tecnológicos


Fibrinolytics belong to a class of drugs specialized in promoting lysis of fibrin and consequent dissolution of the thrombus. This effect is based on the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin, a potent proteolytic enzyme. Its application in different acute cardiovascular syndromes has changed the natural course of acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and acute ischemic stroke. In practice, three generations of fibrinolytics are available: streptokinase, alteplase, and tenecteplase (the latter having high affinity to fibrin). Hemorrhagic complications, although rare, must be identified and treated early. This is due to coagulation disorders, especially the decrease in fibrinogen and other coagulation factors, more prevalent with streptokinase. Correction is based on the administration of cryoprecipitate and fresh plasma, which are rich in fibrinogen and coagulation factors, respectively. Inexperience in administering these drugs and hemorrhagic fear are aggravating factors of disease progression. Educational programs can mitigate such scenarios, especially in centers that lack technological resources.Inexperience administering such medicines and hemorrhagic fear has been an aggravating factor in the lives of these diseases. Educational campaigns will be able to mitigate such a scenario especially in the most lacking centers of technological resources


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism , Streptokinase , Blood Coagulation Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases , Reperfusion , Stroke
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(4): 409-420, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970540

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente, o infarto agudo do miocárdio, são responsáveis pela primeira causa de óbito em nosso país. Baseando-se em sua fisiopatogenia e nos fatores de risco envolvidos, a taxa de mortalidade, em 30 dias, varia de 3-5% em centros avançados e quase 30% naqueles cujo atendimento não aplicam as diretrizes recomendadas. Tal mudança dependerá de um aprimoramento organizacional com ações educativas para o paciente, profissionais do setor de emergência e plena sintonia com os gestores do sistema de saúde público ou privado. A angioplastia primária é o tratamento padrão-ouro da reperfusão miocárdica, porém, disponível apenas em 15% dos hospitais. Em geral, o setor público carece dessa disponibilidade, sendo a estratégia fármaco-invasivo-terapia fibrinolítica seguida da transferência precoce para angioplastia ­a recomendada. O diagnóstico baseia-se em critérios eletrocardiográficos, porém, nem sempre há médicos habilitados para tal confirmação. Isso retarda o tratamento e compromete bastante os resultados. A disponibilidade da telemedicina ou teleECG permite que profissionais mesmo à distância possam corroborar com o diagnóstico, orientar o tratamento e obter métricas de qualidade e mortalidade. A rápida identificação do paciente com sinais e sintomas de infarto agudo, diagnóstico imediato no ECG e administração do fibrinolítico não devem ultrapassar 20 minutos. São minutos dependentes da prévia organização que salvam vidas! O tratamento fibrinolítico é a realidade para um país com dimensões continentais e sérias limitações logísticas de transporte. Compete aos gestores de saúde disponibilizá-lo a qualquer hora ou momento para o atendimento do paciente infartado


Cardiovascular events, especially acute myocardial infarction, are the main cause of death in our country. In addition to its physiopathogenesis and the involved risk factors, the 30-day mortality rates vary from 3% to 5% in advanced centers and 30% in those where care does not apply the recommended guidelines. Such change will depend on organizational improvement, as well as patient education, professionals in the emergency department, and harmony with agents in the public or private health system. Primary angioplasty is the gold standard treatment for myocardial reperfusion, but is only available in 15% of hospitals. If it is not available in the public sector, a pharmacoinvasive strategy ­ fibrinolytic therapy followed by patient transfer for angioplasty ­ has been recommended. Diagnosis is based on ECG criteria, but there is a shortage of physicians qualified for such confirmation. This delays the treatment and compromises the results. Telemedicine or teleECG allows distant professionals to corroborate with the diagnosis, guide the treatment, and obtain quality and mortality metrics. The rapid identification of patients with signs and symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, immediate diagnosis on ECG, and fibrinolytic administration should not exceed 20 min. They are life-saving minutes dependent on prior organization. Fibrinoly-tic treatment is the reality for a country with continental dimensions and transport logistic limitations. It is the responsibility of health managers to make them available to the care of patients with infarction


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Risk Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Vessels , Drug Therapy/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergencies , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemodynamics/physiology
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 151-159, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The dissatisfaction of health professionals in emergency services has a negative influence on both the quality of care provided for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and the retention of those professionals. Objective: To assess physicians' satisfaction with the structure of care and diagnosis at the emergency services in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais before the implementation of the AMI system of care. Methods: This cross-sectional study included physicians from the emergency units of the ambulance service (SAMU) and level II, III and IV regional hospitals. Satisfaction was assessed by using the CARDIOSATIS-Team scale. The median score for each item, the overall scale and the domains were calculated and then compared by groups using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlation between time since graduation and satisfaction level was assessed using Spearman correlation. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 137 physicians included in the study, 46% worked at SAMU. Most of the interviewees showed overall dissatisfaction with the structure of care, and the median score for the overall scale was 2.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-4.0]. Most SAMU physicians expressed their dissatisfaction with the care provided (54%), the structure for managing cardiovascular diseases (52%), and the technology available for diagnosis (54%). The evaluation of the overall satisfaction evidenced that the dissatisfaction of SAMU physicians was lower when compared to that of hospital emergency physicians. Level III/IV hospital physicians expressed greater overall satisfaction when compared to level II hospital physicians. Conclusion: This study showed the overall dissatisfaction of the emergency physicians in the region assessed with the structure of care for cardiovascular emergencies.


Resumo Fundamentos: A insatisfação dos profissionais de saúde dos serviços de urgência tem influência negativa na qualidade do cuidado ao infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) e na fixação desses profissionais. Objetivo: Avaliar a satisfação de médicos com a estrutura de atendimento e diagnóstico de serviços públicos de urgência na Região Ampliada Norte de Minas Gerais, previamente à implantação da linha de cuidado ao IAM. Métodos: Estudo transversal, que incluiu médicos das unidades de emergência do SAMU e de hospitais regionais nível II, III e IV. Foi avaliada a satisfação usando a escala CARDIOSATIS-Team. O escore mediano para cada item, a escala global e os domínios foram calculados e então comparados por grupos, utilizando o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. Foi avaliada a correlação entre tempo de formação e nível de satisfação com o método de Spearman. Um valor-p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: De 137 médicos incluídos, 46% trabalhavam no SAMU. A maior parte dos entrevistados demonstrou insatisfação geral com a estrutura de atendimento, cuja mediana da escala global foi 2,0 (intervalo interquartil [IQ] 2,0-4,0). A maioria dos médicos do SAMU demonstrou-se insatisfeita quanto a atendimento prestado (54%), estrutura para condução das doenças cardiovasculares (52%) e tecnologia disponível para diagnóstico (54%). Na avaliação da satisfação global, evidenciou-se que a insatisfação dos médicos do SAMU foi menor quando comparada à dos médicos de urgência hospitalar. Os médicos de hospitais nível III/IV demonstraram maior satisfação global quando comparados aos de hospitais nível II. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou insatisfação geral dos médicos dos serviços de urgência na região em relação à estrutura de atendimento às emergências cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Job Satisfaction , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
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