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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 28-36, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356316


Abstract Background: Exercise tests are an important tool in the investigation of myocardial ischemia. The ramp protocol has gained increasing importance in clinical practice because of the possibility of individualizing its exercise intensity. Objective: To assess and compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Bruce and ramp protocols for exercise testing in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia considering myocardial perfusion scintigraphy as the reference standard. Secondary objectives included the assessment of hemodynamic profiles, functional capacity, and the incidence of arrhythmias in each of the protocols. Methods: Participants underwent exercise testing using the ramp and Bruce protocols, and the tests' diagnostic power was assessed. For testing the difference between data provided by both protocols, we used a paired Student's t-test or Wilcoxon test, depending on the assumption of data normality. The level of significance adopted for all tests was 5%. Results: The ramp protocol showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 55.6%, 82.4%, and 76.7%, respectively, whereas the Bruce protocol had results of 77.8%, 64.7%, and 67.4%, respectively. The maximum heart rate and double product at peak exercise were significantly higher in the Bruce protocol (p = 0.043 and p = 0.040, respectively). No differences were observed between the incidence of arrhythmias in both protocols. Conclusion: The Bruce protocol presented higher sensitivity for detecting ischemia on the exercise test, while the ramp protocol presented higher specificity and accuracy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Exercise Test , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Exercise , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamics
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc274, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369861


O diabetes melito é o maior fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana. Além da longa duração de diabetes, outros fatores, como presença de doença arterial periférica e tabagismo são fortes preditores para anormalidades na cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto dos fatores de risco de pacientes diabéticos nos resultados da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio e comparar com os resultados de pacientes não diabéticos em uma clínica de medicina nuclear. Foi realizado um estudo transversal retrospectivo por meio da análise de prontuários de pacientes que realizaram cintilografia miocárdica no período de 2010 a 2019. Foram avaliados 34.736 prontuários. Analisando a fase de estresse da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio, os portadores de diabetes melito precisaram receber estímulo farmacológico duas vezes mais que os não diabéticos para sua realização. Também foram avaliados fatores que tivessem impacto negativo no resultado da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio, e foi visto que o diabetes melito (33,6%), a insulinoterapia (18,1%), a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (69,9%), a dislipidemia (53%), o sedentarismo (83,1%), o uso de estresse farmacológico (50,6%), a dor torácica típica (8,5%) e a angina limitante durante o teste (1,7%) estiveram associados significativamente (p<0,001) a anormalidades neste exame. (AU)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the greatest risk factor for coronary artery disease. In addition to a long duration of diabetes, the presence of peripheral arterial disease and smoking are strong predictors of abnormalities on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of risk factors in diabetic patients on MPS results and compare them with those of non-diabetic patients in a nuclear medicine clinic. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through the analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent MPS in 2010­2019. A total of 34,736 medical records were evaluated. Analyzing the stress phase of MPS, DM patients required two-fold more pharmacological stimulation than non-diabetic patients for MPS. Factors that negatively impact the MPS results were also evaluated, and DM (33.6%), insulin therapy (18.1%), systemic arterial hypertension (69.9%), dyslipidemia (53%), sedentary lifestyle (83.1%), use of pharmacological stress (50.6%), typical chest pain (8.5%), and limiting angina during the test (1.7%) were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with test abnormalities. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Ventilation-Perfusion Scan/methods , Myocardium/pathology , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Convulsive Therapy/methods , Dyslipidemias/complications , Sedentary Behavior , Hypertension/complications , Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(4): 443-451, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286841


Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women and requires early diagnosis for defining the appropriate treatment. Objective To identify the positive predictive value (PPV) and safety of the early use of handgrip exercise in pharmacological stress echocardiography using dobutamine (early-ECHO) in women. Methods Positive ischemic early-ECHO records from 111 women were evaluated from January 2012 to March 2018. Subsequently, the hospital medical records were verified to locate patients who underwent conventional coronary angiography (CCA), and we analyzed the medical conduct adopted for these patients. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS employing one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's exact test, or Pearson's chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 for all analyses. Results Four patients (4.4%) presented serious complications during the examination. Out of 90 patients who underwent CCA, 71 (78.9%) had CAD. Among these 71 patients, 58 (81.7%) had severe lesions and 13 (18.3%) presented moderate CAD. Moreover, CCA did not demonstrate relevant coronary lesions in 19 of the 90 patients (21.1%). Among patients with severe CAD, 16 (27.6%) underwent myocardial revascularization surgery; 34 (58.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty; and 08 (13.7%) had their clinical treatments intensified. The PPV for early-ECHO was 78.9%. Conclusions Early-ECHO showed a high PPV for diagnosing myocardial ischemia in women. It presented a low complication rate and provided rapid disease identification, allowing the early treatment of injuries and potentially preventing CAD complications.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Hand Strength , Echocardiography, Stress , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Predictive Value of Tests , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 256-264, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088857


