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2.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 23(3)sept.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441492

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares isquémicas constituyen la primera causa de muerte en el mundo desarrollado o en vías de serlo, por encima de las oncológicas, de los accidentes del tránsito y de las enfermedades vásculo-cerebrales. El diagnóstico temprano de una lesión coronaria permite lograr la prevención del ataque isquémico agudo, y realizar el tratamiento revascularizador oportuno con evaluación de riesgo quirúrgico, que permita obtener cifras de morbimortalidad aceptables. Objetivo: Describir las características ultrasonográficas de las arterias carotídeas como riesgo de accidente cerebro-vascular en pacientes con revascularización miocárdica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal en 208 pacientes revascularizados del sector coronario, con estudio ultrasonográfico prequirúrgico de las arterias carotídeas como método predictivo de enfermedad vásculo-cerebral isquémica. Resultados: En 20 pacientes se presentaron síntomas cerebrales que se clasificaron en menores y mayores. Existió preponderancia de los menores y, entre ellos, de la agitación. Se evaluaron los factores de riesgo primarios y en las características de las placas ateroescleróticas se destacó el grado de irregularidad. Conclusiones: El estudio ultrasonográfico del árbol arterial carotídeo debe formar parte esencial del estudio predictivo del paciente que va a ser sometido a una revascularización coronaria(AU)


Introduction: Ischemic cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the developed world or in the process of becoming so, above oncological ones, traffic accidents and vascular-cerebral diseases. The early diagnosis of a coronary lesion allows to achieve the prevention of acute ischemic attack, and to perform the appropriate revascularization treatment with surgical risk assessment, which allows to obtain acceptable morbidity and mortality figures. Objective: To describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of carotid arteries as a risk of stroke in patients with myocardial revascularization. Methods: An observational, descriptive and longitudinal study was conducted in 208 coronary sector´s revascularized patients, with pre-surgical ultrasonographic study of the carotid arteries as a predictive method of ischemic cerebral vascular disease. Results: In 20 patients there were brain symptoms that were classified into minor and major. There was a predominance of minors and, among them, of agitation. The primary risk factors were evaluated and the degree of irregularity was highlighted in the characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: The ultrasonographic study of the carotid arterial tree should be an essential part of the predictive study of the patient who is undergoing coronary revascularization(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Aquichan ; 22(3): e2237, jul. 28, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382366

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and map learning needs and educational strategies for adult patients in the preoperative period of myocardial revascularization. Materials and method: Scoping review conducted between March and April 2021 in national and international databases to identify records published in scientific journals and gray literature, without period. Results: The selected sample consisted of 35 records, composed mostly of articles (32; 91.42 %) published from 1990 to 2021. The learning needs of patients before surgery were categorized into cardiovascular system and coronary artery disease; procedures and routines before, during, and after surgery. In addition, several educational strategies implemented in the studies were identified. Conclusions: The learning needs identified can contribute to planning and implementing patient-centered educational strategies before surgery.


Objetivo: identificar y mapear las necesidades de aprendizaje y estrategias educativas para pacientes adultos en el preoperatorio de revascularización miocárdica. Materiales y método: scoping review realizada entre marzo y abril de 2021 en bases de datos nacionales e internacionales para identificar registros publicados en periódicos científicos y en la literatura gris, sin recorte temporal. Resultados: la muestra se conformó de 35 registros, de los cuales 32 fueron artículos (91,42 %) publicados entre 1990 y 2021. Las necesidades de aprendizaje de los pacientes antes de la cirugía se categorizaron en sistema cardiovascular y enfermedad de las arterias coronarias; cuidados, procedimientos y rutinas antes, durante y después de la cirugía. Además, se identificaron diversas estrategias educativas implementadas en los diferentes contextos de los estudios. Conclusiones: las necesidades de aprendizaje identificadas pueden aportar a la planeación e implementación de estrategias educativas enfocadas en el paciente antes de la realización de la cirugía.


Objetivo: identificar e mapear as necessidades de aprendizagem e estratégias educacionais para pacientes adultos no pré-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio. Materiais e método: scoping review realizada entre março e abril de 2021, em bases de dados nacionais e internacionais para identificar registros publicados em periódicos científicos e na literatura cinzenta, sem recorte temporal. Resultados: a amostra selecionada foi de 35 registros, compostos, em sua maioria, de artigos (32; 91,42 %), publicados de 1990 a 2021. As necessidades de aprendizagem dos pacientes antes da cirurgia foram categorizadas em sistema cardiovascular e doença arterial coronariana; cuidados, procedimentos e rotinas antes, durante e após a cirurgia. Além disso, identificaram-se diversas estratégias educacionais implementadas nos diferentes contextos dos estudos. Conclusões: as necessidades de aprendizagem identificadas podem contribuir para o planejamento e a implementação de estratégias educacionais centradas no paciente antes da realização da cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Team , Patient Education as Topic , Preoperative Period , Myocardial Revascularization , Nursing
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305

