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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1134-1144, dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350046


Resumo Fundamento A cardiopatia isquêmica atraiu muito atenção devido às altas taxas de mortalidade, custos do tratamento e a crescente morbidade na população jovem. Estratégias de reperfusão reduziram a mortalidade. Porém, a reperfusão pode levar à morte do cardiomiócito e subsequente dano irreversível ao miocárdio. No momento, não há um tratamento eficiente e direcionado para a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R). Objetivos Avaliar se a dexmedetomidina (DEX) tem efeito protetivo na I/R do miocárdio e explorar os possíveis mecanismos por trás dela. Métodos Corações de ratos foram perfundidos com o sistema de perfusão de Langendorff e aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco grupos: grupo controle, perfundido com solução de Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) por 205 minutos sem isquemia; e quatro grupos de teste que foram submetidos a 40 minutos de isquemia global e 120 minutos de reperfusão. O Grupo DEX, o grupo ioimbina (IO) e o grupo DEX + IO foram perfundidos com DEX (10 nM), IO (1 μM) ou a combinação de DEX e IO antes da reperfusão, respectivamente. A hemodinâmica cardíaca, o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e a histologia do miocárdio foram avaliados. A expressão da proteína-78 regulada pela glicose (GRP78), a proteína quinase do retículo endoplasmático (PERK), a PERK fosforilada, o fator de iniciação eucariótico 2α (eIF2α), eIF2α fosforilado, o fator de transcrição 4 (TCF-4) e a proteína homóloga à proteína ligadora do acentuador CCAAT (CHOP) foram avaliados. P< 0,05 foi considerado para indicar a diferença estatisticamente significativa. Resultados O pré-condicionamento com DEX melhorou a função cardíaca nos corações com I/R, reduziu o infarto do miocárdio, a apoptose do miocárdio e a expressão de GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, TCF-4 e CHOP. Conclusões O pré-tratamento com DEX reduziu a lesão de I/R no miocárdio ao suprimir a apoptose, o que foi induzido pela via PERK.

Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease has attracted much attention due to its high mortality rates, treatment costs and the increasing morbidity in the young population. Strategies for reperfusion have reduced mortality. However, reperfusion can lead to cardiomyocyte death and subsequent irreversible myocardial damage. At present, the timely and targeted treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is often lacking. Objectives To evaluate if dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a protective effect in myocardiual I/R and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Methods Rat hearts were perfused with a Langendorff perfusion system, and randomly assigned to five groups: control group, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution for 205 minutes without ischemia; and four test groups that underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The DEX group, the yohimbine (YOH) group and the DEX + YOH group were perfused with DEX (10 nM), YOH (1 μM) or the combination of DEX and YOH prior to reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hemodynamics, myocardial infarct size, and myocardial histology were evaluated. The expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylated PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were assessed. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results DEX preconditioning improved the cardiac function of I/R hearts, reduced myocardial infarction, myocardial apoptosis, and the expression of GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. Conclusions DEX pretreatment reduced myocardial I/R injury by suppressing apoptosis, which was induced by the PERK pathway.

Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury , Myocardial Ischemia , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
Acta cir. bras ; 36(2): e360207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152700


ABSTRACT Purpose The present study explored the influence of liraglutide on remote preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection in diabetes mellitus along with the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Methods Streptozotocin was given to rats to induce diabetes mellitus and rats were kept for eight weeks. Four cycles of ischemia and reperfusion were given to hind limb to induce remote preconditioning. After 24 h, hearts were isolated and subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion on Langendorff system. Liraglutide was administered along with remote preconditioning. Cardiac injury was assessed by measuring the release of creatine kinase (CK-MB), cardiac troponin (cTnT) and development of left ventricular developed pressure. After ischemia-reperfusion, hearts were homogenized to measure the nuclear cytoplasmic ratio of Nrf2, H2S and HIF-1α levels. Results In diabetic rats, there was more pronounced injury and the cardioprotective effects of remote preconditioning were not observed. Administration of liraglutide restored the cardioprotective effects of remote preconditioning in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, liraglutide increased the Nrf2, H2S and HIF-1α levels in remote preconditioning-subjected diabetic rats. Conclusions Liraglutide restores the lost cardioprotective effects of remote preconditioning in diabetes by increasing the expression of Nrf2, H2S and HIF-1α.

Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction , Signal Transduction , Rats, Wistar , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Liraglutide/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000107, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088521


Abstract Purpose Patients with diabetes are vulnerable to myocardial I/R (ischaemia/reperfusion) injury, but are not responsive to IPO (ischaemic post-conditioning). We hypothesized that decreased cardiac Adiponectin (APN) is responsible for the loss of diabetic heart sensitivity to IPO cardioprotecton. Methods Diabetic rats were subjected to I/R injury (30 min of LAD occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion). Myocardial infarct area was determined by TTC staining. Cardiac function was monitored by a microcatheter. ANP, 15-F2t-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine and MDA were measured by assay kits. Levels of p-Akt, total-Akt and GAPDH were determined by Western Blot. Results Diabetic rats subjected to myocardial IR exhibited severe myocardial infarction and oxidative stress injury, lower APN in the plasma and cardiac p-Akt expression ( P <0.05). IPO significantly attenuated myocardial injury and up-regulated plasma APN content and cardiac p-Akt expression in non-diabetic rats but not in diabetic rats. Linear correlation analysis showed that the expression of adiponectin was positively correlated with p-Akt and negatively correlated with myocardial infarction area ( P <0.01). Conclusion Protective effect of IPO was tightly correlated with the expression of adiponectin, exacerbation of I/R injury and ineffectiveness of IPO was partially due to the decline of adiponectin and inactivation of Akt in diabetes mellitus.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Adiponectin/therapeutic use , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Blood Glucose/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
Acta cir. bras ; 35(9): e202000906, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130682


Abstract Purpose: The current study explored the involvement of neurogenic pathway-linked cholecystokinin (CCK) release in RIP-induced cardioprotection in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to four cycles of alternate episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (five min each) to induce RIP. Thereafter, the hearts were subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion ex vivo. The myocardial damage was assessed by quantifying the levels of heartspecific biochemicals i.e. LDH-1, CK-MB and cTnT. Apoptotic cell injury was assessed by measuring the levels of caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The levels of CCK were measured in the plasma following RIP. Results: Exposure to RIP significantly increased the plasma levels of CCK and attenuated IR-induced myocardial injury. Administration of CCK antagonist, proglumide significantly attenuated RIP-induced cardioprotection. Administration of hexamethonium, a ganglion blocker, abolished RIP-induced increase in plasma CCK levels and cardioprotective effects. Exogenous delivery of CCK-8 restored the effects of RIP in hexamethonium treated animals. Conclusion: RIP activates the neurogenic pathway that may increase the plasma levels of CCK, which may act on the heart-localized CCK receptors to produce cardioprotection against I/R injury.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Myocardial Infarction , Cholecystokinin , Rats, Wistar , Creatine Kinase , Hindlimb
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901104, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054677


Abstract Purpose: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (Ml/R) injury is a leading cause of damage in cardiac tissues, with high rates of mortality and disability. Biochanin A (BCA) is a main constituent of Trifolium pratense L. This study was intended to explore the effect of BCA on Ml/R injury and explore the potential mechanism. Methods: In vivo MI/R injury was established by transient coronary ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC) was used to measure myocardial infarct size. ELISA assay was employed to evaluate the levels of myocardial enzyme and inflammatory cytokines. Western blot assay was conducted to detect related protein levels in myocardial tissues. Results: BCA significantly ameliorated myocardial infarction area, reduced the release of myocardial enzyme levels including aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). It also decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in serum of Ml/R rats. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that BCA inhibited inflammatory reaction through blocking TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Conclusion: The present study is the first evidence demonstrating that BCA attenuated Ml/R injury through suppressing TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway-mediated anti-inflammation pathway.

Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Genistein/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatine Kinase/blood , Lactate Dehydrogenases/blood , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 517-524, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042055


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin C on cardiac reperfusion injury and plasma levels of creatine kinase-muscle/brain (CK-MB), troponin I, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: This is a double-blind randomized clinical trial study. Fifty patients (50-80 years old) who had CABG surgery were selected. The intervention group received 5 g of intravenous vitamin C before anesthesia induction and 5 g of vitamin C in cardioplegic solution. The control group received the same amount of placebo (normal saline). Arterial blood samples were taken to determine the serum levels of CK-MB, troponin I, and LDH enzymes. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured and hemodynamic parameters were recorded at intervals. Results: High doses of vitamin C in the treatment group led to improvement of ventricular function (ejection fraction [EF]) and low Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay. The cardiac enzymes level in the vitamin C group was lower than in the control group. These changes were not significant between the groups in different time intervals (anesthesia induction, end of bypass, 6 h after surgery, and 24 h after surgery) for CK-MB, LDH, and troponin I. Hemodynamic parameters, hematocrit, potassium, urinary output, blood transfusion, arrhythmia, and inotropic support showed no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Vitamin C has significantly improved the patients' ventricular function (EF) 72 h after surgery and reduced the length of ICU stay. No significant changes in cardiac biomarkers, including CK-MB, troponin I, and LDH, were seen over time in each group. IRCT code: IRCT2016053019470N33