Abstract Background: The Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio (iFR) is an invasive functional evaluation method that does not require vasoactive drugs to induce maximum hyperemia Objective: To evaluate the contribution of the iFR to the therapeutic decision-making of coronary lesions in the absence of non-invasive diagnostic methods for ischemia, or in case of discordance between these methods and coronary angiography. Method: We studied patients older than 18 years, of both sexes, consecutively referred for percutaneous treatment between May 2014 and March 2018. Coronary stenotic lesions were classified by visual estimation of the stenosis diameter into moderate (41-70% stenosis) or severe (71%-90%). An iFR ≤ 0.89 was considered positive for ischemia. Logistic regression was performed using the elastic net, with placement of stents as outcome variable, and age, sex, arterial hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, family history, obesity and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as independent variables. Classification trees, ROC curves, and Box Plot graphs were constructed using the R software. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-two patients with 96 stenotic lesions (56 moderate, 40 severe) were evaluated. The iFR cut-off point of 0.87 showed a sensitivity of 0.57 and 1-specificity of 0.88, demonstrating high accuracy in reclassifying the lesions. Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and presence of moderate lesions with an iFR < 0.87 were predictors of stent implantation. Stents were used in 32% of lesions in patients with stable coronary artery disease and AMI with or without ST elevation (non-culprit lesions). Conclusion: The iFR has an additional value to the therapeutic decision making in moderate and severe coronary stenotic lesions, by contributing to the reclassification of lesions and decreasing the need for stenting.

Resumo Fundamento: Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio (iFR) é um método de avaliação funcional invasiva sem necessidade de droga vasoativa para indução de hiperemia máxima. Objetivo: Analisar a contribuição do iFR na terapêutica das lesões coronarianas com ausência ou discrepância entre os métodos diagnósticos não invasivos para isquemia e a angiografia coronária. Método: Foram estudados pacientes consecutivos com 18 anos ou mais, ambos os sexos, no período de maio de 2014 a março de 2018, com lesões coronarianas classificadas, por medição da porcentagem de diâmetro da estenose através de estimativa visual, em estenoses moderadas (41-70%) ou graves (71%-90%). O iFR ≤ 0,89 foi considerado positivo para isquemia. Empregou-se regressão logística com elastic net, tendo como variável desfecho o emprego de stent, e variáveis independentes: idade, sexo, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia, tabagismo, história familiar, obesidade e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) prévio. Foram construídas Árvores de Classificação, Curva Roc, e gráficos Box Plot com o software R. O valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Foram avaliados 52 pacientes com 96 lesões obstrutivas (56 moderadas, 40 graves). O ponto de corte do iFR de 0,87 apresentou sensibilidade de 0,57 e 1-especificidade de 0,88, demonstrando boa acurácia para a reclassificação das lesões. Diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia, e presença de lesão moderada, com iFR < 0,87 foram preditores do implante de stents. Foram empregados stents em 32% das lesões de portadores de doença arterial coronariana estável e IAM com e sem supra de ST (lesões não culpadas). Conclusão: O iFR contribui para a reclassificação das lesões e diminuição do emprego de stents, auxiliando na abordagem das lesões moderadas e severas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Stents , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronary Angiography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Clinical Decision-Making
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 862-878, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094094


RESUMEN Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen la principal causa de muerte en la mayoría de los países. Se describen los factores de riesgo para enfermedad coronaria como no modificables: edad, sexo y antecedentes familiares; y modificables relacionados al estilo de vida: tabaquismo, dislipidemia, obesidad, sedentarismo, diabetes, uso abusivo de alcohol y la enfermedad hipertensiva. Objetivo: caracterizar los factores de riesgo asociados a la cardiopatía isquémica en Atención Secundaria de Salud. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo transversal en pacientes ingresados en el Hospital "Mártires del 9 de Abril" de Sagua la Grande, en el periodo comprendido entre los años 2016 y 2017. Integraron la muestra 96 pacientes que ingresaron con diagnóstico de cardiopatía isquémica. Se describieron las características demográficas de los mismos; fueron identificados los factores de riesgo y se determinó la frecuencia de asociación de otras formas clínicas de ateromatosis. Resultados: los pacientes fueron mayores de 60 años de edad; la mayoría tenían color de la piel blanca; presentaban antecedentes patológicos familiares de cardiopatía isquémica; las principales formas de cardiopatía isquémica fueron: angina e insuficiencia cardiaca; todos los pacientes presentaron uno o más factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los más significativos fueron, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo aumento de la circunferencia abdominal y personalidad tipo "A". Conclusiones: la mayoría de los pacientes exhibieron alteraciones en el electrocardiograma: descenso del segmento ST, bloqueo de rama izquierda del haz de His y fibrilación auricular; se observó hipertrigliceridemia y se apreció asociación entre enfermedad renal crónica y angina.