ABSTRACT

Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice


Subject(s)
Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Health Strategies , Thrombectomy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Electrocardiography/methods , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Ischemic Postconditioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Myocardial Revascularization
5.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 14: e10999, 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1361338

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: classificar os pacientes segundo o risco de desenvolvimento de mediastinite no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Método: estudo observacional, transversal, realizado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pós-Operatória de um hospital universitário no interior paulista. Amostra consecutiva e não probabilística foi constituída por pacientes adultos, submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio. A coleta de dados foi realizada na alta da Terapia Intensiva, utilizando o Escore de Risco Multivariável para Mediastinite. Para a obtenção do escore foram realizadas análises estatística descritivas. Resultados: participaram do estudo 50 pacientes, 68% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 62,7 anos. Nenhum paciente foi reoperado ou apresentava doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica; 26,0% eram obesos; 12,0% apresentaram angina instável e 4,0% foram politransfundidos no pós-operatório. Segundo o escore, 58,0% apresentaram baixo e 42,0% médio risco de desenvolvimento de mediastinite. Conclusão: a maior parte dos pacientes apresentava baixo risco de desenvolvimento de mediastinite


Objective: to classify patients according to the risk of developing mediastinitis in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery. Method: observational, cross-sectional study, carried out in the Post-Operative Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo. Consecutive and non-probabilistic sample consisted of adult patients who underwent myocardial revascularization. Data collection was performed at discharge from the Intensive Care, using the Multivariable Risk Score for Mediastinitis. To obtain the score, descriptive statistical analyzes were performed. Results: the50 patients participated in the study, 68% were male, with a mean age of 62.7 years. No patient was reoperated or had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; 26.0% were obese; 12.0% had unstable angina and 4.0% were transfused in the postoperative period. According to the score, 58.0% had a low and 42.0% medium risk of developing mediastinitis. Conclusion: most patients were at low risk of developing mediastinitis


Objetivo: clasificar a los pacientes según el riesgo de desarrollar mediastinitis en el postoperatorio de cirugía de revascularización miocárdica. Método: estudio observacional, transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Posoperatorios de un hospital universitario del interior de São Paulo. La muestra consecutiva y no probabilística estuvo constituida por pacientes adultos sometidos a revascularización miocárdica. La recolección de datos se realizó al alta de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, utilizando el Multivariable Risk Score para Mediastinitis. Para obtener la puntuación se realizaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos. Resultados: participaron en el estudio 50 pacientes, el 68% eran varones, con una edad media de 62,7 años. Ningún paciente fue reintervenido ni presentó enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica; El 26,0% eran obesos; El 12,0% presentó angina inestable y el 4,0% recibió transfusión en el postoperatorio. Según el puntaje, el 58.0% tenía un riesgo bajo y el 42.0% medio de desarrollar mediastinitis. Conclusión: la mayoría de los pacientes tenían un riesgo bajo de desarrollar mediastinitis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Risk Factors , Mediastinitis , Myocardial Revascularization , Postoperative Period , Perioperative Nursing , Critical Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Angina, Unstable
6.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(2): eabc264, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400505

ABSTRACT

Embora a avaliação da viabilidade miocárdica seja comum na prática do cardiologista, muitos médicos têm dúvidas a respeito dos resultados dos métodos diagnósticos. A medicina nuclear tem papel importante nos estudos de viabilidade, mas os laudos precisam ser interpretados num contexto clínico e fisiopatológico. Este artigo teve o objetivo de revisar a origem e a evolução do conceito da viabilidade miocárdica. São expostos os métodos diagnósticos com ênfase na medicina nuclear com uma explicação funcional sobre cada tipo de exame. A partir disso, são mostradas imagens como exemplos e é proposta uma maneira de atuar nesses casos baseada na clínica, na porcentagem de miocárdio acometido e na topografia das lesões coronarianas (proximais ou distais). (AU)


Although assessing myocardial viability is a common cardiology practice, many physicians question the results of diagnostic methods. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in viability studies, but the reports require interpretation in a clinical and pathophysiological context. this article was aimed at reviewing the origin and evolution of myocardial viability. Here we present diagnostic methods by emphasizing nuclear medicine and provide a functional explanation of each test type using example images. We also propose how to act in these cases based on clinic examination findings, the percentage of affected myocardium, and coronary lesion topography (proximal or distal).(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Echocardiography/methods , Myocardial Stunning/diagnosis , Myocardial Stunning/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Nuclear Medicine/instrumentation , Rubidium/administration & dosage , Thallium/administration & dosage , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Dobutamine/administration & dosage , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
7.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE03547, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1402901