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/blood , Double-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Function/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Troponin I/blood , Creatine Kinase, BB Form/blood , Creatine Kinase, MM Form/blood , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 32-37, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973843


Abstract Background: Whole body vibration training (WBV) is a new training program, which is safe and effective. It can be followed by the public. However, data on the safety and efficacy of vibration on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury are lacking. Objective: To examine the effect of WBV on the tolerance of the myocardium to acute IR injury in an experimental rat model. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into control and vibration groups. Vibration training consisted of vertical sinusoidal whole body vibration for 30 min per day, 6 days per week, for 1 or 3 weeks (WBV1 and WBV3 groups, respectively). All the rats were submitted to myocardial IR injury. Myocardial infarct size and ischemia-induced arrhythmias were assessed. Differences between variables were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: No differences were observed between the groups regarding the baseline hemodynamic parameters. Infarct size was smaller in the experimental group (control, 47 ± 2%; WBV1, 39 ± 2%; WBV3, 37 ± 2%; p < 0.05, vs. control). Vibration produced a significant decrease in the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes compared to the control value. All ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes in the vibration groups were self-limited, while 33% of the rats in the control group died due to irreversible VF (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The data showed that vibration training significantly increased cardiac tolerance to IR injury in rats, as evidenced by reduction in the infarct size and cardiac arrhythmias, and by facilitating spontaneous defibrillation.

Resumo Fundamento: O treinamento com vibração de corpo inteiro (WBV) é um novo programa de treinamento seguro e eficaz, e pode ser seguido pelo público. No entanto, dados sobre a segurança e eficácia da vibração na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão (IR) do miocárdio estão em falta. Objetivo: Examinar o efeito da WBV na tolerância do miocárdio à lesão aguda por IR em um modelo experimental em ratos. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 2 grupos: controle e vibração. O treino de vibração consistiu em vibração sinusoidal vertical de corpo inteiro durante 30 min por dia, 6 dias por semana, durante 1 ou 3 semanas (grupos WBV1 e WBV3, respectivamente). Todos os ratos foram submetidos a lesão por IR do miocárdio. O tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e as arritmias induzidas por isquemia foram avaliados. As diferenças entre as variáveis foram consideradas significativas quando p < 0,05. Resultados: Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos em relação aos parâmetros hemodinâmicos basais. O tamanho do infarto foi menor no grupo experimental (controle, 47 ± 2%; WBV1, 39 ± 2%; WBV3, 37 ± 2%; p < 0,05, vs. controle). A vibração produziu uma diminuição significativa no número e duração das taquicardia ventriculares (TV) em comparação com o valor de controle. Todos os episódios de fibrilação ventricular (FV) nos grupos de vibração foram autolimitados, enquanto 33% dos ratos do grupo controle morreram devido a FV irreversível (p = 0,02). Conclusão: Os dados mostraram que o treinamento com vibração de corpo inteiro aumentou significativamente a tolerância cardíaca à lesão de IR em ratos, como evidenciado pela redução do tamanho do infarto e arritmias cardíacas, e pela facilitação da desfibrilação espontânea.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Vibration/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Fibrillation/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Hemodynamics
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900708, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038121


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of astragaloside IV (As-IV) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats and reltaed mechanisms. Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, control I/R and 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg As-IV groups, 12 rats in each group. The later three groups were intragastrically administered with As-IV for 7 days, with a dose of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The myocardial I/R injury model was constructed in later four groups. At the end of reperfusion, the cardiac function indexes, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, heart weight (HW)/body weight (BW) ratio and infarct size, and expressions of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine-threonine protein kinase (PI3K/AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) proteins and the phosphorylated forms (p-AKT, p-GSK-3β) were determined. Results: Compared with control I/R group, in 5 and 10 mg/kg As-IV groups the left ventricular systolic pressure, fractional shortening and ejection fraction were increased, the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was decreased, the serum LDH and CK levels were decreased, the HW/BW ratio and myocardial infarct size were decreased, and the p-Akt/Akt ratio and p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β ratio were increased (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: As-IV can alleviate the myocardial I/R injury in rats through regulating PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathways.