ABSTRACT Introduction: cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in most of the countries. The risk factors for coronary disease are described as unmodifiable: age, sex and family history; and modifiable related to lifestyle: smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, abusive use of alcohol and hypertensive disease. Objective: to characterize the risk factors associated to ischemic heart disease in secondary health care. Material and methods: observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study in patients admitted in "Mártires del 9 de Abril" Hospital, Sagua la Grande, between 2016 and 2017. The sample consisted of 96 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Their demographic characteristics were described; the risk factors were identified and the frequency of association of other clinical forms of atheromatosis was determined. Results: the patients were aged more than 60 years; most of them were white people and had family pathological antecedents of ischemic heart disease; the main forms of ischemic heart disease were angina and heart failure; all patients showed one or more cardiovascular risk factors being arterial hypertension, smoking, increase of abdominal circumference and type A personality the most significant ones. Conclusions: the majority of patients showed alterations in the electrocardiogram: ST segment decrease, His bundle left branch blockage and atrial fibrillation; hypertriglyceridemia was observed and there was an association between chronic kidney disease and angina.

Humans , Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Inpatients , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Abdominal Circumference , Observational Study , Heart Failure/etiology , Angina Pectoris/etiology , Life Style
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 628-640, mayo.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094072


RESUMEN Introducción: la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico, a nivel mundial, es muy elevada y continúa en aumento vertiginosamente en los últimos años. Por lo que se puede considerar una pandemia de la época contemporánea, se estima que el 25 % de la población adulta la padece. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico e identificar otras formas clínicas de enfermedad vascular ateroesclerótica, en gerontes hospitalizados en Servicios de Geriatría del Hospital Provincial Clínico Quirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley", Manzanillo, Granma; en el período comprendido entre junio 2015 a junio 2016. Materiales y métodos: se realizó estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se incluyeron los 120 senescentes que ingresaron en los Servicios de Geriatría. Resultados: se estableció el diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico en 105 individuos de 120 sujetos estudiados. El grupo de 70-79 años de edad y el sexo masculino fueron los más afectados por la endocrinopatía. Las otras formas clínicas de enfermedad vascular ateroesclerótica que se identificaron en los senescentes estudiados, fueron: cardiopatía isquémica, enfermedad cerebrovascular y cardiopatía hipertensiva. Conclusiones: existe una alta prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en los adultos mayores estudiados.

ABSTRACT Introduction: the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is very high around the world and is still vertiginously increasing in the last years. Therefore, it can be considered a pandemic of the current times. It is thought that 25 % of the adult population suffers it. Objective: to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and to identify other clinical forms of the atherosclerotic vascular disease in elder people who entered the Service of Geriatrics of the Provincial Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital "Celia Sanchez Manduley", of Manzanillo, Granma, in the period from June 2015 to June 2016. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was carried out with the inclusion of the 120 elder people who the Service of Geriatrics. Results: 105 individuals of 129 studied were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The 79-79 age group and male sex were the most affected by endocrinopathy. Other clinical forms of the arteriosclerotic vascular disease identified in the studied elder people were ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and hypertensive heart disease. Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the studied elder people.