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Desenvolver e analisar as evidências de validade de conteúdo de uma tecnologia educacional do tipo história em quadrinhos (HQ) para pacientes submetidos à Cirurgia de Revascularização do Miocárdio (CRM). Métodos Estudo de validação realizado em três etapas. A primeira consistiu na avaliação das necessidades de informações dos pacientes submetidos à CRM; a segunda foi o desenvolvimento de um roteiro para a tecnologia educacional do tipo HQ; e a terceira, a análise das evidências de validade de conteúdo desse roteiro, realizada por seis especialistas, sendo considerado válido quando obtido um Índice de Validade de Conteúdo superior a 80%, sendo, posteriormente, elaborada a HQ por um ilustrador. Resultados Na primeira etapa, 10 pacientes relataram terem necessidades de informações sobre alimentação, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, controle da ansiedade e do estresse, controle da dor, cuidados com a ferida operatória, tabagismo, atividade física, relação sexual, retorno ao trabalho, liberação para viagens e direção de automóveis. Com base nesses dados, elaborou-se, a partir de revisão de literatura, a história fictícia de um paciente submetido à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, com as respectivas orientações realizadas pela enfermeira. Esse roteiro da HQ foi avaliado pelos especialistas alcançando adequada concordância após a segunda rodada. Após validação, a HQ foi elaborada pelo ilustrador e analisada pelos especialistas. Conclusão A tecnologia educacional do tipo HQ atingiu adequadas evidências de validade de conteúdo pelos especialistas, podendo ser utilizada como uma das estratégias na orientação da alta hospitalar.


Resumen Objetivo Desarrollar y analizar las evidencias de validez de contenido de una tecnología educativa del tipo historieta para pacientes sometidos a cirugía de revascularización del miocardio (CRM). Métodos Estudio de validación realizado en tres etapas. La primera consistió en la evaluación de las necesidades de información de los pacientes sometidos a CRM; la segunda fue el desarrollo de un guion para la tecnología educativa del tipo historieta, y la tercera fue el análisis de las evidencias de validez de contenido de ese guion, realizada por seis especialistas, donde fue considerado válido un Índice de Validez de Contenido superior al 80 %, y luego un ilustrador elaboró la historieta. Resultados En la primera etapa, 10 pacientes mencionaron la necesidad de obtener información sobre alimentación, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, control de la ansiedad y del estrés, control del dolor, cuidados de la herida quirúrgica, tabaquismo, actividad física, relación sexual, vuelta al trabajo, autorización para viajar y para conducir vehículos. Con base en estos datos y a partir de la revisión de literatura, se elaboró la historia ficticia de un paciente sometido a una cirugía de revascularización del miocardio, con las respectivas orientaciones realizadas por una enfermera. El guion de la historieta fue evaluado por los especialistas y obtuvo una concordancia adecuada luego de la segunda ronda. Después de la validación, el ilustrador elaboró la historieta y los especialistas la analizaron. Conclusión La tecnología educativa de tipo historieta alcanzó evidencias de validez de contenido adecuadas por los especialistas y puede ser utilizada como una de las estrategias para la orientación en el alta hospitalaria.


Abstract Objective To develop and analyze the evidence of content validity of a comic book-type educational technology for patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery (CABG). Methods Validation study conducted in three steps. The first consisted of assessing the information needs of patients undergoing CABG; the second was the development of a comic book-type educational technology script; and the third, was the analysis of the evidence of content validity of this script performed by six experts. It was considered valid when a Content Validity Index above 80% was obtained. Subsequently, the comic book was designed by an illustrator. Results In the first step, ten patients reported needing information about food, alcohol consumption, anxiety and stress control, pain control, surgical wound care, smoking, physical activity, sexual intercourse, returning to work and clearance to travel and drive. Based on these data, a fictitious history of a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery was developed from a literature review, with the respective instructions given by the nurse. This comic book script was evaluated by the experts, reaching adequate agreement after the second round. After validation, the comic book was designed by the illustrator and analyzed by the experts. Conclusion The educational technology of the comic book-type reached adequate evidence of content validity by the experts, and can be used as one of the strategies in guidance of hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pamphlets , Patient Discharge , Health Education , Educational Technology , Educational Technology/methods , Myocardial Revascularization , Patient Education as Topic , Interviews as Topic , Graphic Novels as Topic
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 499-505, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340057

