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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 78-86, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) is a fruit with high antioxidant capacity and could be an adjuvant strategy to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury. Objective: To evaluate the influence of açaí in global ischemia-reperfusion model in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: Control (C: receiving standard chow; n = 9) and Açaí (A: receiving standard chow supplemented with 5% açaí; n = 10). After six weeks, the animals were subjected to the global ischemia-reperfusion protocol and an isolated heart study to evaluate left ventricular function. Level of significance adopted: 5%. Results: There was no difference between the groups in initial body weight, final body weight and daily feed intake. Group A presented lower lipid hydroperoxide myocardial concentration and higher catalase activity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase than group C. We also observed increased myocardial activity of b-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, complex I, complex II and ATP synthase in the A group as well as lower activity of the lactate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase enzymes. The systolic function was similar between the groups, and the A group presented poorer diastolic function than the C group. We did not observe any difference between the groups in relation to myocardial infarction area, total and phosphorylated NF-kB, total and acetylated FOXO1, SIRT1 and Nrf-2 protein expression. Conclusion: despite improving energy metabolism and attenuating oxidative stress, açai supplementation did not decrease the infarcted area or improve left ventricular function in the global ischemia-reperfusion model.


Resumo Fundamento: Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) é uma fruta com alta capacidade antioxidante e pode ser uma estratégia adjuvante para atenuar a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do açaí no modelo global de isquemia-reperfusão em ratos. Metodologia: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em 2 grupos: Controle (C: recebendo ração padrão; n = 9) e Açaí (A: recebendo ração padrão suplementada com 5% de açaí; n = 10). Após seis semanas, os animais foram submetidos ao protocolo global de isquemia-reperfusão e a estudo do coração isolado para avaliar a função ventricular esquerda. Nível de significância adotado: 5%. Resultados: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao peso corporal inicial e final, e a ingestão diária de ração. O grupo A apresentou menor concentração miocárdica de hidroperóxido lipídico e maior atividade de catalase, superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase do que o grupo C. Também observamos aumento da atividade miocárdica da b-hidroxiacil coenzima-A desidrogenase, piruvato desidrogenase, citrato sintase, complexo I, complexo II e ATP sintase no grupo A, bem como menor atividade das enzimas lactato desidrogenase e fosfofructoquinase. A função sistólica foi semelhante entre os grupos, e o grupo A apresentou função diastólica pior que C. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos em relação à área de infarto do miocárdio, e expressão proteica de NF-kB total e fosforilado, e das proteínas FOXO1, SIRT1 e Nrf-2. Conclusão: apesar de melhorar o metabolismo energético e atenuar o estresse oxidativo, a suplementação de açaí não diminuiu a área infartada nem melhorou a função ventricular esquerda no modelo global de isquemia-reperfusão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Euterpe/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Energy Metabolism/physiology
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1092-1101, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055064

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Functional assessment to rule out myocardial ischemia using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is extremely important and data on the Brazilian population are still limited. Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of myocardial perfusion by CCTA in the detection of severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). To analyze the importance of anatomical knowledge to understand the presence of myocardial perfusion defects on SPECT imaging that is not identified on computed tomography (CT) scan. Method: A total of 35 patients were evaluated by a simultaneous pharmacologic stress protocol. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions. The patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of significant CAD. The area under the ROC curve was used to identify the diagnostic performance of CCTA and SPECT in perfusion assessment. P < 0.05 values were considered statistically significant. Results: For detection of obstructive CAD, CT myocardial perfusion analysis yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.84 [a 95% confidence interval (CI95%): 0.67-0.94, p < 0.001]. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, on the other hand, showed an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.40 - 0.74, p < 0.001). In this study, false-positive results with SPECT are described. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion analysis by CTA displays satisfactory results compared to SPECT in the detection of obstructive CAD. CCTA can rule out false-positive results of SPECT.