Humans , Aged , Aging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Geriatrics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Care , Obesity, Abdominal/diagnosis , Early Medical Intervention , Observational Study , Hypertension/diagnosis
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 54-59, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004747


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The chest pain classifications that are currently in use are based on studies that are several decades old. Various studies have indicated that these classifications are not sufficient for determining the origin of chest pain without additional diagnostic tests or tools. We describe a new chest pain scoring system that examines the relationship between chest pain and ischemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary-level university hospital and two public hospitals. METHODS: Chest pain scores were assigned to 484 patients. These patients then underwent a treadmill stress test, followed by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy if necessary. Coronary angiography was then carried out on the patients whose tests had been interpreted as positive for ischemia. Afterwards, the relationship between myocardial ischemia and the test score results was investigated. RESULTS: The median chest pain score was 2 (range: 0-7) among the patients without IHD and 6 (1-8) among those with IHD. The median score of patients with IHD was significantly higher than that of patients without IHD (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the score had sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 87.5% for detecting IHD. CONCLUSION: We developed a pre-test chest pain score that uses a digital scoring system to assess whether or not the pain was caused by IHD. This scoring system can be applied easily and swiftly by healthcare professionals and can prevent the confusion that is caused by other classification and scoring systems.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment/methods , Area Under Curve , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Public
Medisan ; 23(1)ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990178


Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva de 41 pacientes con antecedentes de infarto agudo del miocardio, que formaron parte de un programa de rehabilitación cardiovascular en el Servicio de Terapia Física y Rehabilitación del Hospital General Docente Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde mayo de 2017 hasta igual mes de 2018, con vistas a evaluar el efecto del entrenamiento físico sobre la función cardiovascular de estos. Se examinó la función cardiovascular a través del ecocardiograma y el electrocardiograma, antes y después de aplicado el programa, y al final del estudio se obtuvo una modificación positiva de las variables eco- y electrocardiográficas, con un mayor grado de recuperación de la contractilidad segmentaria. Pudo concluirse que el programa tuvo un papel importante en la restauración de la función cardíaca y, con ello, se mejoró la capacidad física y psicológica de los pacientes, de manera que fue beneficioso para estos y para la sociedad.

A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective investigation of 41 patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction who were part of a program of cardiovascular rehabilitation in the Service of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation from Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from May, 2017 to the same month in 2018, with the aim of evaluating the effect of the physical training on their cardiovascular function. The cardiovascular function was examined through the echocardiogram and the electrocardiogram, before and after the program was applied, and at the end of the study a positive modification of the echocardiographical and electrocardiographical variables was obtained with a higher degree of recovery of the segmental contractility. It could be concluded that the program had an important role in the restoration of the heart function and, with it, the physical and psychological capacity of the patients improved, so that it was beneficial for them and for the society.

Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Exercise Therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Exercise , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Myocardial Contraction
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(1): 19-28, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-969863


A miocardiopatia hipertrófica é a cardiopatia hereditária mais comum e acomete cerca de 1:500 indivíduos na população geral. O diagnóstico, que nem sempre é simples pela variação fenotípica e pela concomitância de outras patologias, baseia-se, inicialmente, em critérios eletrocardiográficos e ecocardiográficos, e na ausência de outras doenças que cursem com hipertrofia ventricular. Tendo como base celular o desarranjo miofibrilar e a fibrose com alterações hemodinâmicas decorrentes, a miocardiopatia hipertrófica pode revelar isquemia miocárdica (não relacionada à aterosclerose) e morte súbita. Assim, a avaliação da repercussão funcional por meio da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica pela técnica Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) tem ganhado espaço, uma vez que 25% dos pacientes com miocardiopatia hipertrófica demonstram defeitos de perfusão fixos ou isquêmicos. Neste âmbito, notam-se alterações perfusionais que não estão necessariamente associadas ao tipo de miocardiopatia hipertrófica, mas conseguem predizer morbimortalidade nestes indivíduos. Outra técnica cintilográfica mais recente é a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET), que se destaca na avaliação da microcirculação, na reserva de fluxo coronário e no metabolismo miocárdico. Em pacientes com miocardiopatia hipertrófica, estudos têm demonstrado resultados desfavoráveis quanto menores o fluxo sanguíneo miocárdico e a reserva de fluxo coronário. A avaliação miocárdica metabólica pela PET parece útil no entendimento fisiopatológico desta doença e na avaliação prognóstica da ablação alcoólica, procedimento realizado em formas obstrutivas graves. Assim, esta revisão aborda o papel da cardiologia nuclear pelas técnicas SPECT e PET miocárdico na avaliação diagnóstica, prognóstica e terapêutica da miocardiopatia hipertrófica

Humans , Male , Female , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial/genetics , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial/therapy , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Death, Sudden , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Failure/diagnosis
Rev. medica electron ; 40(4): 1070-1082, jul.-ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-961281