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The indiscriminate use of blood transfusion in surgery has been associated with increased risk of infection and increased length of hospital stay. Objective: To identify the average amount of bleeding and rates of transfusion of blood products in the postoperative period of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a cardiology center. Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent myocardial revascularization surgery and/or heart valve replacement with use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed. Perioperative data such as CPB time, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were collected after surgery. The amount of bleeding (mL), blood transfusion (IU), clinical complications and time of hospitalization were also recorded. The correlation between bleeding in the postoperative period and blood transfusion was performed using the Spearman correlation. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 423 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (51.5%) or heart valve replacement (33.6%) were included. During the first 24 hours, the average bleeding volume was 353.3 ± 268.3 mL. Transfusion of blood products was required in 40.1% of cases, most frequently (70.6%) in the immediate postoperative period. Red blood cell concentrate was the most frequently used product (22.9% and 60%). Conclusion: The occurrence of bleeding in the cases was low, and when transfusion of blood components was indicated, red blood cell concentrates were the most widely used component. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Postoperative Care/methods , Blood Transfusion/methods , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Retrospective Studies , Extracorporeal Circulation , Transfusion Reaction/complications , Hemorrhage , Length of Stay
10.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 24(281): 6299-6308, out.-2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1344292

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a revascularização por Angioplastia. Métodos: Tratase de um estudo descritivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado nos meses de março a abril de 2019 com 25 pacientes de um hospital público de referência em cardiologia de Recife (PE). Foi utilizado o questionário WHOQOL-Bref para avaliação da qualidade de vida. Resultados: Verificou-se que 56% (n: 14) da amostra são do gênero masculino e tinham uma mediana de idade de 63 anos. A avaliação da qualidade de vida dos pacientes apresentou resultado moderado, com necessidade de melhora em todos os domínios. O domínio "físico" obteve o escore mais baixo (3,20 ± 1,08), enquanto o domínio relações pessoais obteve o melhor índice (3,71 ± 1,08). A média do escore total foi de 3,38 (DP: 1,11). Conclusão: Os resultados refletiram um grau moderado de qualidade de vida e sua melhora depende do processo de mudança comportamental do indivíduo.(AU)


Objective: To evaluate the quality of life of patients undergoing revascularization by angioplasty. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted in the months of March to April 2019 with 25 patients from a public cardiology referral hospital in Recife (PE). The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Results: It was found that 56% (n: 14) of the sample were male, with a median age of 63 years. The patients' quality of life assessment showed moderate results, with need for improvement in all domains. The physical domain had the lowest score (3.20 ± 1.08), while the personal relationships domain had the best score (3.71 ± 1.08). The mean total score was 3.38 (SD: 1.11). Conclusion: The results reflected a moderate degree of quality of life and its improvement depends on the individual's behavioral change process.(AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida de los pacientes sometidos a revascularización mediante angioplastia. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo realizado en los meses de marzo a abril de 2019 con 25 pacientes de un hospital público de referencia en cardiología de Recife (PE). Se utilizó el cuestionario WHOQOL-Bref para evaluar la calidad de vida. Resultados: Se encontró que el 56% (n: 14) de la muestra eran hombres y tenían una edad media de 63 años. La evaluación de la calidad de vida de los pacientes mostró un resultado moderado, con necesidad de mejora en todos los dominios. El dominio "físico" obtuvo la puntuación más baja (3,20 ± 1,08), mientras que el dominio relaciones personales obtuvo el mejor índice (3,71 ± 1,08). La puntuación total media fue de 3,38 (DE: 1,11). Conclusión: Los resultados reflejaron un grado moderado de calidad de vida y su mejora depende del proceso de cambio de conducta del individuo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Cardiology , Angioplasty , Myocardial Revascularization , Referral and Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals, Public
11.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346537

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus y la cardiopatía isquémica están íntimamente relacionadas, puesto que los pacientes con la primera tienen más riesgo de presentar la segunda, así como mayor mortalidad cardiovascular. Objetivo: Identificar las complicaciones posoperatorias en pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo II. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de serie de casos de 203 pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo II, expuestos a cirugía de revascularización coronaria en el Cardiocentro del Hospital Provincial Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2011 hasta igual periodo de 2020. Resultados: En la casuística resultaron más afectados el sexo masculino (56,1 %) y el grupo etario de 45 - 64 años (53,7 %), quienes tenían más de 10 años con la enfermedad endocrina y se le había detectado la cardiopatía isquémica en el último, con una forma de presentación aguda. Se encontraron varios factores de riesgo, tales como enfermedad coronaria difusa, niveles de glucemia elevada en el periodo perioperatorio y fracción ventricular izquierda baja. En la mayoría de las intervenciones quirúrgicas se empleó la técnica de corazón latiendo (81,8 %), y las complicaciones predominantes fueron arritmias supraventriculares, bajo gasto cardiaco e infecciones de la herida. Conclusiones: La cirugía de coronaria en pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo II es el método que logra una revascularización más completa, tanto anatómica como funcional, y la técnica de corazón latiendo alcanza reducir la mortalidad, aunque aún son frecuentes las complicaciones atribuibles a causas multifactoriales.