Animals , Male , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1067-1077, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973486


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of alprostadil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by 24h reperfusion. Alprostadil (4 or 8 μg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of reperfusion and myocardial infarct size, levels of troponin T, and the activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum were measured. Antioxidative parameters, nitric oxide (NO) content and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (p-eNOS) expression in the left ventricles were also measured. Histopathological examinations of the left ventricles were also performed. Results: Alprostadil treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum troponin T levels, and CK-MB and LDH activity (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with alprostadil significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) and markedly reduced myonecrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P<0.05), NO level (P<0.01) and p-eNOS (P<0.05) were significantly increased in rats treated with alprostadil compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that alprostadil protects against myocardial I/R injury and that these protective effects are achieved, at least in part, via the promotion of antioxidant activity and activation of eNOS.

Animals , Male , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Troponin T/drug effects , Troponin T/blood , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 588-596, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949370


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (preIC) and postconditioning (postIC) in animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: Adult rats were submitted to protocol of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and randomized into three experimental groups: cardiac I/R (n=33), preCI + cardiac I/R (n=7) and postCI + cardiac I/R (n=8). After this I/R protocol, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) was evaluated using the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. Results: After reestablishment of coronary blood flow, we observed variations of the ECG trace with increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) (85%), atrioventricular block (AVB) (79%), and increase of lethality (70%) in cardiac I/R group. The comparison between I/R + preIC group with I/R group demonstrated significant reduction in VA incidence to 28%, AVB to 0% and lethality to 14%. The comparison of I/R + postIC group with I/R group was observed significance reduction in AVB incidence to 25% and lethality to 25%. Conclusion: The preconditioning strategies produce cardioprotection more efficient that postconditioning against myocardial dysfunctions and lethality by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion.

Animals , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Time Factors , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Block/prevention & control
Acta cir. bras ; 33(6): 524-532, June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949352


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate in vivo animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion the cardioprotective activity of pancreatic lipase inhibitor of the orlistat. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation and underwent surgery to induce cardiac I/R by obstructing left descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion to evaluation of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) with pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat (ORL). At the end of reperfusion, blood samples were collected for determination of triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). Results: Treatment with ORL has been able to decrease the incidence of VA, AVB and LET. Besides that, treatment with ORL reduced serum concentrations of CK and LDL, but did not alter the levels of serum concentration of TG, VLDL and HDL. Conclusion: The reduction of ventricular arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, and lethality and serum levels of creatine kinase produced by treatment with orlistat in animal model of cardiac isquemia/reperfusion injury suggest that ORL could be used as an efficient cardioprotective therapeutic strategy to attenuate myocardial damage related to acute myocardial infarction.

Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Lactones/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Triglycerides/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/blood , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Creatine Kinase/blood , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/prevention & control , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Lipoproteins, VLDL/blood , Myocardial Infarction/blood
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 258-264, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958409


Abstract Objective: The injury-reducing effect of acetaminophen, an effective analgesic and antipyretic on ischemia-reperfusion continues to attract great attention. This study analyzed the protective effect of acetaminophen on myocardial injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in an experimental animal model from lower extremity ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomized into three groups (n=8) as (i) control group (only laparotomy), (ii) aortic ischemia-reperfusion group (60 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion) and (iii) ischemia-reperfusion + acetaminophen group (15 mg/kg/h intravenous acetaminophen infusion starting 15 minutes before the end of the ischemic period and lasting till the end of the reperfusion period). Sternotomy was performed in all groups at the end of the reperfusion period and the heart was removed for histopathological examination. The removed hearts were histopathologically investigated for myocytolysis, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration, myofibrillar edema and focal hemorrhage. Results: The results of histopathological examination showed that acetaminophen was detected to particularly diminish focal hemorrhage and myofibrillar edema in the ischemia-reperfusion + acetaminophen group (P<0.001, P=0.011), while there were no effects on myocytolysis and PMNL infiltration between the groups (P=1.000, P=0.124). Conclusion: Acetaminophen is considered to have cardioprotective effect in rats, by reducing myocardial injury induced by abdominal aortic ischemia-reperfusion.

Humans , Animals , Female , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/pathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Constriction , Disease Models, Animal , Edema, Cardiac/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Ischemia/blood , Myofibrils/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(1): 22-30, Jan. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886251