Introducción: para el desarrollo de esta investigación se partió de reconocer la importancia que tiene la reducción de los factores de riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica y la necesidad de fortalecer las acciones de promoción de la salud y la educación para la salud en el contexto cubano, sustentada en el principio del mejoramiento y desarrollo continuo de los procesos. Se dispone de modelos y teorías internacionales que abordan esta problemática; pero no se ajustan completamente a la impronta cubana. Objetivo: diseñar un modelo de promoción de la salud dirigido a la población con factores de riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica. Materiales y métodos: se utilizó la triangulación metodológica, los grupos focales y encuestas con expertos, usuarios, líderes formales, informales, sujetos con factores de riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica y familias. Resultados: el modelo tiene una estructura que define dos dimensiones y seis categorías que se interrelacionan en forma dinámica. Conclusiones: se demostró la factibilidad y pertinencia del modelo de promoción de salud dirigido a la población con factores de riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica en la atención primaria de salud (AU).

Introduction: the basis to carry out this research was recognizing the importance of reducing the risk factors of ischemic heart disease and the necessity of strengthening the health promotion and educative actions in the Cuban context, on the principle of the continuous improvement and development of the processes. There are international models and theories approaching this topics, but they are not completely adjusted to the Cuban reality. Objective: to design a model of health promotion directed to the population with risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Materials and methods: we used the methodological triangulation, focal groups and surveys with experts, users, formal and informal leaders, persons with heart disease risk factors and relatives. Results: the model has a structure defining two dimensions and six categories interrelated in a dynamical way. Conclusions: the feasibility and pertinence of the health promotion model, directed to the population with risk factors of ischemic heart disease in the primary health care, was showed (AU).

Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Health Promotion/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Risk Factors , Population Health
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 34(2): e1613, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099040


RESUMO Introdução: Estereótipos de gênero traduzem concepções e ações masculinas sobre adoecimento e autocuidado, implicando em indicadores de saúde. Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular e doenças isquêmicas do coração em homens; discutir a relação entre masculinidade e a exposição a fatores de risco cardiovascular e a essas doenças. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, realizado por meio de dados secundários, oriundos do Vigitel e DATASUS, para homens adultos, no Brasil, no período de 2010-2014. Resultados: Os homens, comparados às mulheres, apresentaram maior prevalência para tabagismo (22,5 porcento), sobrepeso (56,5 porcento), consumo abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas (23,4 porcento), inatividade física (16,2 porcento) e maior tempo de televisão (25,8 porcento). Foram vítimas de maior mortalidade por Angina Pectoris (51,4 porcento), Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio (58,9 porcento) e Doença Isquêmica Crônica do Coração (55,8 porcento), com tendência crescente, nos últimos cinco anos. Comportamentos masculinos expressam resistência ao cuidado à saúde e estão associados a fatores socioculturais e institucionais que, em conjunto ou individualmente, potencializam a exposição às situações de risco e a dificuldade de reconhecerem suas necessidades e procurarem os serviços de saúde. Conclusão: Homens estão mais expostos a fatores de risco e a mortalidade por doença cardiovascular e as construções sociais de gênero são determinantes do processo saúde/doença(AU)

RESUMEN Introducción: Los estereotipos de género traducen concepciones y acciones masculinas acerca de la enfermedad y el autocuidado, influyendo en los indicadores de salud. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y la enfermedad isquémica del corazón en los hombres; discutir la relación entre la masculinidad y la exposición a factores de riesgo cardiovascular y estas enfermedades. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, retrospectivo, realizado con datos secundarios del VIGITEL y el DATASUS para los hombres adultos, en Brasil, en el período 2010-2014. Resultados: Los hombres, en comparación con las mujeres, tuvieron mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo (22,5 por ciento), sobrepeso (56,5 por ciento), consumo abusivo de alcohol (23,4 por ciento), inactividad física (16,2 por ciento) y tiempo de televisión (25,8 por ciento). Fueron víctimas de mayor mortalidad por angina de pecho (51,4 por ciento), infarto agudo de miocardio (58,9 por ciento) y cardiopatía isquémica crónica (55,8 por ciento), con tendencia creciente en los últimos cinco años. Los comportamientos masculinos expresan resistencia al cuidado de la salud y están asociados con factores socio-culturales e institucionales que, en conjunto o individualmente, potencian la exposición a situaciones de riesgo y la dificultad de reconocer sus necesidades y buscar los servicios de salud. Conclusión: Los hombres están más expuestos a factores de riesgo y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares y las construcciones sociales de género son determinantes del proceso salud-enfermedad(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Gender stereotypes translate male conceptions and actions of illness and self-care, implying in health indicators. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease in men; to discuss the relationship between masculinity and exposure to cardiovascular risk factors and these diseases. Methods: Epidemiological, descriptive and retrospective study, realized through secondary data originated from Vigitel and DATASUS, for adult men, in Brazil, of the 2010-2014 period. Results: Men, compared to women, had higher prevalence of smoking (22.5 percent), overweight (56.5 percent), abusive alcohol consumption (23.4 percent), physical inactivity (16.2 percent) and longer television time (25.8 percent). They were victims of higher mortality from Angina Pectoris (51.4 percent), Acute Myocardial Infarction (58.9 percent) and Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (55.8 percent), with a growing trend, in the last five years. Male behaviors express health care resistance and are associated with socio-cultural and institutional factors that, together or individually, potentialize the exposure to risk situations and the difficulty of recognize their needs and seek the health services. Conclusion: Men are more expose to risk factors and cardiovascular disease mortality and social constructions of gender are determinants of the health-disease process(AU)