Introduction: The diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease are closely related, since patients with the former have more risk of presenting the latter, as well as higher cardiovascular mortality. Objective: To identify the postoperative complications in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Method: A serial cases descriptive study of 203 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, exposed to coronary revascularization surgery was carried out in the Heart Center of Saturnino Lora Teaching Provincial Hospital Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2011 to the same period in 2020. Results: In the case material the male sex (56.1 %) and the 45 - 64 age group (53.7 %) were more affected, who had more than 10 years with the endocrine disease and the ischemic heart disease had been detected in the latter, with an acute form of presentation. Several risk factors were found, such as diffuse coronary disease, glycemia high levels in the perioperative period and low left ventricular fraction. In most of the surgical interventions the heart beating technique was used (81.8 %), and the predominant complications were supraventricular arrhythmias, low heart output and infections of the wound. Conclusions: The surgery of coronary in patients with type II diabetes mellitus is the method that achieves a more complete revascularization, either anatomical as functional, and the heart beating technique reduces the mortality, although the complications attributable to multifactorial causes are still frequent.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Revascularization , Postoperative Complications , Cardiac Output, Low
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 500-505, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347154

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) as graft in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is controversial because it is related to higher in-hospital mortality, incidence of sternal wound-related infection, and an increase in surgical time. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate in-hospital mortality and mortality within 30 days from discharge. The secondary objective is to evaluate the occurrence of deep sternal wound infection in a 90-day follow-up. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the medical records of 152 patients undergoing elective CABG with the use of BITA and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These patients were divided into two groups, diabetics and non-diabetics. Patients with acute myocardial infarction and concomitant valvular disease were not included in the sample. Results: Preoperative characteristics did not show significant differences between the groups, which allowed a comparative analysis. The variables electrocardiography time and aortic clamping time were higher in the diabetic group, with a significant statistical difference (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality occurred in three patients, and there was no mortality up to 30 days in both groups. There was no significant difference in the primary end point between groups (P=0.56). Deep sternal wound infection was present in only one patient and showed no significant difference in the secondary outcome between groups (P=0.40). Conclusion: We did not observe a higher mortality and occurrence of deep sternal wound infection with the use of BITA in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics, even with greater CPB and aortic clamping times in diabetics.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus , Mammary Arteries , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Revascularization
13.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(3): 290-305, Jul 15, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284263

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) causes changes in the respiratory musculature that affects functional capacity and postoperative complications (POC). Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a tool used for these patients, but it is not known what the best form is to increase strength. Objective: To investigate whether IMT with a linear pressure load device is superior to the inspiratory incentive on functional capacity and muscle strength of patients undergoing CABG. Methods: This is a clinical trial. Patients were assessed preoperatively for inspiratory muscle pressure (MIP), expiratory pressure (MEP), peak expiratory flow (PEF), six-minute walk test (6MWT) and functional independence measure (FIM). After surgery, they were divided into three groups: control group (CG), training group with linear pressure load (IMT) and inspiratory incentive group (IG). On the day of discharge, all patients had their previous variables reassessed. Results: The study included 56 patients, 31 (55.4%) were male and an average age of 55 ± 12 years. There was a significant reduction in all variables, in relation to MIP, the IMT showed a higher value in the postoperative period 83 ± 19 cmH2O, against 70 ± 15 cmH2O in the CG and 80 ± 15 cmH2O in the IG (p < 0.001). The same behavior was observed in MEP, 77 ± 12 cm H2O in IMT, 67 ± 14 cmH2O in CG and 75 ± 10 cmH2O in IG (p < 0.001). Regarding the 6 MWT, there was a lesser loss in the IMT from 434 ± 15 m to 398 ± 20 m in IG (p < 0.001). Conclusion: It is concluded that muscle training with a linear pressure load device is superior to training with incentive on functional capacity and muscle strength in patients undergoing CABG. (AU)