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of dexmedetomidine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: IRI group (group IR) and dexmedetomidine group (group D). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax, and t-dp/dtmax were recorded and calculated at the following time points: before (T0) and after (T1) dexmedetomidine infusion, after 30-min ischemia (T2), and after 120-min reperfusion (T3). The levels of plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and platelet activating factor (PAF); area of myocardial infarction (MI); and no-reflow area were evaluated. Results: SBP, DBP, LVSP, LVEDP, LVDP, and +dp/dtmax at T3 were higher in group D than in group IR (P<0.05). The average no-reflow area in group IR was significantly smaller than that in group D (14±3% vs. 38±5%, P=0.0116). The ET-1, TXA2, and PAF levels at T2 and T3 were higher than those at T0 in both groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine could reduce the magnitude of ischemic myocardial no-reflow area and protect the myocardium with ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Reference Values , Thromboxane A2/blood , Platelet Activating Factor/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endothelin-1/blood , Disease Models, Animal , No-Reflow Phenomenon/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(1): 44-51, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887998


Resumo Background: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland that is indicated to effectively prevent myocardial reperfusion injury. It is unclear whether melatonin protects cardiac function from reperfusion injury by modulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. Objective: Demonstrate that melatonin protect against myocardial reperfusion injury through modulating IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1 in cardiomyocytes. Methods: In vitro experiments were performed using H9C2 cells undergoing simulative hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induction. Expression level of ERK1, IP3R and SERCA2a were assessed by Western Blots. Cardiomyocytes apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. Phalloidin-staining was used to assess alteration of actin filament organization of cardiomyocytes. Fura-2 /AM was used to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Performing in vivo experiments, myocardial expression of IP3R and SERCA2a were detected by immunofluorescence staining using myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) model in rats. Results: In vitro results showed that melatonin induces ERK1 activation in cardiomyocytes against H/R which was inhibited by PD98059 (ERK1 inhibitor). The results showed melatonin inhibit apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and improve actin filament organization in cardiomyocytes against H/R, because both could be reversed by PD98059. Melatonin was showed to reduce calcium overload, further to inhibit IP3R expression and promote SERCA2a expression via ERK1 pathway in cardiomyocytes against H/R. Melatonin induced lower IP3R and higher SERCA2a expression in myocardium that were reversed by PD98059. Conclusion: melatonin-induced cardioprotection against reperfusion injury is at least partly through modulation of IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1.

Resumo Fundamento: A melatonina é um hormônio neuroendócrino sintetizado principalmente pela glândula pineal que é indicado para prevenir efetivamente a lesão de reperfusão miocárdica. Não está claro se a melatonina protege a função cardíaca da lesão de reperfusão através da modulação da homeostase do cálcio intracelular. Objetivo: Demonstrar que a melatonina protege contra a lesão de reperfusão miocárdica através da modulação de IP3R e SERCA para manter a homeostase de cálcio por meio da ativação de ERK1 em cardiomiócitos. Métodos: Foram realizados experimentos in vitro usando células H9C2 submetidas a indução de hipoxia / reoxigenação simulada (H/R). O nível de expressão de ERK1, IP3R e SERCA foi avaliado por Western Blots. A apoptose de cardiomiócitos foi detectada por TUNEL. A coloração de faloidina foi utilizada para avaliar a alteração da organização de filamentos de actina dos cardiomiócitos. Fura-2 / AM foi utilizado para medir a concentração intracelular de Ca2+. Realizando experiências in vivo, a expressão miocárdica de IP3R e SERCA foi detectada por coloração com imunofluorescência usando modelo de isquemia miocárdica / reperfusão (I/R) em ratos. Resultados: resultados in vitro mostraram que a melatonina induz a ativação de ERK1 em cardiomiócitos contra H/R que foi inibida por PD98059 (inibidor de ERK1). Os resultados mostraram que a melatonina inibe a apoptose dos cardiomiócitos e melhora a organização do filamento de actina em cardiomiócitos contra H/R, pois ambas poderiam ser revertidas pela PD98059. A melatonina mostrou reduzir a sobrecarga de cálcio, além de inibir a expressão de IP3R e promover a expressão de SERCA através da via ERK1 em cardiomiócitos contra H/R. A melatonina induziu menor IP3R e maior expressão de SERCA no miocárdio que foram revertidas pela PD98059. Conclusão: a cardioproteção induzida pela melatonina contra lesão de reperfusão é pelo menos parcialmente através da modulação de IP3R e SERCA para manter a homeostase de cálcio intracelular via ativação de ERK1.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/drug effects , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 516-526, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887983


Abstract Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) could provide tissue-protective effect at a remote site by anti-inflammatory, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of remote IPreC on myocardium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in streptozotocin- induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. Methods: 48 male Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC+MCAo, STZ+IPreC, STZ+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo groups. We induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes, and performed IPreC 72 hours before transient MCAo. Remote myocardial injury was investigated histopathologically. Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) of myocardial tissue were measured by colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress index(OSI) was calculated as TOS-to-TAS ratio. For all statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: We observed serious damage including necrosis, congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in myocardial tissue of the diabetic and ischemic groups. In these groups TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher; TAS levels were lower than those of IPreC related groups (p < 0.05). IPreC had markedly improved histopathological alterations and increased TAS levels in IPreC+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo compared to MCAo and STZ+MCAo groups (p < 0.05). In non-diabetic rats, MCAo activated apoptotic cell death via increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. IPreC reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing pro-apoptotic proteins. Diabetes markedly increased apoptotic protein levels and the effect did not reversed by IPreC. Conclusions: We could suggest that IPreC attenuates myocardial injury via ameliorating histological findings, activating antioxidant mechanisms, and inducing antiapoptotic activity in diabetic rats.