Humans , Male , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Masculinity , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Angina Pectoris/mortality
Rev. mex. cardiol ; 29(1): 37-40, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004298


Abstract: Background: Kounis syndrome was described in 1991 as the simultaneous occurrence of acute coronary events and anaphylactic allergic reactions. Reports of clinical cases and series of small cases of angina triggered by allergic reactions have been reported for many years. It encompasses concepts such as allergic angina and allergic infarction. Case report: We report a case of a 47-year-old man with a history of fixed drug eruption for 10 years. The patient attended to the hospital with a moderate-intensity chest pain, electrocardiogram was performed which was compatible with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation; it progressed favorably with treatment by protocol. The subsequent study showed hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiovascular tests was negative, and it was concluded as a case of allergic angina. Conclusions: Kounis syndrome is a difficult to diagnose entity that requires a high index of suspicion in the evaluation of patients with chest pain in the Emergency Department.(AU)

Resumen: Antecedentes: El síndrome de Kounis fue descrito en 1991 como la aparición simultánea de eventos coronarios agudos y reacciones alérgicas anafilácticas. Casos clínicos y pequeñas series de casos de angina generada por reacciones alérgicas han sido reportados en varios años. Engloba conceptos como el de angina alérgica e infarto alérgico. Caso clínico: Presentamos un caso clínico de un hombre de 47 años de edad, con antecedentes de eritema fijo medicamentoso desde hace 10 años. Acude al Departamento de Emergencia por presentar dolor torácico de moderada intensidad, se realiza electrocardiograma el cual es compatible con síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST. Evolucionó favorablemente con tratamiento según protocolo. El estudio posterior demostró hipersensibilidad a antiinflamatorios no esteroideos y las pruebas de estratificación de isquemia cardiovascular fueron negativas, por lo que se concluyó como un caso de angina alérgica. Conclusiones: El síndrome de Kounis es una entidad de difícil diagnóstico que requiere un alto índice de sospecha en la valoración de pacientes con dolor torácico en el Departamento de Emergencia.(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity , Kounis Syndrome/diagnosis
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(1)jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906813


O presente artigo relata dois casos de pacientes, os quais foram admitidos na emergência do Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares (IMC) com dor tipicamente anginosa, caracterizada como dor retroesternal em aperto, com irradiação para a face medial do braço esquerdo e relacionada ao esforço, com melhora no repouso. No exame físico, apresentavam taquicardia e sudorese. O eletrocardiograma evidenciou sinais de isquemia miocárdica em ambos os pacientes. Após as medidas iniciais serem tomadas, um dos pacientes foi submetido à terapia trombolítica e o outro à angioplastia para implantação de stent . Mais tarde, foi identificada a comunicação interventricular (CIV), seguido da necessidade de correção cirúrgica da mesma. Ambos os pacientes evoluíram bem, apesar da alta taxa de mortalidade desta condição

This paper reports two cases of patients who were admitted to the emergency room of the Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares (IMC) with typically anginal pain, characterized by tight retrosternal pain radiating to the inside left arm, related to stress and improving with rest. Physical examination showed tachycardia and excessive sweating. Electrocardiogram showed signs of myocardial ischemia in both patients. After the initial measures were taken, one of the patients received thrombolytic therapy, and the other angioplasty for stent implantation. Later, interventricular septum rupture (IVSR) was identified, followed by the need for surgery to correct it. Both patients recovered well, despite the high mortality rate of this condition

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/surgery , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thoracic Surgery , Age Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Septal Defects/surgery , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Prostheses and Implants , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(9): 793-800, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896398