Introdução: A cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM) causa alterações na musculatura respiratória que afetam a capacidade funcional e complicações pós-operatórias (DCP). O treinamento muscular inspiratório (TMI) é uma ferramenta utilizada por esses pacientes, mas não se sabe qual é a melhor forma de aumentar a força. Objetivo: Investigar se o TMI com dispositivo de carga de pressão linear é superior ao incentivo inspiratório na capacidade funcional e força muscular de pacientes submetidos à CRM. Métodos: Este é um ensaio clínico. Os pacientes foram avaliados no pré-operatório para pressão muscular inspiratória (PImáx), pressão expiratória (PEF), pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE), teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e medida de independência funcional (MIF). Após a cirurgia, eles foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (GC), grupo treinamento com carga linear de pressão (IMT) e grupo incentivo inspiratório (GI). No dia da alta, todos os pacientes tiveram suas variáveis anteriores reavaliadas. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 56 pacientes, 31 (55,4%) eram do sexo masculino e idade média de 55 ± 12 anos. Houve redução significativa em todas as variáveis, em relação à PImáx, o IMT apresentou valor maior no pós-operatório 83 ± 19 cmH2O, contra 70 ± 15 cmH2O no GC e 80 ± 15 cmH2O no GI (p < 0,001). O mesmo comportamento foi observado na PEmáx, 77 ± 12 cmH2O no IMT, 67 ± 14 cmH2O no GC e 75 ± 10 cmH2O no GI (p < 0,001). Em relação ao TC6, houve menor perda no TMI de 434 ± 15 metros para 398 ± 20 metros no GI (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Conclui-se que o treinamento muscular com dispositivo de carga pressórica linear é superior ao treinamento com incentivo inspiratório na capacidade funcional e da força muscular em pacientes submetidos à CRM. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Muscle Strength , Myocardial Revascularization , Postoperative Period , Functional Residual Capacity
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 264-271, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250103

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) after cardiac surgery imposes a significant burden on the patient in terms of morbidity and financial hospital costs. Objective To develop a risk score model to predict prolonged MV in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods This was a historical cohort study of 4165 adult patients undergoing CABG between January 1996 and December 2016. MV for periods ≥ 12 hours was considered prolonged. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between risk predictors and prolonged MV. The variables were scored according to the odds ratio. To build the risk score, the database was randomly divided into 2 parts: development data set (2/3) with 2746 patients and internal validation data set (1/3) with 1419 patients. The final score was validated in the total database and the model's accuracy was tested by performance statistics. Significance was established at p < 0.05. Results Prolonged MV was observed in 783 (18.8%) patients. Predictors of risk were age ≥ 65 years, urgent/emergency surgery, body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiopulmonary bypass time ≥ 120 minutes. The area under the ROC curve was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.64-0.68; p<0.001), the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square test was χ2: 3.38 (p=0.642), and Pearson's correlation was r = 0.99 (p<0.001), indicating the model's satisfactory ability to predict the occurrence of prolonged MV. Conclusion Selected variables allowed the construction of a simplified risk score for daily practice, which may classify the patients as having low, moderate, high, and very high risk. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Myocardial Revascularization/rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality
16.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 153-159, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341277

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y de procedimiento asociadas a complicaciones en pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad coronaria severa, sometidos a revascularización quirúrgica. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo en pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus y enfermedad coronaria multivaso, sometidos a revascularización quirúrgica, en el que se evaluaron las características individuales, clínicas y de procedimiento asociadas a complicaciones posquirúrgicas. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y multivariado mediante regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Los factores asociados a complicaciones fueron edad, índice de masa corporal, fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo, clase funcional de la Asociación del Corazón de Nueva York (NYHA, su sigla en inglés por New York Heart Association) preintervención y antecedente de consumo de alcohol y tabaco; de estos, la edad es la variable que persiste con significancia estadística tras el modelo de regresión logística binaria. Conclusión: La incidencia de complicaciones posoperatorias en pacientes diabéticos sometidos a revascularización quirúrgica es comparable con la observada en estudios previos, y el factor asociado encontrado para este grupo de pacientes es la edad. El modelo podría explicar el 23 % del desarrollo de complicaciones en la cohorte estudiada.


Abstract Objective: To determine the sociodemographic, clinical and procedural characteristics associated with complications in diabetic patients with severe coronary disease treated by coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: A retrospective cohort study in patients over 18 years old with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and multivessel coronary disease, undergoing surgical revascularization, where individual, clinical and procedural characteristics associated with surgical complications were evaluated. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using binary logistic regression. Results: The factors associated with complications that were found were: age, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, pre intervention New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, alcohol and tobacco history. Of these, age was the only variable that persists with statistical significance after the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative complications in diabetic patients undergoing surgical revascularization is comparable to that observed in previous studies. The associated factor found for this group of patients is the age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors , Coronary Disease , Myocardial Revascularization
17.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e55460, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369392

ABSTRACT

Changes in ventilatorymechanics and their consequent pulmonary complications are common after surgical procedures, particularly in cardiac surgery (CS), and may be associated with both preoperative history and surgical circumstances. This study aims to compare ventilatory mechanics in the moments before and after cardiac surgery (CS), describing how pulmonary complications occurred. An experimental, uncontrolled study was conducted, of the before-and-after type, and with a descriptive and analytical character. It was carried out in a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and involved 30 adult patients subjected to CS. In addition to clinical and epidemiological variables, minute volume (VE), respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (VT), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were also recorded. Data were collected in the following moments: preoperative (PRE-OP) period, immediate postoperative (IPO) period, and 1stpostoperative day (1stPOD). The sample was aged 48.1 ± 11.8 years old and had a body mass index of 25.5 ± 4.9 kg m-2; 60% of the patients remained on mechanical ventilation for less than 24 hours (17.5 [8.7-22.9] hours). There was a significant reduction in VT, FVC, MIP and PEF when PRE-OP versus IPO, and PRE-OP versus 1stPOD were compared (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes between IPO and the 1stPOD. The highest incidence of pulmonary complications involved pleural effusion (50% of the patients). This study showed that patients subjected to CS present significant damage to ventilatory parameters after the surgery, especially in the IPO period and on the 1stPOD. It is possible that the extension of this ventilatory impairment has led to the onset of postoperative pulmonary complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thoracic Surgery , Respiratory Mechanics , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Pleural Effusion/complications , Reference Standards , Respiration, Artificial , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Tobacco Use Disorder/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Respiratory Rate , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate , Hypertension/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(1): 60-66, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The European Heart Surgery Risk Assessment System (EuroSCORE) and InsCor have been used to predict complications of cardiac surgery. However, their application to predict lung function and functionality is still uncertain. Objective To correlate surgical risk scales with functional independence and pulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. In the preoperative period, the two surgical scales were applied, the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured, and functionality was assessed using the functional independence measure (FIM). On the seventh postoperative day, the pulmonary function and functionality variables were reevaluated, compared with the preoperative values (delta) and correlated with the risk scales. Correlations of pulmonary function, functional independence and muscle strength variables with the surgical scales were made by Pearson correlation test. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results Thirty-one patients were studied; most were male (77%), with a mean age of 56±8 years. Mean EuroSCORE was 2.3±0.5 and mean InsCOR was 1.2±0.5. MIP, MEP, and PEF reduced 30% (p<0.001), 33% (p<0.001) and 10% (p=0.23), respectively. The EuroSCORE correlated with MIP (r-0.78; p = 0.02) and FIM (r-0.79; p <0.01), and the InsCor correlated with MIP (r-0.77), MEP (r-0.73) and MIF (r-0.89; p=0.02). Conclusion The EuroSCORE showed a strong negative correlation with MIP and FIM, while InsCor had a strong negative correlation with MIP, MEP and FIM. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment/methods , Functional Status , Myocardial Revascularization , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Care , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Maximal Voluntary Ventilation , Prospective Studies , Muscle Strength
19.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 90-97, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341266

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad coronaria es la principal causa de mortalidad en el mundo. Su tratamiento se asocia con una mejor calidad de vida, la cual puede medirse con el cuestionario de MacNew. Objetivo: Establecer los factores determinantes de calidad de vida en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria. Materiales y métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, en el que se usó el cuestionario de MacNew para valorar la calidad de vida en tres dominios: social, emocional y físico. Se incluyeron 249 pacientes con enfermedad coronaria diagnosticada en los años 2004, 2009 o 2013. Los resultados se estratificaron por el tipo de tratamiento (médico, implantación de stent o cirugía de revascularización miocárdica). Se usó un modelo de regresión beta, como una alternativa al modelo de regresión lineal. Resultados: Los puntajes más bajos se asociaron con hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia y aumento del índice de masa corporal. En el dominio físico el puntaje disminuyó en los pacientes mayores de 60 años. El alto grado de escolaridad se asoció con mayores puntajes en todos los dominios. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con enfermedad coronaria presentaron menor calidad de vida asociada a hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia, aumento del índice de masa corporal o mayor edad y mejor calidad de vida asociada con mayor nivel de escolaridad y afiliación al sistema de salud, indiferente a la intervención terapéutica.


Abstract Introduction: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Its treatment is associated with a better quality of life; it can be measured with the MacNew questionnaire. This study aims to establish the determin. Objective: To stablish the determinants of quality of life in coronary heart disease patients, in Cali, Colombia. Materials and methods: Analytical cross-sectional study, in which the MacNew questionnaire was applied to assess life quality in three domains: social, emotional and physical. 249 patients with coronary heart disease diagnosed in 2004, 2009 or 2013 were included. The results were stratified by type of treatment (doctor, stent implantation or myocardial revascularization surgery). Beta regression model was used, as an alternative to the linear regression model. Results: The MacNew lower scores were associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and increased body mass index. In the physical domain, the life quality score decreased in patients older than 60 years. High levels of education were associated with higher quality of life scores in all domains. Conclusions: Coronary heart disease patients presented lower quality of life associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, increased body mass index or older age and better quality of life associated with higher level of education and affiliation to the health system, regardless of the therapeutic intervention received.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Disease , Quality of Life , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Revascularization
20.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 25: e1354, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1287714

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: observando a diferença de perfil dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio daqueles submetidos à correção cirúrgica de valvopatias, considera-se importante a avaliação do estado emocional de acordo com a cirurgia a ser realizada. Objetivo: comparar os sintomas de ansiedade, depressão e ansiedade cardíaca de pacientes no pré-operatório, segundo o tipo de cirurgia cardíaca a ser realizada: revascularização do miocárdio ou cirurgia de correção de valvopatias. Método: estudo observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, realizado nas enfermarias de cirurgia de um hospital universitário do interior paulista. Uma amostra consecutiva e não probabilística foi constituída pelos pacientes maiores de idade que vieram de casa para a internação e cujo agendamento para a realização da cirurgia foi eletivo. Para a avaliação dos sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, foi utilizado o instrumento Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; já para a avaliação da ansiedade cardíaca, foi utilizado o "Questionário de Ansiedade Cardíaca". Para a comparação das medidas dos sintomas, segundo o tipo de cirurgia, foi realizado o teste de Mann-Whitney para amostras independentes, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: os grupos foram homogêneos entre si, quanto à caracterização sociodemográfica, exceto para idade. Pacientes em pré-operatório de correção de valvopatias apresentaram escore maior para os sintomas de ansiedade cardíaca quando comparados com pacientes em pré-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio, e a diferença encontrada foi estatisticamente significativa (p=0,020). Conclusão: pacientes em pré-operatório de correção de valvopatias apresentaram mais sintomas de ansiedade cardíaca quando comparados com pacientes em pré-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio.


RESUMEN Introducción: al observar la diferencia en el perfil de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía de revascularización miocárdica respecto a los sometidos a corrección quirúrgica de valvulopatías, se considera importante evaluar el estado emocional de acuerdo con la cirugía a realizar. Objetivo: comparar los síntomas de ansiedad, depresión y ansiedad cardíaca de los pacientes en el período preoperatorio, según el tipo de cirugía cardíaca a realizar: revascularización miocárdica o cirugía de corrección de valvulopatías. Método: estudio observacional, analítico, transversal, realizado en las salas de recuperación de cirugía de un hospital universitario del interior de São Paulo. Una muestra consecutiva y no probabilística estuvo conformada por pacientes mayores que acudieron a su domicilio para ser hospitalizados y cuya cita para la cirugía fue electiva. Para evaluar los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión se utilizó el instrumento Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión; para la evaluación de la ansiedad cardíaca se utilizó el "Cuestionario de Ansiedad Cardíaca". Para comparar las medidas de síntomas, según el tipo de cirugía, se realizó la prueba de Mann-Whitney para muestras independientes, con un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: los grupos fueron homogéneos entre sí, encuanto a caracterización sociodemográfica, excepto por edad. Los pacientes en el período preoperatorio para la corrección de valvulopatías tuvieron una puntuación más alta para los síntomas de ansiedad cardíaca en comparación con los pacientes en el período preoperatorio de revascularización miocárdica, y la diferencia encontrada fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,020). Conclusión: los pacientes en período preoperatorio de corrección de valvulopatías presentaron más síntomas de ansiedad cardíaca en comparación con los pacientes en el período preoperatorio de revascularización miocárdica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: observing the difference in profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery from those undergoing surgical correction of valvular heart disease, it is considered important to assess the emotional state according to the surgery to be performed. Objective: to compare the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and cardiac anxiety of patients in the preoperative period, according to the type of cardiac surgery to be performed: myocardial revascularization or surgery to correct valvular heart diseases. Method: observational, analytical, cross-sectional study carried out in the surgery wards of a university hospital in the countryside of São Paulo. A consecutive and non-probabilistic sample was made up of older patients who came home for hospitalization and whose appointment for the surgery was elective. To evaluate the symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale instrument was used; for the assessment of cardiac anxiety, the "Heart Anxiety Questionnaire" was used. To compare the measures of symptoms, according to the type of surgery, the Mann-Whitney test was performed for independent samples, with a significance level of 5%. Results: the groups were homogeneous among themselves, in terms of sociodemographic characterization, except for age. Patients in the preoperative period for correction of valvular heart disease had a higher score for the symptoms of cardiac anxiety when compared with patients in the preoperative period of myocardial revascularization, and the difference found was statistically significant (p=0.020). Conclusion: patients in the preoperative period for correction of valvular heart disease presented more symptoms of cardiac anxiety when compared with patients in the preoperative period of myocardial revascularization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Myocardial Revascularization , Cardiovascular Nursing , Myocardium
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