Resumo Fundamentos: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto (IPreC) poderia fornecer efeito protetor de tecido em um local remoto por vias de sinalização anti-inflamatórias, neuronais e humorais. Objetivos: O objetivo do estudo foi investigar os possíveis efeitos protetores do IPreC remoto no miocárdio após a oclusão transitória da artéria cerebral média (MCAo) em ratos com diabetes induzida por estreptozotocina (STZ) e ratos não diabéticos. Métodos: 48 ratos Spraque Dawley machos foram divididos em oito grupos: grupos Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC + MCAo, STZ + IPreC, STZ + MCAo e STZ + IPreC + MCAo. Induzimos MCAo sete dias após a diabetes induzida por STZ e realizamos IPreC 72 horas antes do MCAo. A lesão miocárdica remota foi investigada histopatologicamente. Os níveis de proteína Bax, Bcl2 e caspase-3 foram medidos pela análise Western Blot. O estado de antioxidante total (TAS), e o estado de oxidação total (TOS) do tecido miocárdico foram medidos por meio de um estudo colorimétrico. O índice de estresse oxidativo (OSI) foi calculado como a relação TOS-TAS. Para todas as análises estatísticas, os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Observamos danos graves, incluindo necrose, congestão e infiltração de células mononucleares no tecido miocárdico dos grupos diabético e isquêmico. Nesses grupos os níveis de TOS e OSI foram significativamente maiores; os níveis de TAS foram inferiores aos dos grupos relacionados com IPreC (p < 0,05). O IPreC melhorou marcadamente as alterações histopatológicas e aumentou os níveis de TAS em IPreC + MCAo e STZ + IPreC + MCAo em comparação com os grupos MCAo e STZ + MCAo (p < 0,05). Em ratos não diabéticos, MCAo activou a morte celular apoptótica através do aumento da relação Bax / Bcl2 e dos níveis de caspase-3. IPreC reduziu a morte celular apoptótica pela supressão de proteínas pró-apoptóticas. O diabetes aumentou acentuadamente os níveis de proteína apoptótica e o efeito não foi revertido pelo IPreC. Conclusões: Podemos sugerir que o IPreC atenua a lesão miocárdica através da melhora dos achados histológicos, ativando mecanismos antioxidantes e induzindo atividade antiapoptótica em ratos diabéticos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Antioxidants/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 443-451, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838732


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. Various studies have suggested a protective effect of lactation in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the vulnerability of the myocardium to an ischemic insult. Methods: Eighteen female rats were randomly divided into three groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR), in which the hearts of virgin rats underwent IR (n = 6); lactating, in which the rats nursed their pups for 3 weeks and the maternal hearts were then submitted to IR (n = 6); and non-lactating, in which the pups were separated after birth and the maternal hearts were submitted to IR (n = 6). Outcome measures included heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), rate pressure product (RPP), ratio of the infarct size to the area at risk (IS/AAR %), and ventricular arrhythmias - premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Results: The IS/AAR was markedly decreased in the lactating group when compared with the non-lactating group (13.2 ± 2.5 versus 39.7 ± 3.5, p < 0.001) and the IR group (13.2 ± 2.5 versus 34.0 ± 4.7, p < 0.05). The evaluation of IR-induced ventricular arrhythmias indicated that the number of compound PVCs during ischemia, and the number and duration of VTs during ischemia and in the first 5 minutes of reperfusion in the non-lactating group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in the lactating and IR groups. Conclusion: Lactation induced early-onset cardioprotective effects, while rats that were not allowed to nurse their pups were more susceptible to myocardial IR injury.

Resumo Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de mortalidade e invalidez a longo prazo a nível mundial. Diversos estudos têm sugerido um efeito protetor da lactação na redução do risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da gestação e da lactação sobre a vulnerabilidade do miocárdio ao insulto isquêmico. Métodos: Dezoito ratas foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos: isquemia-reperfusão (IR), no qual os corações de ratas virgens foram submetidos à IR (n = 6); lactantes, no qual as ratas amamentaram seus filhotes por 3 semanas e os corações maternos foram, em seguida, submetidos à IR (n = 6); e não lactantes, no qual os filhotes foram separados após o nascimento e os corações maternos foram submetidos à IR (n = 6). As medidas de desfecho incluíram frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), duplo produto (DP), razão do tamanho do infarto sobre a área sob risco (TI/ASR %) e arritmias ventriculares - contração ventricular prematura (CVP) e taquicardia ventricular (TV). Resultados: O TI/ASR foi substancialmente menor no grupo de lactantes quando comparado ao grupo de não lactantes (13,2 ± 2,5 versus 39,7 ± 3,5, p < 0,001) e ao grupo IR (13,2 ± 2,5 versus 34,0 ± 4,7, p < 0,05). A avaliação das arritmias ventriculares induzidas pela IR indicou que o número de CVPs compostas na isquemia, e o número e a duração das TVs na isquemia e nos primeiros 5 minutos de reperfusão no grupo de não lactantes foram significativamente (p < 0,05) mais elevados do que os encontrados nos grupos IR e de lactantes. Conclusão: A lactação induziu o aparecimento precoce de efeitos cardioprotetores, enquanto ratas que não foram permitidas a amamentar seus filhotes se mostraram mais suscetíveis à lesão miocárdica por IR.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Lactation , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Ischemia/rehabilitation , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ventricular Pressure/physiology , Models, Animal , Heart Rate/physiology , Myocardial Contraction/physiology
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 376-387, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837712


Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether modulating GSK-3β could attenuate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) induced acute lung injury (ALI) and analyze the underlying mechanism. Methods: Male SD rats were subjected to MIRI with or without myocardial ischemic post-conditioning in the presence or absence of GSK-3β inhibitor. GSK-3β inhibitor was injected peritoneally 10min before MIRI. Lung W/D weight ratio, MPO, PMNs, histopathological changes, TUNEL, Bax, Bcl-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GSK-3β, and caspase-3 were evaluated in the lung tissues of all rats. Results: After MIRI, lung injury was significantly increased manifested as significant morphological changes and increased leukocytes in the interstitial capillaries, Lung W/D ratio, MPO, and PMN in BALF, which was associated with enhanced inflammation evidenced by increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8 and reduced expression of IL-10. MIRI significantly increased cell apoptosis in the lung as increased levels of apoptotosis, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and reduced expression of Bcl-2 was observed, which was concomitant with reduced p-GSK-3β. All these changes were reversed/prevented by ischemic post-conditioning, while these beneficial effects of ischemic post-conditioning were abolished by GSK-3β inhibition. Conclusion: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury induces acute lung injury by induction of inflammation and cell apoptosis. Ischemic post-conditioning protects the lung from ALI following MIRI by increasing p-GSK-3β.

Animals , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Protective Agents/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation , Interleukins/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Protective Agents/pharmacology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/enzymology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Inflammation/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neutrophils/enzymology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(2): e5286, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839258


We aimed to study the effect of fentanyl (Fen) preconditioning on cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. A total of 120 Sprague Dawley male rats (age: 3 months) were randomly divided into: sham operation group (S group), I/R group, normal saline I/R group (NS group), and fentanyl low, middle, and high dose groups (Fen1: 2 μg/kg; Fen2: 4 μg/kg; Fen3: 6 μg/kg). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), ±dp/dtmax, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) were measured. Myocardial ischemic (MI) area, total apoptotic myocardial cells, and protein and mRNA expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax were detected. HR and MAP were higher, while LVDP and ±dp/dtmax were close to the base value in the Fen groups compared to those in the I/R group. Decreased MDA concentration and CK-MB value and increased SOD activity were found in the Fen groups compared to the I/R group, while cTnI concentration was significantly lower in the Fen1 and Fen2 groups (all P<0.05). Myocardial damage was less in the Fen groups compared to the I/R group and the MI areas and apoptotic indexes were significantly lower in the Fen1 and Fen2 groups (all P<0.05). Furthermore, significantly increased protein and mRNA expressions of Bcl-2, and decreased protein and mRNA expressions of Bax were found in the Fen groups compared to the I/R group (all P<0.05). Fentanyl preconditioning may suppress cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by I/R in rats by regulating Bcl-2 and Bax.

Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 339-347, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827852


Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results: Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion: Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart.

Resumo Fundamentos: A doença arterial coronariana é duas a três vezes mais comum em indivíduos diabéticos. O nitrato/nitrito dietético tem efeitos benéficos tanto para o diabetes quanto para a doença cardiovascular, assim como efeitos protetores contra a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (IR) miocárdica em animais saudáveis. Porém, os efeitos do nitrato na lesão de IR miocárdica em ratos diabéticos ainda não foram investigados. Objetivos: Foram examinados os efeitos sobre a lesão de IR miocárdica da adição de nitrato à dieta de ratos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 induzido por estreptozotocina-nicotinamida. Métodos: Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 7 em cada grupo): controle, controle+nitrato, diabetes e diabetes+nitrato. O diabetes foi induzido nos animais por injeção de estreptozotocina e nicotinamida. Nitrato (nitrato de sódio) foi adicionado à água de beber (100 mg/L) por 2 meses. Os corações foram perfundidos em sistema de Langendorff aos 2 meses e avaliados antes (basal) e após IR miocárdica em relação aos seguintes parâmetros: pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), taxas máximas de variação positiva e negativa da pressão ventricular esquerda (±dP/dt), expressão do RNAm da óxido nítrico (NO) sintase (NOS) endotelial (eNOS) e da NOS induzível (iNOS), além de níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do óxido nítrico (NOx). Resultados: A recuperação da PDVE e ±dP/dt foi inferior nos ratos diabéticos versus controles, mas quase normalizou após ingestão de nitrato. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram expressão diminuída de eNOS e aumentada de iNOS tanto no estado basal quanto após IR, e o consumo dietético de nitrato restaurou estes valores para o estado normal após a IR. O nível de NOx cardíaco foi menor nos ratos diabéticos em comparação aos controles no momento basal, mas foi superior após a IR. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de MDA tanto no estado basal quanto após IR que, juntamente com os níveis cardíacos de NOx, reduziram após consumo dietético do nitrato. Conclusões: O consumo dietético de nitrato por ratos diabéticos ofereceu cardioproteção contra a lesão de IR através da regulação da expressão de eNOS e iNOS e inibição da peroxidação lipídica no coração.

Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Nitrates/therapeutic use , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Streptozocin , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hemodynamics , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 154-162, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794564


Abstract Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) represents an attractive therapy for myocardial protection, particularly when ischemic events can be anticipated. Although several hypothetic mechanisms have been proposed, no definite molecular pathways have been elucidated. Objective: We evaluated the effect of brachial circulation cuff occlusion on myocardial ischemic tolerance, necrosis, and nitric oxide (NO) in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Methods: 46 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: control and RIPC before PCI procedures. Electrocardiographic analysis, serum concentrations of troponin I (cTn-I) were measured at baseline and 24 hours after PCI. A blood sample from the atherosclerotic plaque was drawn to determine nitrate and nitrites. Results: RIPC increased the availability of NO in the stented coronary artery. Control patients presented a small but significant increase in cTn-I, whilst it remained unchanged in preconditioned group. The preconditioning maneuver not only preserved but also enhanced the sum of R waves. Conclusions: RIPC induced an intracoronary increase of NO levels associated with a decrease in myocardial damage (measured as no increase in cTn-I) with electrocardiographic increases in the sum of R waves, suggesting an improved myocardium after elective PCI.

Resumo Fundamento: Pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto (PCIR) é uma terapia para proteção miocárdica, em particular quando é possível prever eventos isquêmicos. Embora vários mecanismos hipotéticos tenham sido propostos, nenhuma via molecular definitiva foi elucidada. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da oclusão da circulação braquial com manguito sobre a tolerância à isquemia miocárdica, a necrose miocárdica e a biodisponibilidade de óxido nítrico (NO) em pacientes com cardiopatia isquêmica submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea (ICP) eletiva. Métodos: 46 pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: controle e PCIR antes da ICP. Análise eletrocardiográfica e medidas da concentração sérica de troponina I (cTn-I) foram realizadas na condição basal e 24 horas após ICP. Coletou-se amostra de sangue da placa aterosclerótica para determinar os níveis de nitratos e nitritos. Resultados: O PCIR aumentou a disponibilidade de NO na artéria coronária que recebeu o stent. O grupo controle apresentou um aumento pequeno, mas significativo, da cTn-I, que permaneceu inalterada no grupo pré-condicionado. O pré-condicionamento não só preservou, como melhorou o somatório de ondas R no eletrocardiograma. Conclusões: O PCIR induziu aumento intracoronariano dos níveis de NO associado com redução do dano miocárdico (medido como aumento da cTn-I) e com aumento do somatório de ondas R, sugerindo melhora miocárdica após ICP eletiva.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Troponin I/blood , Creatinine/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/blood