Resumo Fundamento: A avaliação funcional para descartar a isquemia miocárdica utilizando a angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-TC) de coronárias é de extrema importância e dados na população brasileira ainda são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC de coronárias na detecção de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) obstrutiva significativa em comparação com a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT; do inglês, single photon emission computerized tomography). Analisar a importância do conhecimento anatômico para entender a presença de defeito de perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT que não é identificado pela tomografia computadorizada (TC). Método: Trinta e cinco pacientes foram avaliados por um protocolo de estresse farmacológico simultâneo. O teste exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparação entre as proporções. Os pacientes foram agrupados de acordo com a presença ou não de DAC significativa. A área sob a curva foi utilizada para identificar o desempenho diagnóstico da avaliação da perfusão pela angio-TC de coronárias e pela SPECT. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Para detecção de DAC obstrutiva a avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela TC teve uma área sob a curva de 0,84 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%): 0,67 a 0,94, p < 0,001]. Já o estudo da perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT foi de 0,58 (IC95%: 0,40 a 0,74, p < 0,001). Neste estudo, foram descritos falso-positivos pela SPECT. Conclusão: A avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC apresenta resultados satisfatórios em comparação com os da SPECT na detecção de DAC obstrutiva. A angio-TC de coronárias tem capacidade de afastar falso-positivos da SPECT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Cineangiography/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 674-679, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study the response of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI) in rats to simulated geomagnetic activity. Methods: In a simulated strong geomagnetic outbreak, the MI/RI rat models were radiated, and their area of myocardial infarction, hemodynamic parameters, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), melatonin, and troponin I values were measured after a 24-hour intervention. Results: Our analysis indicates that the concentrations of troponin I in the geomagnetic shielding+operation group were lower than in the radiation+operation group (P<0.05), the concentrations of melatonin in the shielding+operation group and normal+operation group were higher than in the radiation + operation group (P<0.01), and the concentrations of CK in the shielding + operation group were lower than in the radiation + operation group and normal + operation group (P<0.05). Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and ± dP/dtmax in the radiation+operation group were lower than in the shielding + operation group and normal+operation group (P<0.01). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LEVDP) in the shielding + operation group was higher than in the normal + operation group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in area of myocardial infarction and LDH between the shielding + operation group and the radiation + operation group. Conclusion: Our data suggest that geomagnetic activity is important in regulating myocardial reperfusion injury. The geomagnetic shielding has a protective effect on myocardial injury, and the geomagnetic radiation is a risk factor for aggravating the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Magnetic Fields/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatine Kinase , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900505, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010872

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the cardioprotective response of the pharmacological modulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) in animal model of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (CIR), in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (NWR) rats. Methods: CIR was induced by the occlusion of left anterior descendent coronary artery (10 min) and reperfusion (75 min). The SHR was treated with β-AR antagonist atenolol (AT, 10 mg/kg, IV) 5 min before CIR, and NWR were treated with β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO, 0.5 mg/kg, IV) 5 min before CIR. Results: The treatment with AT increased the incidence of VA, AVB and LET in SHR, suggesting that spontaneous cardioprotection in hypertensive animals was abolished by blockade of β-AR. In contrast, the treatment with ISO significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia, atrioventricular blockade and lethality in NWR (30%, 20% and 20%, respectively), suggesting that the activation of β-AR stimulate cardioprotection in normotensive animals. Serum CK-MB were higher in SHR/CIR and NWR/CIR compared to respective SHAM group (not altered by treatment with AT or ISO). Conclusion: The pharmacological modulation of β-AR could be a new cardioprotective strategy for the therapy of myocardial dysfunctions induced by CIR related to cardiac surgery and cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/drug effects , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Function Tests
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 588-596, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (preIC) and postconditioning (postIC) in animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: Adult rats were submitted to protocol of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and randomized into three experimental groups: cardiac I/R (n=33), preCI + cardiac I/R (n=7) and postCI + cardiac I/R (n=8). After this I/R protocol, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) was evaluated using the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. Results: After reestablishment of coronary blood flow, we observed variations of the ECG trace with increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) (85%), atrioventricular block (AVB) (79%), and increase of lethality (70%) in cardiac I/R group. The comparison between I/R + preIC group with I/R group demonstrated significant reduction in VA incidence to 28%, AVB to 0% and lethality to 14%. The comparison of I/R + postIC group with I/R group was observed significance reduction in AVB incidence to 25% and lethality to 25%. Conclusion: The preconditioning strategies produce cardioprotection more efficient that postconditioning against myocardial dysfunctions and lethality by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Time Factors , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Block/prevention & control
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(1): 22-30, Jan. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of dexmedetomidine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: IRI group (group IR) and dexmedetomidine group (group D). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax, and t-dp/dtmax were recorded and calculated at the following time points: before (T0) and after (T1) dexmedetomidine infusion, after 30-min ischemia (T2), and after 120-min reperfusion (T3). The levels of plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and platelet activating factor (PAF); area of myocardial infarction (MI); and no-reflow area were evaluated. Results: SBP, DBP, LVSP, LVEDP, LVDP, and +dp/dtmax at T3 were higher in group D than in group IR (P<0.05). The average no-reflow area in group IR was significantly smaller than that in group D (14±3% vs. 38±5%, P=0.0116). The ET-1, TXA2, and PAF levels at T2 and T3 were higher than those at T0 in both groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine could reduce the magnitude of ischemic myocardial no-reflow area and protect the myocardium with ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Reference Values , Thromboxane A2/blood , Platelet Activating Factor/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endothelin-1/blood , Disease Models, Animal , No-Reflow Phenomenon/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 516-526, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) could provide tissue-protective effect at a remote site by anti-inflammatory, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of remote IPreC on myocardium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in streptozotocin- induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. Methods: 48 male Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC+MCAo, STZ+IPreC, STZ+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo groups. We induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes, and performed IPreC 72 hours before transient MCAo. Remote myocardial injury was investigated histopathologically. Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) of myocardial tissue were measured by colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress index(OSI) was calculated as TOS-to-TAS ratio. For all statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: We observed serious damage including necrosis, congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in myocardial tissue of the diabetic and ischemic groups. In these groups TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher; TAS levels were lower than those of IPreC related groups (p < 0.05). IPreC had markedly improved histopathological alterations and increased TAS levels in IPreC+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo compared to MCAo and STZ+MCAo groups (p < 0.05). In non-diabetic rats, MCAo activated apoptotic cell death via increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. IPreC reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing pro-apoptotic proteins. Diabetes markedly increased apoptotic protein levels and the effect did not reversed by IPreC. Conclusions: We could suggest that IPreC attenuates myocardial injury via ameliorating histological findings, activating antioxidant mechanisms, and inducing antiapoptotic activity in diabetic rats.


Resumo Fundamentos: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto (IPreC) poderia fornecer efeito protetor de tecido em um local remoto por vias de sinalização anti-inflamatórias, neuronais e humorais. Objetivos: O objetivo do estudo foi investigar os possíveis efeitos protetores do IPreC remoto no miocárdio após a oclusão transitória da artéria cerebral média (MCAo) em ratos com diabetes induzida por estreptozotocina (STZ) e ratos não diabéticos. Métodos: 48 ratos Spraque Dawley machos foram divididos em oito grupos: grupos Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC + MCAo, STZ + IPreC, STZ + MCAo e STZ + IPreC + MCAo. Induzimos MCAo sete dias após a diabetes induzida por STZ e realizamos IPreC 72 horas antes do MCAo. A lesão miocárdica remota foi investigada histopatologicamente. Os níveis de proteína Bax, Bcl2 e caspase-3 foram medidos pela análise Western Blot. O estado de antioxidante total (TAS), e o estado de oxidação total (TOS) do tecido miocárdico foram medidos por meio de um estudo colorimétrico. O índice de estresse oxidativo (OSI) foi calculado como a relação TOS-TAS. Para todas as análises estatísticas, os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Observamos danos graves, incluindo necrose, congestão e infiltração de células mononucleares no tecido miocárdico dos grupos diabético e isquêmico. Nesses grupos os níveis de TOS e OSI foram significativamente maiores; os níveis de TAS foram inferiores aos dos grupos relacionados com IPreC (p < 0,05). O IPreC melhorou marcadamente as alterações histopatológicas e aumentou os níveis de TAS em IPreC + MCAo e STZ + IPreC + MCAo em comparação com os grupos MCAo e STZ + MCAo (p < 0,05). Em ratos não diabéticos, MCAo activou a morte celular apoptótica através do aumento da relação Bax / Bcl2 e dos níveis de caspase-3. IPreC reduziu a morte celular apoptótica pela supressão de proteínas pró-apoptóticas. O diabetes aumentou acentuadamente os níveis de proteína apoptótica e o efeito não foi revertido pelo IPreC. Conclusões: Podemos sugerir que o IPreC atenua a lesão miocárdica através da melhora dos achados histológicos, ativando mecanismos antioxidantes e induzindo atividade antiapoptótica em ratos diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Antioxidants/metabolism
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1683-1690, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886764

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique. The animals were monitored during surgery by pH and lactate levels. Transcription analysis of the pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzymes were performed by qRT-PCR, and glycogen quantification was determined enzymatically. Pyruvate kinase transcription increased during ischemia, followed by glycogen consumption content. The gluconeogenesis increased in control and ischemia moments, suggesting a relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. This result shows the significant contribution of these substrates in the organ energy supply and demonstrates the capacity of the heart to adapt the metabolism after this injury, sustaining the homeostasis during short-term myocardial ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Gluconeogenesis/physiology , Glycogen/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 339-347, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results: Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion: Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart.