Summary Coronary artery disease (CAD) associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction is a condition related to poor prognosis. There is a lack of robust evidence in many aspects related to this condition, from definition to treatment. Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a spectrum ranging from stunned myocardium associated with myocardial fibrosis to hibernating myocardium and repetitive episodes of ischemia. In clinical practice, relevance lies in identifying the myocardium that has the ability to recover its contractile reserve after revascularization. Methods to evaluate cellular integrity tend to have higher sensitivity, while the ones assessing contractile reserve have greater specificity, since a larger mass of viable myocytes is required in order to generate contractility change. Since there are many methods and different ways to detect viability, sensitivity and specificity vary widely. Dobutamine-cardiac magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement has the best accuracy is this setting, giving important predictors of prognostic and revascularization benefit such as scar burden, contractile reserve and end-systolic volume index. The latter has shown differential benefit with revascularization in some recent trials. Finally, authors discuss interventional procedures in this population, focusing on coronary artery bypass grafting and evolution of evidence from CASS to post-STICH era.

Resumo A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) associada à disfunção sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo é uma condição relacionada a mau prognóstico. Há uma falta de evidência robusta em muitos aspectos relacionados a essa condição, desde a definição ao tratamento. A cardiomiopatia isquêmica é um espectro que varia de miocárdio atordoado por fibrose miocárdica, passando por miocárdio hibernante, a episódios repetitivos de isquemia. Na prática clínica, a importância do problema é identificar o miocárdio que tem a capacidade de recuperar sua reserva contrátil após revascularização. Métodos para avaliar a integridade celular tendem a ter maior sensibilidade, enquanto os que avaliam a reserva contrátil têm maior especificidade, uma vez que uma maior massa de miócitos viáveis para gerar uma mudança de contratilidade é necessária. Tendo em vista que existem muitos métodos e diferentes formas de detecção de viabilidade, a sensibilidade e a especificidade variam amplamente. O uso da ressonância magnética cardíaca com detecção de realce tardio associada a estresse com dobutamina tem a melhor acurácia na avaliação de viabilidade, além de fornecer importantes preditores de benefício prognóstico com a revascularização, tais como carga de cicatriz, reserva contrátil e índice de volume sistólico final. Finalmente, os autores discutem sobre procedimentos intervencionistas nessa população, com foco na revascularização cirúrgica do miocárdio e na evolução da evidência desde o estudo CASS até os trials da era pós-STICH.

Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 16(6): 902-911, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901782


Introducción: La alta prevalencia de la cardiopatía isquémica y el progresivo aumento de la esperanza de vida son factores que están contribuyendo de forma importante a que el dolor torácico constituya en estos momentos uno de los principales motivos de consulta hospitalaria. En Cuba, las enfermedades cardiovasculares representan la primera causa de muerte. Su diagnóstico, puede ser un reto. Objetivo: Presentar las ventajas éticas, tecnológicas y económicas de la perfusión miocárdica en el proceso diagnóstico de la cardiopatía isquémica. Material y Métodos: Fue realizada una búsqueda sistematizada de literatura primaria en bases de datos como Scielo, Sciencedirect y Elsevier. Resultados: En el presente artículo se analizó como problema social de la ciencia, la tecnología y la sociedad los estudios de perfusión miocárdica en la cardiopatía isquémica, teniendo especial atención en las implicaciones sociales, éticas, tecnológicas y económicas. Los estudios de perfusión miocárdica son ampliamente utilizados como métodos funcionales no invasivos para el diagnóstico de enfermedad coronaria. Es una técnica fácilmente realizable, con mínimas complicaciones y efectos secundarios, y en consecuencia con amplia aceptación por los pacientes. Conclusiones: Las investigaciones no invasivas para el estudio de la perfusión miocárdica tienen un lugar bien establecido en el proceso diagnóstico del paciente con cardiopatía isquémica con fines de diagnóstico precoz y estratificación de riesgo con altos índices de sensibilidad, especificidad y reproducibilidad y su incorporación a la práctica social asistencial tiene además sólidos fundamentos bioéticos y económicos(AU)

Introduction: The high prevalence of ischemic heart disease and the progressive increase in life expectancy are important factors contributing to the fact that chest pain is one of the main reasons for hospital consultation. In Cuba, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Your diagnosis can be challenging. Objective: To present the ethical, technological and economic advantages of myocardial perfusion in the diagnostic process of ischemic heart disease. Material and Methods: A systematized search of primary literature was carried out in databases such as Scielo, Sciencedirect and Elsevier. Results: In the present article, the studies of myocardial perfusion in ischemic heart disease were analyzed as a social problem of science, technology and society, paying particular attention to the social, ethical, technological and economic implications. Myocardial perfusion studies are widely used as noninvasive functional methods for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. It is a technique easily performed, with minimal complications and side effects, and consequently with wide acceptance by the patients. Conclusions: Noninvasive investigations for the study of myocardial perfusion have a well established place in the diagnostic process of the patient with ischemic heart disease for the purposes of early diagnosis and risk stratification with high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility indexes and their incorporation into the social welfare practice also has solid bioethical and economic foundations(AU)

Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 244-248, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899592


Resumen: Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo femenino de 42 años sin antecedentes clínicos de relevancia, con hipopotasemia severa y cambios electrocardiográficos imitando isquemia miocárdica con enfermedad corona-ria de múltiples vasos.

Abstracts: A 42-year-old woman with no previous medical history developed severe hypokalemia. The ECG changes suggested multivessel coronary artery disease with ischemia in several territories.

Humans , Female , Adult , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Hypokalemia/diagnosis , Potassium/therapeutic use , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypokalemia/complications , Hypokalemia/drug therapy
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 30(4): f:119-l:125, out.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876227


Fundamento: O transplante hepático (TH) é cirurgia de grande porte indicada para tratamento de portadores de cirrose avançada e está associado a diversos riscos. Por esta razão, faz-se necessário estratificar o risco no período pré- transplante através da avaliação da função miocárdica e pesquisa de doença coronariana. Objetivo: Demonstrar a aplicabilidade da ressonância miocárdica cardíaca (RMC) na avaliação morfofuncional cardíaca, bem como seu uso na avaliação da isquemia miocárdica no pré-transplante. Método: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo e descritivo, sendo avaliados dados de pacientes cirróticos encaminhados ao ambulatório de TH no período de Janeiro/2014 a Julho/2016 que se submeteram a RMC para avaliação cardíaca e como teste provocativo de isquemia miocárdica. Resultados: Foram encaminhados 135 pacientes; destes, 39 realizaram RMC. A idade média foi de 60 anos (50 a 71). Cerca de 87% (n = 34) eram do sexo masculino. Prevaleceu etiologia etanólica 56% (n = 22). A maioria era de pacientes CHILD C, MELD ≥ 18, (n = 26). A RMC evidenciou isquemia miocárdica em 03 pacientes (7,6%). A cineangiocoronariografia foi realizada nestes pacientes e a presença de doença arterial coronariana grave (obstrução > 70%) foi confirmada em todos, com consequente revascularização miocárdica. Em um seguimento de até 2 anos e 7 meses, a sobrevida dos transplantados foi de 87%, sem intercorrências cardiológicas. Conclusões: A realização da RMC na avaliação de cirróticos no pré-transplante mostrou-se estratégia segura ao evidenciar a presença de alterações morfofuncionais da cardiomiopatia do cirrótico e a presença de isquemia miocárdica. Entretanto, novos estudos devem ser realizados para padronização de métodos e critérios para avaliação cardiovascular em cirróticos

Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is a huge surgery performed to treat patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and is associated with several risks. For this reason, is necessary to stratify the risk in the pre-transplantation period through the evaluation of myocardial function and ischemia Objective: To demonstrate the applicability of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in cardiac morphologic and functional evaluation, as well use in the evaluation of myocardial ischemia in pre-transplantation. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study. Data from patients with cirrhosis referred to the liver transplant outpatient clinic from January 2014 to July 2016 were analyzed they underwent CMR for cardiac evaluation and as provocative test of myocardial ischemia. Results: 135 patients were referred of these, 39 performed CMR. The mean age was 60 (50 to 71). About 87% (n = 34) were males. Alcoholic etiology prevailed 56% (n = 22). Most were of CHILD C patients with MELD ≥ 18, (n = 26). CMR showed myocardial ischemia in 03 patients (7,6%). Coronary angiography was performed and presence of severe coronary artery disease (obstruction > 70%) was confirmed, with consequent myocardial revascularization. At a follow-up of 2 years and 7 months, the survival of transplanted patients was 87%, without cardiologic complications. Conclusions: The realization of CMR in the evaluation of cirrhotic patients in the pre-transplantation proved to be a safe strategy by showing presence of morphologic and functional changes of the cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and the presence of myocardial ischemia. However, more studies should be performed to standardize methods and criteria for cardiovascular evaluation in cirrhotic patients before the liver transplantation

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Fibrosis/etiology , Liver Transplantation/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Patient Selection/ethics , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles , Liver/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors