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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305

ABSTRACT

Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice


Subject(s)
Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Health Strategies , Thrombectomy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Electrocardiography/methods , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Ischemic Postconditioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Myocardial Revascularization
2.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.921-927, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353766
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 569-579, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249969

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: México tiene la mortalidad más alta a 30 días por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), el cual constituye una de las principales causas de mortalidad en el país: 28 % versus 7.5 % del promedio de los países de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. Objetivo: Establecer las rutas críticas y las estrategias farmacológicas esenciales interinstitucionales para la atención de los pacientes con IAM en México, independientemente de su condición socioeconómica. Método: Se reunió a un grupo de expertos en diagnóstico y tratamiento de IAM, representantes de las principales instituciones públicas de salud de México, así como las sociedades cardiológicas mexicanas, Cruz Roja Mexicana y representantes de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología, con la finalidad de optimizar las estrategias con base en la mejor evidencia existente. Resultados: Se diseñó una guía de práctica clínica interinstitucional para el diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento oportuno del IAM con elevación del segmento ST, siguiendo el horizonte clínico de la enfermedad, con la propuesta de algoritmos que mejoren el pronóstico de los pacientes que acuden por IAM a los servicios de urgencias. Conclusión: Con la presente guía práctica, el grupo de expertos propone universalizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento en el IAM, independientemente de la condición socioeconómica del paciente.


Abstract Introduction: Mexico has the highest 30-day acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rate: 28% versus 7.5% on average for the OECD countries, and it constitutes one of the main causes of mortality in the country. Objective: To establish critical pathways and essential interinstitutional pharmacological strategies for the care of patients with AMI in Mexico, regardless of their socioeconomic status. Method: A group of experts in AMI diagnosis and treatment, representatives of the main public health institutions in Mexico, as well as the Mexican cardiology societies, the Mexican Red Cross and representatives of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, were brought together in order to optimize strategies based on the best existing evidence. Results: An interinstitutional clinical practice guideline was designed for early diagnosis and timely treatment of AMI with ST elevation, following the clinical horizon of the disease, with the proposal of algorithms that improve the prognosis of patients who attend the emergency services due to an AMI. Conclusion: With these clinical practice guidelines, the group of experts proposes to universalize AMI diagnosis and treatment, regardless of patient socioeconomic status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Societies, Medical , Spain , Biomarkers/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Cause of Death , Electrocardiography , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Cardiac Rehabilitation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mexico
4.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(supl.1): 62-66, may. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152846

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las terapias de reperfusión, tales como intervención coronaria y fibrinólisis, son las principales medidas de atención en pacientes con síndromes coronarios agudos. La angioplastia primaria se considera el estándar de oro, sin embargo, en pacientes con infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), la estrategia de reperfusión más recomendada es la terapia fibrinolítica, debido al menor tiempo requerido para realizarla y menor exposición al agente infeccioso. Esta pandemia representa una problemática de contagio en el personal de salud, ya que los casos van en aumento a nivel mundial, por lo cual es importante conocer las medidas que se deben seguir a fin de evitar la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).


Abstract Reperfusion therapy is a measure of care in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which should be performed once we have the diagnosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the gold standard, however in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reperfusion strategy is more focused on fibrinolytic therapy due to the shorter time required to perform and less exposure. This pandemic represents a contact problem in health personnel, since cases are increasing worldwide, so it is important to know the measures that must be followed to avoid coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , COVID-19
5.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20190094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1130548

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Comparar desfechos clínicos de óbito, reinfarto e Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) em estudos primários que avaliaram o uso da Terapia Fibrinolítica (TF) em relação à Intervenção Coronariana Percutânea Primária (ICPP) para reperfusão miocárdica em pacientes com Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCST) no atendimento pré-hospitalar. Método: Revisão sistemática de literatura com busca realizada nas bases de dados CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS e Web of Science no período de outubro a dezembro de 2017. Foram incluídos Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados, disponíveis na íntegra, em qualquer idioma, sem recorte temporal. A avaliação da elegibilidade foi realizada em duas etapas e aplicada a Escala de Jadad para avaliação metodológica dos estudos encontrados. Resultados: Foram incluídos cinco Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados. A TF pré-hospitalar apresentou taxas de mortalidade em 30 dias após a intervenção semelhantes à ICPP, enquanto que em cinco anos foram encontrados valores menores para a TF. O tratamento instituído em um período menor que duas horas dos sintomas iniciais apresentou associação com a diminuição da mortalidade quando foi utilizada a TF. O reinfarto não-fatal, acidente vascular encefálico e a hemorragia intracraniana foram maiores quando utilizada a TF, enquanto que o choque cardiogênico apresentou menor frequência. Conclusão: A TF foi mais eficaz no tratamento pré-hospitalar para a redução dos óbitos após cinco anos, entretanto, o reinfarto e o AVE ocorreram de forma semelhante na amostra analisada. O fator tempo reduziu os desfechos clínicos, principalmente quando a terapia implementada ocorreu em até duas horas após a ocorrência do IAMCST. Assim, apesar das intervenções terem apresentado desfechos semelhantes, entretanto, a TF pode representar um tratamento viável em locais onde a ICPP não pode ser alcançada em tempo hábil.


Resumen Objetivo: Comparar resultados clínicos de fallecimiento, reinfarto y accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) en estudios primarios que analizaron el uso de la terapia fibrinolítica (TF) respecto a la intervención coronaria percutánea primaria (ICPP) para reperfusión miocárdica en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con supradesnivel del segmento ST (IAMCST) en la atención prehospitalaria. Método: Revisión sistemática de literatura con búsqueda realizada en las bases de datos CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS y Web of Science en el período de octubre a diciembre de 2017. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, con texto completo disponible, en cualquier idioma, sin recorte temporal. El análisis de elegibilidad se realizó en dos etapas y se aplicó la escala de Jadad para una evaluación metodológica de los estudios encontrados. Resultados: Se incluyeron cinco ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. La TF prehospitalaria presentó índices de mortalidad 30 días después de la intervención semejantes a la ICPP, mientras que en cinco años se encontraron valores menores en la TF. El tratamiento aplicado en un período menor a dos horas desde los síntomas iniciales presentó una relación con la reducción de la mortalidad cuando se utilizó la TF. Los reinfartos no fatales, los accidentes vasculares encefálicos y las hemorragias intracerebrales fueron mayores cuando se utilizó la TF, mientras que los choques cardiogénicos presentaron menor frecuencia. Conclusión: La TF fue más eficaz en el tratamiento prehospitalario para reducir los fallecimientos después de cinco años, sin embargo, los reinfartos y los AVE ocurrieron de forma semejante en la muestra analizada. El factor tiempo redujo los resultados clínicos, principalmente cuando la terapia implementada ocurrió hasta dos horas después del episodio del IAMCST. De esta forma, a pesar de que las intervenciones presentaron resultados semejantes, la TF puede representar un tratamiento viable en lugares donde la ICPP no puede realizarse a tiempo.


Abstract Objective: To compare clinical outcomes of death, reinfarction, and stroke in primary studies assessing Fibrinolytic Therapy (FT) use in relation to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) for myocardial reperfusion in patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in prehospital care. Method: A systematic literature review conducted in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases from October to December 2017. Randomized Clinical Trials, available in full, in any language, without temporal clipping were included. The eligibility assessment was carried out in two stages and applied to the Jadad Scale for methodological assessment of the studies found. Results: Five Randomized Clinical Trials were included. Prehospital FT presented mortality rates at 30 days after the intervention similar to PPCI, while in five years lower values were found for FT. The treatment instituted in a period of less than two hours of the initial symptoms was associated with the decrease in mortality when FT was used. Non-fatal reinfarction, stroke and intracranial hemorrhage were higher when FT was used, while cardiogenic shock showed lower frequency. Conclusion: FT was more effective in prehospital treatment to reduce deaths after five years, however, reinfarction and stroke occurred similarly in the sample analyzed. The time factor reduced clinical outcomes, especially when the implemented therapy occurred within two hours after the occurrence of STEMI. Thus, although the interventions presented similar outcomes. However, FT may represent a viable treatment in places where PPCI cannot be achieved in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 227-237, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002219

ABSTRACT

The knowledge on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is essential to reduce the gap between evidence and practice. Objective: To describe a simulation training strategy for emergency healthcare professionals and provide preliminary data on knowledge acquisition, learners' confidence and prescription of medications after training. Methods: The training was part of the implementation of two myocardial infarction systems of care. It comprehended lectures and simulation-based learning using high and low-fidelity mannequins and actors. It was tested in two phases: the first one in Belo Horizonte and the second one in Montes Claros, both in the state of Minas Gerais. A test was applied before and after training to assess knowledge acquisition. Confidence to perform thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients was assessed using a questionnaire, and the impact on medication prescription analyzed STEMI patients admitted to hospitals in Montes Claros. Results: In the first phase, 156 professionals answered both tests: 70% of them improved their results and the median number of right answers increased (6, interquartile range [IQR] 5-7; vs 7 ([IQR] 6-9; p < 0.05). In the second phase, 242 professionals answered both tests: 58% of the physicians and 83% of the nurses obtained better test scores. Participants referred a positive impact on their clinical practice, 95% reported feeling very secure when perform fibrinolysis after the training, and there was also an impact on medication prescription. Conclusions: There was an impact on the learners' knowledge acquisition and confidence using our two-phase training model, with evidence of impact on performance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Drug Prescriptions , Heparin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Telemedicine/methods , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services , Myocardial Infarction
7.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 46-53, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003637

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Chile, se han logrado avances importantes en el manejo del Infarto Agudo de Miocardio (IAM) con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST). Debido a la mejoría en el diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento, particularmente, con el incremento de la Angioplastía Primaria (APP), hoy están dadas las condiciones para seguir progresando por la vía de la combinación de estrategias de reperfusión y la creación de Redes de Manejo del IAM. El siguiente artículo revisa la evidencia que justifica impulsar dicho avance y se esbozan posibles caminos para lograrlo.


Abstract In Chile, important advances have been made in the management of Acute Myocardial Infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation (STEMI). Due to the progress in early diagnosis and treatment, particularly with the increase in Primary Angioplasty (Primary PCI), nowadays there are conditions to improve early management through the combination of reperfusion strategies and the implementation of MI reperfusion networks. The present article reviews the evidence justifying the promotion of this strategy and outlines possible actions to achieve it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Angioplasty/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Chile , Endovascular Procedures , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(1 (Supl)): 94-96, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015189

ABSTRACT

O eletrocardiograma (ECG) é fundamental na avaliação dos pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA), pois possibilita a identificação precoce dos pacientes com sinais de oclusão coronariana (infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST - IAMCSSST), que se beneficiam com estratégias de reperfusão miocárdica de emergência. Os casos de SCA sem supradesnivelamento de segmento ST pressupõem ausência de oclusão coronariana, e o ECG pode mostrar sinais de isquemia como inversão simétrica de ondas T, infradesnivelamento de segmento ST, ou mesmo ser normal em até 15% dos casos. No entanto, recentemente foi descrito um padrão eletrocardiográfico raro, conhecido como padrão "De Winter", relacionado à oclusão coronariana aguda da artéria descendente anterior (ADA) em seu terço proximal, na ausência de supradesnivelamento de segmento ST. Este é o relato de um paciente jovem, do sexo masculino, com quadro clínico anginoso típico, menos de uma hora depois de angioplastia eletiva da ADA, que apresentou padrão "De Winter" no ECG e teve confirmada trombose aguda de stent. O reconhecimento desse padrão eletrocardiográfico incomum é fundamental para garantir terapia de reperfusão coronariana emergencial em casos de síndrome coronariana aguda


he electrocardiogram (ECG) is a crucial tool in the evaluation of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), since it allows the early identification of patients with signs of coronary occlusion (ST-elevation myocardial infarction ­ STEMI), who benefit from emergency myocardial reperfusion strategies. On the other hand, cases of non-ST-elevation ACS presumably have no coronary occlusion, and the ECG may show signs of ischemia such as symmetrical T-wave inversion, ST-segment depression, or even be normal in up to 15% of cases. However, a rare ECG pattern, known as the "De Winter" pattern, related to an acute occlusion of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery in its proximal third segment, has been recently described without ST-segment elevation. This is a case report of a young male patient with typical chest pain symptoms less than one hour after an elective LAD angioplasty, who presented with "De Winter" pattern on the ECG and had confirmed acute stent thrombosis. The recognition of this unusual electrocardiographic pattern is essential to guarantee emergency coronary reperfusion therapy in cases of acute coronary syndrome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Electrocardiography/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Coronary Occlusion , Thrombosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Stents , Angioplasty/methods , Myocardial Infarction
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 20-29, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction attending primary care centers, treated with pharmaco-invasive strategy, are submitted to coronary angiography within 2-24 hours of fibrinolytic treatment. In this context, the knowledge about biomarkers of reperfusion, such as 50% ST-segment resolution is crucial. Objective: To evaluate the performance of QT interval dispersion in addition to other classical criteria, as an early marker of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy. Methods: Observational study including 104 patients treated with tenecteplase (TNK), referred for a tertiary hospital. Electrocardiographic analysis consisted of measurements of the QT interval and QT dispersion in the 12 leads or in the ST-segment elevation area prior to and 60 minutes after TNK administration. All patients underwent angiography, with determination of TIMI flow and Blush grade in the culprit artery. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: We found an increase in regional dispersion of the QT interval, corrected for heart rate (regional QTcD) 60 minutes after thrombolysis (p = 0.06) in anterior wall infarction in patients with TIMI flow 3 and Blush grade 3 [T3B3(+)]. When regional QTcD was added to the electrocardiographic criteria for reperfusion (i.e., > 50% ST-segment resolution), the area under the curve increased to 0.87 [(0.78-0.96). 95% IC. p < 0.001] in patients with coronary flow of T3B3(+). In patients with ST-segment resolution >50% and regional QTcD > 13 ms, we found a 93% sensitivity and 71% specificity for reperfusion in T3B3(+), and 6% of patients with successful reperfusion were reclassified. Conclusion: Our data suggest that regional QTcD is a promising non-invasive instrument for detection of reperfusion in the culprit artery 60 minutes after thrombolysis.


Resumo Fundamento: Pacientes com infarto do miocárdico com elevação do segmento-ST atendidos em centros de atendimento primário e tratados de acordo com a estratégia fármaco-invasiva são submetidos à fibrinólise seguida de coronariografia em período de 2-24h. Neste cenário, o conhecimento de marcadores de reperfusão como a redução em 50% do segmento-ST é fundamental. Objetivo: Analisar o desempenho da dispersão do intervalo QT em adição aos critérios clássicos, como marcador precoce de reperfusão pós-terapia trombolítica. Métodos: Estudo observacional com a inclusão de 104 pacientes tratados com tenecteplase (TNKase) e referenciados a hospital de atendimento terciário. A análise dos eletrocardiogramas (ECG) consistiu em mensuração do intervalo QT e sua dispersão nas 12 derivações, e também apenas na região com supradesnivelamento-ST antes e 60min pós-TNKase. A angiografia foi realizada em todos os pacientes com obtenção do fluxo TIMI e Blush da artéria culpada. Foram considerados significantes valores de p < 0,05. Resultados: Observamos aumento da dispersão do intervalo QT, corrigido pela frequência cardíaca, regional (dQTcR) 60min pós-lise (p = 0,006) em infartos de parede anterior nos casos com fluxo TIMI 3 e Blush 3 [T3B3(+)]. Adicionando a dQTcR ao critério ECG (redução do ST > 50%) de reperfusão, a área sob a curva aumentou para 0,87 [(0,78-0,96), IC95%, p < 0,001] em pacientes com fluxo coronário T3B3(+). Nos pacientes com critério de ECG para reperfusão e dQTcR > 13 ms a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 93% e 71%, respectivamente, para reperfusão em T3B3(+), possibilitando reclassificar 6% dos pacientes com sucesso de reperfusão. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem a dQTcR como instrumento promissor na identificação não invasiva de reperfusão na artéria coronária culpada, 60min pós-trombólise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Tenecteplase/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Tenecteplase/adverse effects
10.
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.156-164.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009286
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914765

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce mortality of acute myocardial infarction, medical care must be provided within the first hours of the event. Objective: To identify the "front door" to medical care of acute coronary patients and the time elapsed between patients'admission and performance of myocardial reperfusion in the public health system of the city of Joinville, Brazil. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 112 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction by coronary angiography. We identified the place of the first medical contact and calculated the time between admission to this place and admission to the referral hospital, as well as the time until coronary angiography, with or without percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. A descriptive analysis of data was made using mean and standard deviation, and a p < 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Only 16 (14.3%) patients were admitted through the cardiology referral unit. Door-to-angiography time was shorter than 90 minutes in 50 (44.2%) patients and longer than 270 minutes in 39 (34.5%) patients. No statistically significant difference was observed in door-to-angiography time between patients transported directly to the referral hospital and those transferred from other health units (p < 0.240). Considering the time between pain onset and angiography, only 3 (2.9%) patients may have benefited from myocardial reperfusion performed within less than 240 minutes. Conclusion: Management of patients with acute myocardial infarction is not in conformity with current guidelines for the treatment of this condition. The structure of the healthcare system should be urgently modified so that users in need of emergency services receive adequate care in accordance with local conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Failure to Rescue, Health Care , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Therapeutics/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Critical Pathways/trends , Death, Sudden/prevention & control , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospital Care/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Unified Health System
13.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(4): 409-420, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970540

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente, o infarto agudo do miocárdio, são responsáveis pela primeira causa de óbito em nosso país. Baseando-se em sua fisiopatogenia e nos fatores de risco envolvidos, a taxa de mortalidade, em 30 dias, varia de 3-5% em centros avançados e quase 30% naqueles cujo atendimento não aplicam as diretrizes recomendadas. Tal mudança dependerá de um aprimoramento organizacional com ações educativas para o paciente, profissionais do setor de emergência e plena sintonia com os gestores do sistema de saúde público ou privado. A angioplastia primária é o tratamento padrão-ouro da reperfusão miocárdica, porém, disponível apenas em 15% dos hospitais. Em geral, o setor público carece dessa disponibilidade, sendo a estratégia fármaco-invasivo-terapia fibrinolítica seguida da transferência precoce para angioplastia ­a recomendada. O diagnóstico baseia-se em critérios eletrocardiográficos, porém, nem sempre há médicos habilitados para tal confirmação. Isso retarda o tratamento e compromete bastante os resultados. A disponibilidade da telemedicina ou teleECG permite que profissionais mesmo à distância possam corroborar com o diagnóstico, orientar o tratamento e obter métricas de qualidade e mortalidade. A rápida identificação do paciente com sinais e sintomas de infarto agudo, diagnóstico imediato no ECG e administração do fibrinolítico não devem ultrapassar 20 minutos. São minutos dependentes da prévia organização que salvam vidas! O tratamento fibrinolítico é a realidade para um país com dimensões continentais e sérias limitações logísticas de transporte. Compete aos gestores de saúde disponibilizá-lo a qualquer hora ou momento para o atendimento do paciente infartado


Cardiovascular events, especially acute myocardial infarction, are the main cause of death in our country. In addition to its physiopathogenesis and the involved risk factors, the 30-day mortality rates vary from 3% to 5% in advanced centers and 30% in those where care does not apply the recommended guidelines. Such change will depend on organizational improvement, as well as patient education, professionals in the emergency department, and harmony with agents in the public or private health system. Primary angioplasty is the gold standard treatment for myocardial reperfusion, but is only available in 15% of hospitals. If it is not available in the public sector, a pharmacoinvasive strategy ­ fibrinolytic therapy followed by patient transfer for angioplasty ­ has been recommended. Diagnosis is based on ECG criteria, but there is a shortage of physicians qualified for such confirmation. This delays the treatment and compromises the results. Telemedicine or teleECG allows distant professionals to corroborate with the diagnosis, guide the treatment, and obtain quality and mortality metrics. The rapid identification of patients with signs and symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, immediate diagnosis on ECG, and fibrinolytic administration should not exceed 20 min. They are life-saving minutes dependent on prior organization. Fibrinoly-tic treatment is the reality for a country with continental dimensions and transport logistic limitations. It is the responsibility of health managers to make them available to the care of patients with infarction


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Risk Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Vessels , Drug Therapy/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergencies , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemodynamics/physiology
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(4): 339-358, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910241

ABSTRACT

Com a criação do SUS, todos teriam acesso universal, integral e equânime à assistência de saúde de qualidade. Entretanto, existe grande lacuna de estudos escrutinizando o SUS no tocante à qualidade assistencial praticada. Esse fato é especialmente crítico para vítimas de infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST), sendo a responsividade do sistema e o uso da reperfusão em tempo hábil fatores cardinais para obtenção de melhores resultados. Descrever a metodologia empregada no Registro VICTIM que tem como objetivo caracterizar e comparar o acesso e o uso de terapias efetivas e desfechos entre os pacientes com IAMCSST usuários do SUS e do sistema privado atendidos nos hospitais com capacidade de realizar angioplastia em Sergipe, tentanto identificar e mensurar eventuais disparidades na qualidade da assistência.O Registro VICTIM é um estudo observacional, iniciado em dezembro de 2014, e ainda em fase de coleta, com a intenção de investigar a epidemiologia do IAMCSST em Sergipe, os cursos temporal e geográfico dos pacientes até sua admissão em uma instituição com capacidade de realizar angioplastia, uso de terapias de reperfusão, qualidade assistencial recebida durante a linha de cuidado, bem como a mortalidade de 30 dias, comparando-se os resultados obtidos pela população usuária do SUS e do sistema privado.O registro VICTIM é um esforço interinstitucional para identificar oportunidades de melhoria na linha de cuidado para IAMCSST de usuários do SUS e do sistema privado. Com isso, espera-se municiar os gestores públicos de informações técnicas que embasem novas políticas de saúde mais eficientes e equânimes


The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) was created to ensure universal, integral and equitable access to quality healthcare to Brazilians. However, studies scrutinizing the quality of the healthcare provided by the SUS are scarce. This is especially critical for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who depend on healthcare system responsiveness and timely reperfusion to achieve better outcomes. To describe the methodology of the VICTIM Registry aimed at characterizing and comparing the access to effective therapies and the outcomes of patients with STEMI, who use the SUS and the private healthcare system at hospitals capable of performing angioplasty in Sergipe. In addition, that registry aimed at identifying and measuring possible disparities in the quality of the care provided. The VICTIM Registry is an observational study, launched in December 2014, being still in the data collection phase, to investigate: the epidemiology of STEMI in Sergipe, the temporal and geographic courses of the patients up to their admission to one of the hospitals capable of performing angioplasty, the reperfusion therapy rates, the quality of the healthcare provided during the event, and the 30-day mortality. It compares the results obtained in the SUS with those of the private healthcare system. The VICTIM Registry is an interinstitutional effort to identify opportunities for healthcare improvement for SUS and private healthcare system patients with STEMI. It is expected to provide healthcare managers with information to support new, more efficient and equitable healthcare policies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Therapy , Healthcare Disparities , Health Facilities, Proprietary , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Unified Health System , Private Health Care Coverage , Health Systems , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , /methods , /methods , Public Health , Data Collection/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Hospitals, Special
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 211-216, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The present study aimed the functional recovery evaluation after long term of cardiac arrest induced by Custodiol (crystalloid-based) versus del Nido (blood-based) solutions, both added lidocaine and pinacidil as cardioplegic agents. Experiments were performed in isolated rat heart perfusion models. Methods: Male rat heart perfusions, according to Langendorff technique, were induced to cause 3 hours of cardiac arrest with a single dose. The hearts were assigned to one of the following three groups: (I) control; (II) Custodiol-LP; and (III) del Nido-LP. They were evaluated after ischemia throughout 90 minutes of reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility function was reported as percentage of recovery, expressed by developed pressure, maximum dP/dt, minimum dP/dt, and rate pressure product variables. In addition, coronary resistance and myocardial injury marker by alpha-fodrin degradation were also evaluated. Results: At 90 minutes of reperfusion, both solutions had superior left ventricular contractile recovery function than the control group. Del Nido-LP was superior to Custodiol-LP in maximum dP/dt (46%±8 vs. 67%±7, P<0.05) and minimum dP/dt (31%±4 vs. 51%±9, P<0.05) variables. Coronary resistance was lower in del Nido-LP group than in Custodiol-LP (395%±50 vs. 307%±13, P<0.05), as well as alpha-fodrin degradation, with lower levels in del Nido-LP group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Del Nido-LP cardioplegia showed higher functional recovery after 3 hours of ischemia. The analysis of alpha-fodrin degradation showed del Nido-LP solution provided greater protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Potassium Compounds/pharmacology , Pinacidil/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Cardioplegic Solutions/chemistry , Carrier Proteins/analysis , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/chemistry , Heart/drug effects , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mannitol/chemistry , Microfilament Proteins/analysis
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 403-412, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142150

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar las características epidemiológicas, el tratamiento, las estrategias de reperfusión y los eventos adversos intrahospitalarios de pacientes con infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en Perú. Métodos: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, multicéntrico a nivel nacional, en pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con diagnóstico de infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Resultados: Desde febrero de 2016 a febrero de 2017, 396 pacientes fueron enrolados; la edad promedio fue de 64.9 ± 12 años y el 21% eran mujeres. En las primeras 12 h de evolución un 38% fueron fibrinolisados, en un 29% se realizó PCI primaria y un 33% no recibieron reperfusión. En el 12.9% se usó estrategia farmacoinvasiva. La tasa de éxito de la fibrinólisis fue de un 65% y la de la PCI primaria fue de un 82%. La estancia hospitalaria fue de 6 días (RIQ 5-10). La mortalidad intrahospitalaria llegó a un 10.1%, siendo la principal causa de muerte el choque cardiogénico. La tasa de reinfarto intrahospitalario fue de 2.2% y de falla cardiaca postinfarto, de 25%. La edad > 75 años, grandes tamaños de infarto, la fracción de eyección de ventrículo izquierdo < 40% y la ausencia de ondas T negativas en el electrocardiograma posreperfusión fueron variables relacionadas de manera independiente con una mayor mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Conclusiones: El infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en Perú afecta con más frecuencia a varones de entre 60 y 70 años. El tratamiento de reperfusión inicial más frecuente es la fibrinólisis, seguida por la angioplastia primaria y la estrategia farmacoinvasiva. El motivo principal de la falta de administración de tratamiento de reperfusión fue la demora desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el primer contacto médico. La causa más frecuente de muerte intrahospitalaria es el choque cardiogénico.


Abstract Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics, treatment, reperfusion strategies and in-hospital adverse events of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction in Peru. Methods: Observational, prospective multicentre study in patients over 18 years admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Results: A total of 396 patients were enrolled in the registry during February 2016 to February 2017. The mean age was 64.9 ± 12 years, and 21% were women. In the first 12 h of onset 38% of patients were fibrinolysed, 29% underwent primary PCI, and 33% did not receive any reperfusion. Pharmaco-invasive strategy was used in 12.9% of cases. The fibrinolysis was successful in 65% of patients, and primary PCI success was 82%. The hospital stay was 6 days (IQR 5-10). In-hospital mortality was 10.1%, with the first cause of death being due to cardiogenic shock. The rate of in-hospital re-infarction was 2.2%, and the rate of acute heart failure was 25%. Age > 75 years, large infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%, and absence of negative T waves on post-reperfusion electrocardiogram were independently related to higher in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: In Peru, ST elevation myocardial infarction most frequently affects men between 60-70 years. The most frequent initial reperfusion treatment is fibrinolysis, followed by primary angioplasty, and pharmaco-invasive strategy. The main reason for the lack of administration of reperfusion treatment was the delay from symptoms onset to first medical contact. The most common cause of in-hospital death was cardiogenic shock.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Peru , Registries , Prospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Electrocardiography
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(5): 358-364, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894500

ABSTRACT

La reperfusión mecánica simple (RMS) es la lograda en la angioplastia primaria al atravesar la oclusión en la arteria responsable de infarto con la guía intracoronaria. Para evaluar los determinantes de la RMS, su implicación en el pronóstico y su relación con la histopatología del trombo rescatado, fueron analizados los casos de 601 pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST y oclusión total de la arteria responsable de infarto (flujo TIMI 0). Se consideraron dos grupos según la presencia de RMS, definida por la visualización de contraste distal a la lesión luego de atravesarla con la guía intracoronaria. Se realizó el análisis histopatológico de los trombos en un subgrupo de 160 pacientes tratados con tromboaspiración. En 303 (50.4%) pacientes se obtuvo RMS. La RMS se asoció a menor ventana al tratamiento (248 vs. 286 minutos, p = 0.001), menor deterioro de la función sistólica ventricular izquierda inicial y shock al ingreso (9.2 vs.16.4%, p = 0.008), mayor tasa de éxito (94.7 vs. 78.5%, p < 0.0001) y de rescate de trombos (70/81 vs. 27/79 pacientes, p < 0.0001). La arteria responsable de infarto más frecuente fue la coronaria derecha. La RMS se asoció con menor tamaño del trombo, menor concentración de leucocitos y eritrocitos y mayor contenido de células inflamatorias, cristales de colesterol y colágeno provenientes de la placa. La RMS es un predictor independiente de éxito y su relación con la anatomía del trombo podría redefinir la indicación de la tromboaspiración.


Simple mechanical reperfusion (SMR) is defined as reperfusion achieved after wire insertion at the occluded infarct-related artery in primary angioplasty. The determinants and prognostic implications of SMR and its relationship with the histopathology of the rescued thrombus were evaluated in 601 patients with acute myocardial infarction showing ST elevation and pre-procedural total occlusion of the infarct-related artery (TIMI flow 0). Two groups were considered according to the presence of SMR, defined as the visualization of contrast material after crossing the occlusion with the guide wire. SMR was achieved in 303 patients (50.4%) and was found to be associated with less time to treatment (248 vs. 286 minutes; p = 0.001), less deteriorated initial left ventricular function and shock at admission (9.2 vs. 16.4%; p = 0.008), higher successful rate (94.7% vs. 78.5%; p < 0,0001) and of higher rate of thrombus rescue: 70/81 vs. 27/79 patients (p < 0.0001). The right coronary artery was the most frequent infarct-related artery. Histopathology of the retrieved thrombi was available for 160 patients treated with thrombus aspiration. SMR was associated with smaller thrombus, lower contents of leukocytes and erythrocytes, and higher thrombus content of inflammatory cells, cholesterol and collagen crystals from the atheromatous plaque. SMR is an independent predictor of procedure success and its relationship with the anatomy of the thrombus could redefine the indication of thrombus aspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Thrombosis/surgery , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Prognosis , Coronary Thrombosis/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 171-176, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897903

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether aortic tension estimated by palpation and cardioplegia infusion line pressure provide results equivalent to those obtained with direct aortic intraluminal pressure measurement. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgeries with extracorporeal circulation were analyzed. Sanguineous cardioplegic solution in a ratio of 4:1 was administered using a triple lumen antegrade cannula. After crossclamping, cardioplegia was infused and aortic root pressure was recorded by surgeon (A) considering the aortic tension he felt in his fingertips. At the same time, another surgeon (B) recorded his results for the same measurement. Concomitantly, the anesthesiologist recorded intraluminal pressure in the aortic root and the perfusionist recorded delta pressure in cardioplegia infusion line. None of the participants involved in these measurements was allowed to be informed about the values provided by the other examiners. Results: The Bland-Altman test showed that a considerable variation between aortic wall tension was found as measured by palpation and by intraluminal pressure, with a bias of -9.911±18.75% (95% limits of agreement: -46.7 to 26.9). No strong correlation was observed between intraluminal pressure and cardioplegia line pressure (Spearman's r=0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.7; P<0.0001). Conclusion: These findings reinforce that cardioplegia infusion should be controlled by measuring intraluminal pressure, and that palpation and cardioplegia line pressure are inaccurate methods, the latter should always be used to complement intraluminal measurement to ensure greater safety in handling the cardioplegia circuit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aorta/physiology , Venous Pressure/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Aorta/surgery , Palpation , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cardioplegic Solutions , Body Mass Index , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(2): 134-140, abr.-jun.2016. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-796518

ABSTRACT

O tratamento da síndrome coronariana aguda obteve expressiva redução da mortalidade graças ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos e da angioplastia coronariana primária. Entretanto, apesar desta terapêutica ser eficiente e oferecer resultados adequados no tratamento do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), o choque cardiogênico ainda ocorre em 5 a 10% dos casos e continua a ser a principal causa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Portanto, temos um desfecho clínico insatisfatório neste grupo de pacientes com prognóstico reservado a curto e longo prazo. O balão intra-aórtico, embora empregado de forma rotineira no tratamento do choque cardiogênico refratário, apresenta benefícios limitados e não apresenta impacto no prognóstico destes pacientes, como demonstrado em ensaios randomizados recentes. Os sistemas de suporte de vida extracorpóreo (ECLS) são considerados dispositivos eficazes para o tratamento do choque cardiogênico refratário no IAM, uma vez que oferecem fluxo sanguíneo adequado e são instalados rapidamente pela canulação de vasos periféricos. Deste modo, permitem a tomada de decisões médicas para a realização de intervenções diagnósticas e terapêuticas – ponte para decisão – para tratamento da causa clínica e anatômica, com resultados clínicos consistentes e encorajadores para autilização deste tipo de tecnologia...


The treatment of acute coronary syndrome has achieved a significant reduction in mortality, thanks to the development of new drugs and primary coronary angioplasty. However, although this therapy is efficient and offers adequate results in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiogenic shock still occurs in 5% to 10% of cases, and continues to be the main cause of intra hospital mortality. Therefore, we have an unsatisfactory clinical outcome in this group of patients, with a reserved prognosis in the short and long terms.The intra-aortic balloon pump, although used routinely in the treatment of refractory cardiogenic shock, has limited benefits and does not have any impact on patient prognosis, as demonstrated in recent randomized trials. Extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS) are considered effective devices for the treatment of refractory cardiogenic shock in AMI, as they offer adequate blood flow and are rapidly installed through cannulation of the peripheral veins. They therefore enable medical decision-making for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions – decision-making bridge – for treatment of the clinical and anatomical cause, with consistent and encouraging clinical results for the use of this type of technology...


Subject(s)
Humans , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure, Systolic/diagnosis , Heart Failure, Systolic/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Angioplasty/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Prognosis , Drug Therapy/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Myocardial Revascularization
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(2): 86-92, abr.-jun.2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-796511

ABSTRACT

O infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível de ST é uma das emergências cardiológicas mais exigentes para o sistema de saúde de qualquer país; em lugaressubdesenvolvidos as dificuldades são evidentemente maiores. A necessidade de o paciente chamar socorro rápido (atendimento pré-hospitalar) ou procurar atendimento, usualmente em hospitais gerais, e ser identificado pela clínica e ECG, ocasiona grande perda de tempo e demora na reperfusão miocárdica. Se a estrutura de atendimento não está organizada para definir trombólise ou angioplastiaimediata (e há necessidade de transferência), uma ou outra necessitando ser utilizada o mais precocemente possível, ocorrem atrasos adicionais e o paciente é grandementeprejudicado, não só com aumento do número de óbitos, mas também com grande comprometimento de VE.A trombólise pré-hospitalar e um sistema de tele-ECG (no Brasil, a maioria dos atendimentos de urgência em casa ou nos prontos-socorros gerais são feitos por não cardiologistas, com dificuldades na interpretação do ECG) são elementos importantes queajudam de forma indiscutível a melhorar resultados no infarto com supradesnível, desde que inseridos em uma rede de atendimento de infarto em que todos têm função bem definida, da rapidez em reconhecer a clínica, fazer e interpretar o ECG, definir a forma de reperfusãoe se há ou não necessidade e condições de transporte imediato. Quando utilizados de forma organizada e sistemática, portanto, ambos contribuem para melhorar o resultado dequalquer sistema de atendimento do infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível de ST...


Myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation is one of the most demandingcardiological emergencies for the health system of any country; in underdeveloped countries, the difficulties are clearly even greater. The need for the patient to summon rapid first aid (pre-hospital care) or seek care,usually in general hospitals, and to be identified by the clinic and ECG, results in a significant loss of time and delay in myocardial reperfusion. If the emergency care structure is not organized to define thrombolysis or angioplasty immediately (and there is a need for transfer), with one or the other needing to be performed as early as possible, this can lead to additional delays, and the patient is placed at greater risk, not only due to theincrease in the number of deaths, but also due to significant impairment of LV.Pre-hospital thrombolysis and a tele-ECG system (in Brazil, most emergency care at home or in first aid departments is done by non-cardiologists, who have difficulty interpreting the ECG) are important procedures, which undeniably help to improve the results in cases of acute MI with ST segment elevation, provided they are included as part of anemergency care network for myocardial infarction in which everybody has a clearly-defined role, with rapid clinical recognition, performing and interpreting the ECG, defining the form of reperfusion, and whether or not the patient requires, or is in a fit condition for immediate transport. Therefore, when used in a systematic and organized way, both procedures canimprove the outcomes of any emergency care system for patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Prehospital Care/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Treatment Outcome , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods
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