Resumo Fundamentos: A doença arterial coronariana é duas a três vezes mais comum em indivíduos diabéticos. O nitrato/nitrito dietético tem efeitos benéficos tanto para o diabetes quanto para a doença cardiovascular, assim como efeitos protetores contra a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (IR) miocárdica em animais saudáveis. Porém, os efeitos do nitrato na lesão de IR miocárdica em ratos diabéticos ainda não foram investigados. Objetivos: Foram examinados os efeitos sobre a lesão de IR miocárdica da adição de nitrato à dieta de ratos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 induzido por estreptozotocina-nicotinamida. Métodos: Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 7 em cada grupo): controle, controle+nitrato, diabetes e diabetes+nitrato. O diabetes foi induzido nos animais por injeção de estreptozotocina e nicotinamida. Nitrato (nitrato de sódio) foi adicionado à água de beber (100 mg/L) por 2 meses. Os corações foram perfundidos em sistema de Langendorff aos 2 meses e avaliados antes (basal) e após IR miocárdica em relação aos seguintes parâmetros: pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), taxas máximas de variação positiva e negativa da pressão ventricular esquerda (±dP/dt), expressão do RNAm da óxido nítrico (NO) sintase (NOS) endotelial (eNOS) e da NOS induzível (iNOS), além de níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do óxido nítrico (NOx). Resultados: A recuperação da PDVE e ±dP/dt foi inferior nos ratos diabéticos versus controles, mas quase normalizou após ingestão de nitrato. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram expressão diminuída de eNOS e aumentada de iNOS tanto no estado basal quanto após IR, e o consumo dietético de nitrato restaurou estes valores para o estado normal após a IR. O nível de NOx cardíaco foi menor nos ratos diabéticos em comparação aos controles no momento basal, mas foi superior após a IR. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de MDA tanto no estado basal quanto após IR que, juntamente com os níveis cardíacos de NOx, reduziram após consumo dietético do nitrato. Conclusões: O consumo dietético de nitrato por ratos diabéticos ofereceu cardioproteção contra a lesão de IR através da regulação da expressão de eNOS e iNOS e inibição da peroxidação lipídica no coração.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Nitrates/therapeutic use , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Streptozocin , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hemodynamics , Malondialdehyde/analysis
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(1): 41-48, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771055

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sleep deprivation (SD) is strongly associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To determine the effect of SD on basal hemodynamic functions and tolerance to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in male rats. Method: SD was induced by using the flowerpot method for 4 days. Isolated hearts were perfused with Langendorff setup, and the following parameters were measured at baseline and after IR: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP); heart rate (HR); and the maximum rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt). Heart NOx level, infarct size and coronary flow CK-MB and LDH were measured after IR. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at start and end of study. Results: In the SD group, the baseline levels of LVDP (19%), +dp/dt (18%), and -dp/dt (21%) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, and HR (32%) was significantly higher compared to the controls. After ischemia, hearts from SD group displayed a significant increase in HR together with a low hemodynamic function recovery compared to the controls. In the SD group, NOx level in heart, coronary flow CK-MB and LDH and infarct size significantly increased after IR; also SD rats had higher SBP after 4 days. Conclusion: Hearts from SD rats had lower basal cardiac function and less tolerance to IR injury, which may be linked to an increase in NO production following IR.


Resumo Fundamento: A privação de sono (PS) acha-se fortemente associada a alto risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da PS nas funções hemodinâmicas basais e tolerância à lesão miocárdica de isquemia‑reperfusão (IR) em ratos machos. Métodos: A PS foi induzida com o método da plataforma única por 4 dias. Utilizou-se o modelo de perfusão de coração isolado de Langendorff, medindo-se os seguintes parâmetros nas condições basais e após IR: pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), frequência cardíaca (FC) e taxa máxima de aumento e redução da pressão do ventrículo esquerdo (±dp/dt). O nível cardíaco de NOx, o tamanho do infarto e os níveis de CK-MB e LDH no efluente coronário foram medidos após IR. A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) foi medida no início e no final do estudo. Resultados: No grupo PS, os valores basais de PDVE (19%), +dp/dt (18%) e-dp/dt (21%) foram significativamente mais baixos (p < 0,05), e a FC (32%) significativamente mais alta em comparação aos dos controles. Após isquemia, os corações do grupo PS apresentavam um significativo aumento da FC além de uma menor recuperação da função hemodinâmica em comparação aos dos controles. No grupo PS, os níveis de NOx no coração e de CK-MB e LDH no efluente coronário, além do tamanho do infarto, foram significativamente maiores após IR. O grupo PS também apresentou maior PAS após 4 dias. Conclusão: Os corações do grupo PS apresentaram menor função cardíaca basal e menor tolerância à lesão de IR, o que pode estar relacionado ao aumento da produção de NO após IR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Sleep Deprivation/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Sleep Deprivation/metabolism , Time Factors
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(1): 71-81, July 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755009

ABSTRACT

Background:

Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate.

Objective:

To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

Methods:

A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies.

Results:

The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review.

Conclusion:

On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions.

.

Fundamento:

O infarto agudo do miocárdio é a principal causa de mortalidade e de morbidade na população mundial. Por outro lado, pesquisas já demonstraram que o exercício físico, além de reduzir os fatores de risco cardiovascular, também é capaz de promover cardioproteção contra lesões por isquemia e reperfusão, por meio de um efeito direto no miocárdio. No entanto, o mecanismo específico envolvido no pré-condicionamento cardíaco induzido pelo exercício ainda é alvo de discussão.

Objetivo:

Realizar uma revisão sistemática acerca dos estudos que se debruçaram sobre os mecanismos pelos quais o exercício físico aeróbio promove cardioproteção direta contra lesões por isquemia e reperfusão.

Métodos:

Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO. Os dados foram extraídos de forma padronizada, por dois investigadores independentes, responsáveis pela avaliação da qualidade metodológica dos manuscritos.

Resultados:

A busca inicial resultou em 78 estudos, dos quais, após revisão dos resumos, 30 foram excluídos. Os 48 manuscritos restantes foram lidos na íntegra e, destes, 20 foram excluídos, restando 28 estudos incluídos nesta revisão sistemática.

Conclusão:

Com base nos estudos selecionados, os seguintes mecanismos estão potencialmente envolvidos na resposta cardioprotetora do exercício: aumento na produção de proteínas de choque térmico; envolvimento da via do óxido nítrico; aumento na capacidade antioxidativa cardíaca; melhora na função dos canais de potássio dependentes de ATP; e ativação do sistema de opióides. Apesar de todo o investimento já realizado, ainda é necessário mais investimento em trabalhos futuros, para obtenção de conclusão mais consistente.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise Therapy/methods , Exercise/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , KATP Channels/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Time Factors
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1248-1254, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659638

ABSTRACT

Little is known about age-related differences in short-term effects of estradiol on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) insults. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of short-term treatment with estradiol on reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated hearts of 6-7-week-old and 12-14-month-old female rats. Wistar rats were sham-operated, ovariectomized and treated with vehicle or ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol (E2; 5 µg·100 g-1·day-1) for 4 days. Hearts were perfused by the Langendorff technique. Reperfusion arrhythmias, i.e., ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation, were induced by 15 min of left coronary artery ligation and 30 min of reperfusion. The duration and incidence of I/R arrhythmias were significantly higher in young rats compared to middle-aged rats (arrhythmia severity index: 9.4 ± 1.0 vs 3.0 ± 0.3 arbitrary units, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, middle-aged rats showed lower heart rate, systolic tension and coronary flow. Four-day E2 treatment caused an increase in uterine weight. Although E2 administration had no significant effect on the duration of I/R arrhythmias in middle-aged rats, it induced a marked reduction in the rhythm disturbances of young rats accompanied by a decrease in heart rate of isolated hearts. Also, this reduction was associated with an increase in QT interval. No significant changes were observed in the QT interval of middle-aged E2-treated rats. These data demonstrate that short-term estradiol treatment protects against I/R arrhythmias in hearts of young female rats. The anti-arrhythmogenic effect of estradiol might be related to a lengthening of the QT interval.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Estradiol/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Age Factors , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Coronary Circulation/drug effects , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Electrocardiography , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
13.
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2009; 12 (1): 51-60
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91409

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the overall effect of cardiac vasoactive factors during coronary occlusion and reperfusion on peripheral vascular tone, using a sequential isolated rabbit heart-ear perfusion model. Isolated ears were perfused with the effluent of isolated hearts subjected to ischemia [30 min] and reperfusion [180 min, n=6]. The comparator groups consisted of a sham operated group [no ischemia, n=5] and the ears that were directly perfused with modified Krebs [n=10]. At the end of previous experiment, the perfusion mode of the sequentially perfused ears was converted to non-sequential perfusion with modified Krebs for 10 min and vice versa. In a separate experiment, samples collected from heart effluent during different stages of the first experiment were perfused to isolate stabilized ears [3 min; n=5] or hearts [1 min; n=5]. The possible effects of the samples on the tone of isolated femoral artery rings were also studied using an organ bath [n=5]. Coronary occlusion and reperfusion did not exert significant effects on the heart rate or the perfusion pressure of the sequentially perfused ears. The samples collected during different stages of ischemia and reperfusion did not affect the vascular tone in isolated ears or femoral artery rings either. The current study suggests that isolated heart, even following ischemia and reperfusion, does not release vasoactive substances in concentrations sufficient enough to affect peripheral resistance


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Agents , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Femoral Artery , Rabbits , Heart
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 75(3): 363-370, jul.-sep. 2005. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-631897

ABSTRACT

Para la biología de hoy las vías de señalización intracelular que controlan los procesos entre la vida y la muerte celular son de gran interés. Al respecto, el NF-κB destaca como un factor de transcripción decisivo de respuesta rápida que participa en la activación de las vías de señalización de la muerte celular programada. Lo relevante es que sus efectos tienen consecuencias en el desarrollo normal y/o la homeostasis en muchas células o tejidos, que incluyen entre otros al sistema inmune, los folículos capilares, apéndices epidermales, el riñon y el sistema nervioso. En esta revisión analizamos el papel central que juega el factor de transcripción NF-κB en el funcionamiento normal de la célula cardíaca y sus implicaciones en algunas de las patologías cardíacas más frecuentes como: el daño por isquemia-reperfusión, la isquemia precondicionada, la hipertrofia, la aterosclerosis, y el paro cardíaco. El NF-κB comúnmente funciona como un agente citoprotector, aunque hay algunos casos en los cuales resulta ser pro-apoptótico dependiendo del estímulo y del contexto celular. Se han logrado avances significativos a nivel molecular, que han permitido entender su modo de acción y el papel interactivo que juega con otros factores claves. Estos estudios han identificado muchos genes anti-apoptóticos y pro-apoptóticos regulados por la actividad del NF-κB abriendo novedosas aproximaciones que se pueden hacer sobre sus efectos en el desarrollo de patologías cardíacas.


The signaling pathways that control the life-death switch of a cell are a prime interest in Modern Biology. To this respect, NF-κB has emerged as a decisive transcription factor in the cell's response to apoptotic challenge and its effects on apoptosis have far-reaching consequences for normal development and/or homeostasis in many cells and tissues, including the immune system, hair follicles, and epidermal appendages, the liver, and nervous system. In this review we analyze the pivotal role of the transcription factor NF-κB in the normal functioning of the cardiac cell and its implication on some of the most frequent cardiac pathologies, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, ischemic precondition, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and cardiac arrest. While NF-κB is commonly found to be cytoprotective, there are a number of instances where it is proapoptotic depending on the inducing stimulus and the cell context. Significant progress has been made in understanding its mode of action and its interplay with other key factors. These studies identified many anti- and pro-apoptotic NF-κB regulated genes that mediate its activity, these important new insights fuel hope that novel approaches will be developed to control the effects of NF-κB in cardiac pathologies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rabbits , Rats , Apoptosis , Myocytes, Cardiac , NF-kappa B/physiology , Apoptosis/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Cardiomegaly/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Heart Arrest , Homeostasis , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Myocardial Infarction/genetics , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Myocardial Ischemia/pathology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , NF-kappa B/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Phenotype , Time Factors
15.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 74(4): 262-270, oct.-dic. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755670

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la acción de la trimetazidina en el deterioro de la función sistólica que se produce en el miocardio tras una isquemia única y prolongada. Métodos: Se analizaron 13 perros mestizos, de uno u otro sexo, asignados al azar a tratamiento oral con trimetazidina (6 perros) o placebo (7 perros) durante 7 días. Se realizó un protocolo de isquemia bajo anestesia consistente en una obstrucción completa de la arteria coronaria descendente anterior de 15 minutos de duración, seguida de 60 minutos de reperfusión. Las variables analizadas durante la obstrucción y la reperfusión fueron: Frecuencia cardíaca (FC), presión ventricular izquierda (PVI), dP/dt y las curvas de función regional de la zona isquémica y de una zona testigo (longitud telediastólica, telesistólica y fracción de acortamiento). Resultados: Las variables hemodinámicas (FC, PVI y dP/dt), no presentaron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos, con poca variabilidad de sus valores respecto a los basales durante la isquemia-reperfusión. La fracción de acortamiento de la zona isquémica experimentó una disminución estadísticamente significativa durante la obstrucción coronaria en ambas series, alcanzando valores de discinesia, con persistencia de la disfunción contráctil tras 60 minutos de reperfusión, y sin diferencias entre ambas series (50% serie Placebo; 41% serie Trimetazidina). Conclusiones: La recuperación de la contractilidad miocárdica tras una isquemia completa en la serie tratada con TMZ no mostró diferencias significativas respecto a la serie Placebo, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con períodos de oclusión más cortos y repetidos.


Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on myocardial systolic dysfunction resulting from an isolated episode of induced coronary ischemia. Methods: In a double-blinded randomized design we studied 13 mongrel anesthetized dogs of either sex (6 of them treated with oral TMZ previously). The anterior descending coronary artery was totally occluded during 15 minutes followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Global and regional cardiac variables were recorded in control and ischemic areas. Results: There were no significant differences between TMZ and placebo series with respect to global cardiac function variables. Both series showed no significant variations in global variables during the ischemia-reperfusion process. The shortening fraction in the ischemic area fell significantly during the ischemic period in both TMZ and placebo series reaching dyskinetic values. Myocardial contractility dysfunction persisted after 60 minutes of reperfusion in both series with no significant differences (41% vs 50% placebo). Conclusions: Contrary to shorter and repeated occlusion periods, myocardial contractility recovery after a complete episode of ischemia did not show significant differences between TMZ-treated and placebo series.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Myocardial Stunning/drug therapy , Trimetazidine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Coronary Circulation/drug effects , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hemodynamics/physiology , Models, Animal , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Stunning/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Random Allocation
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 73(4): 284-290, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-773408

ABSTRACT

En este artículo, se hacen algunas consideraciones en torno al daño miocárdico debido a déficit de aporte sanguíneo. En realidad, la alteración primordial del síndrome no consiste en la isquemia en sentido electrofisiopatológico, que es un trastorno de la repolarización celular debido a diferentes causas. Dicha alteración constituye más propiamente una despolarización diastólica parcial o lesión, i. e. una reducción moderada del potencial de reposo transmembrana. Caracteriza ésta la fase aguda del síndrome de infarto miocárdico y es responsable de las manifestaciones eléctricas, que aparecen en tal fase: desórdenes del ritmo y de la conducción, así como reducción de la contractilidad de las fibras miocárdicas afectadas. Estos fenómenos se deben a una falla de los mecanismos energéticos del miocardio por alteraciones mitocondriales de los miocitos: reducción temprana de los nucleótidos de nicotinamida adenina, acumulación de calcio ("calcium overload") en las mitocondrias y caída de la fosforilación oxidativa. Tales hechos pueden volver a presentarse, con mayor intensidad, en una fase posterior del síndrome de infarto por reperfusión miocárdica. Su gravedad está relacionada con la duración del período inicial de déficit de aporte sanguíneo al miocardio. Se les pueden agregar las consecuencias de un estrés oxidativo, responsable de la formación de especies reactivas derivadas del oxígeno. Dicho estrés causa daño también en el DNA mitocondrial produciendo mutaciones e inserción y pérdida de secuencias por oxidación de las bases nitrogenadas. Tanto en la fase de isquemia inicial como en la de reperfusión, puede ser muy útil la llamada terapéutica metabólica, p. ej. en su modalidad de las soluciones glucosa-insulina-potasio (G-I-K), que actuarían como acarreadoras de radicales libres derivados del oxígeno. Asimismo los llamados fármacos metabólicos, p. ej. la trimetazidina, los antioxidantes, etc., pueden ser útiles en la fase de reperfusión miocárdica.


In this article, we present some considerations on the myocardial damage due to a deficit of oxygen supply. In fact, this damage properly constitutes a partial diastolic depolarization or injury, i. e., a moderate reduction of the rest transmembrane potential. This phenomenon is characteristic of the acute phase of the myocardial infarction syndrome and is responsible for the main electrical manifestations appearing in this phase: disorders of rhythm and conduction, as well as a reduced contractility of the involved myocardial fibers. All the mentioned phenomena are due to a defect of the myocardial energetic mechanisms, owing to the mitochondrial alterations in myocytes: early reduction of the nicotinamide adenine nucleotides, accumulation of calcium ("calcium overload") into mitochondria, and a drop in oxidative phosphorylation. These changes can present again, more exaggerated, in a following phase of evolution of the myocardial infarction due to myocardial reperfusion. Its severity is related to the duration of the initial ischemia period. Moreover, consequences of the oxidative stress can add producing cellular damage by liberation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidant stress causes also alterations in the mitochondrial DNA, i. e., mutations due to oxidation of nitrogenous bases. During the initial ischemia phase, as well as during reperfusion, metabolic therapy can be very useful as, for example, glucose-insulin-potassium solutions (G-I-K). These could act as scavengers of the free radicals derived from oxygen and avoid or reduce the myocardial damage due to reperfused myocytes. Metabolic drugs, as for example tri-metazidine, antioxidants, etc, can also be used in the myocardial reperfusion phase. (Arch Cardiol Mex 2003; 73:284-290).


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Electrophysiology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Oxidative Stress
17.
West Indian med. j ; 49(4): 271-275, Dec. 2000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-333445

ABSTRACT

We developed an open-chest porcine model of acute coronary occlusion and surgical reperfusion, and attempted to prevent intra-operative ischaemic ventricular fibrillation (VF) by a Retrograde Intracoronary Glyceryl trinitrate (RIG) infusion into the occluded vessel. Five Yorkshire pigs (weight 50 +/- 1.1 kg), randomized into 3 groups, underwent median sternotomy under general anaesthesia. One pig (Group 1, control) underwent sternotomy and pericardiotomy only. Four pigs underwent acute left anterior descending (LAD) coronary occlusion. Two pigs were not reperfused (Group 2). Two pigs underwent surgical reperfusion (Group 3) via left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafting to the LAD using the Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass (OPCAB) technique. Ischaemic injury was assessed using 7-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic/epimyocardial echocardiography (ECHO). Group 1: transient intraoperative hypotension and VF occurred. Successful resuscitation and 10-week survival (until sacrifice) with normal left ventricular (LV) function was achieved. Group 2: there were ECG and ECHO evidence of acute LV ischaemic dysfunction in both pigs. The surviving pig had persistent anterior hypokinesis at 8 1/2 months. The other died intra-operatively following progressive ischaemic LV dysfunction despite resuscitative attempts. Group 3: the surviving pig had normal LV function at 8 months. Initial anterior LV akinesis normalized within 7 days. The other developed post-occlusion haemodynamic instability and died intra-operatively despite reperfusion. In this porcine model, acute LAD artery occlusion modified by the novel RIG infusion technique, followed by surgical reperfusion (OPCAB) is feasible. This model would facilitate further development of OPCAB surgical expertise and understanding of the pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis/methods , Coronary Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Swine , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Survival Analysis , Coronary Disease , Electrocardiography , Feasibility Studies , Myocardial Reperfusion , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-86714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Treatment with thrombolysis plays a crucial role in salvaging the myocardium in myocardial infarction (MI) patients, but reperfusion of ischaemic areas may itself be associated with reperfusion injury mediated by free radical induced oxidation. Hence the present study was planned to evaluate oxidative stress in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy during MI and to compare them with those not receiving thrombolysis. METHODS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) was used as a marker of lipid peroxidation in 30 patients after acute MI. Thirteen were treated by intravenous thrombolysis and 17 served as control. Also, vitamin E levels were estimated in these patients. RESULTS: Patients treated with thrombolysis showed a fall in vitamin E and increase in TBARS within first hours. The decrease in vitamin E was independent of a change in cholesterol. However, the levels were similar at 72 hours. CONCLUSION: The results indicate increased free radical production after MI and reperfusion also increases in free radical production and antioxidants may have a part in improving thrombolytic reperfusion of ischaemic myocardium.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cholesterol/blood , Female , Free Radicals , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Streptokinase/adverse effects , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Thrombolytic Therapy , Vitamin E/blood
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