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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(5): 364-370, May 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012748

ABSTRACT

Studies have demonstrated sympathetic cardiac denervation in the MPTP mouse model. MPTP toxicity causes sympathetic nerve damage and depletion of heart norepinephrine. Previous evaluations of impairments in heart innervation have been based on imaging, electrophysiological and biochemical methods. However, these studies lacked information that can be obtained from morphoquantitative analyses. Thus, this study aimed to apply a design-based stereological method for evaluating the morphoquantitative alterations of myocardium following treatment with the neurotoxin MPTP in the C57/BL mouse. Our results showed that MPTP reduced the number of cardiomyocytes in the left ventricle.(AU)


Estudos têm demonstrado a desnervação simpática cardíaca no modelo da administração do MPTP em camundongo. A toxicidade do MPTP causa lesão ao nervo simpático e depleção da norepinefrina. As avaliações dos danos na inervação do coração são baseadas em métodos de imagem, eletrofisiológico e bioquímico. Contudo, estes estudos carecem de informações provenientes de análises morfoquantitativas. Assim, objetivou-se aplicar métodos estereológicos para avaliar as alterações morfoquantitativas do miocárdio após o tratamento com a neurotoxina MPTP no camundongo C57/BL. Nossos resultados mostraram que o MPTP causa redução no número de cardiomiócitos no ventrículo esquerdo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/analysis , 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/adverse effects , Mice/anatomy & histology , Myocardium/enzymology , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac/veterinary
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(11): 1010-1022, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762907

ABSTRACT

Exercise training (Ex) has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP), reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g) underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM) and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED) group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks). Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT) activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Hypertension, Renovascular/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Baroreflex/physiology , Bradycardia/metabolism , Bradycardia/pathology , Catalase/metabolism , Heart Rate/physiology , Kidney/metabolism , Myocardium/enzymology , Myocardium/metabolism , Renal Artery/surgery , Sedentary Behavior , Surgically-Created Structures , Time Factors , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis
3.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2015; 17 (3): 39-45
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-173782

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the structural and functional changes of the myocardium due to diabetes. This study was done to determine the effect of swimming training and arbutin supplement on cardiac antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in diabetic rats


Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups including control, diabetes, Arbutin, diabetes+Arbutin, diabetes+exercise and diabetes+ exercise + Arbutin [combined]. Diabetes induced using alloxan [90 mg/kg/bw, intraperitoneally]. Arbutin [50 mg/kg/bw, ip] was administered for 5 days a week. The exercise consisted of swimming training at 5 min to 36 min per day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Renal Malondialdehyde, catalase level and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity were evaluated in animals


Results: Diabetes significantly increased cardiac Malondialdehyde level and decreased cardiac SOD activity and catalase level [P<0.05]. Six weeks of supplementation with Arbutin, swimming training and combined intervention significantly increased catalas level and superoxide dismutase activity compared to the diabetes group[P<0.05]. Malondialdehyde level significantly reduced in combined and exercise groups in comparison with diabetic group [P<0.05]


Conclusion: Regular training [swimming] and Antioxidant supplement [Arbutin] protect the cardiac tissue against diabetes-induced oxidative stress through their antioxidants capacity and the combination of the two interventions have synergic effect


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Antioxidants , Myocardium/enzymology , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus , Rats, Wistar , Exercise , Malondialdehyde , Superoxide Dismutase
4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 482-489, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731141

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hipertensão arterial tem alta prevalência em renais crônicos, sendo a hipervolemia um de seus fatores causais. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da redução da volemia no controle pressórico e em parâmetros ecocardiográficos de pacientes renais crônicos em diálise peritoneal contínua. Métodos: Doze renais crônicos sem sinais clínicos de hipervolemia foram submetidos à intensificação da diálise com o objetivo de reduzir o peso corporal em 5%. A volemia foi avaliada pela bioimpedância elétrica e pela ultrassonografia de veia cava inferior (VCI). Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e a exame ecocardiográfico no período basal e após 5 semanas de intervenção. Resultados: Após a intensificação da ultrafiltração, houve redução significativa do peso corporal, da água extracelular e do diâmetro inspiratório da VCI, enquanto o índice de colapsamento da VCI não alterou de modo significativo. A despeito da redução do número de anti-hipertensivos, a pressão sistólica do período de sono reduziu de 138,4 ± 18,6 para 126,7 ± 18,0 mmHg, o descenso pressórico do sono aumentou e o diâmetro sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo reduziu significantemente. Conclusão: A redução da volemia de pacientes em diálise peritoneal, clinicamente euvolêmicos, se associou a melhor controle pressórico e à diminuição do diâmetro sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo. .


Introduction: Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and hypervolemia is one of the principal causes. Objective: To evaluate the influence of the reduction of volemia on blood pressure as well as on echocardiographic parameters in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Methods: Twelve patients with no clinical evidence of hypervolemia were submitted to an increase in the rate of the dialysis with the purpose of reducing body weight by 5%. The volemia was evaluated by electrical bioimpedance and by ultrasound of the inferior cava vena (ICV). Blood pressure was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography both at baseline and 5 weeks after the intervention period. Results: After the increase in the ultrafiltration, body weight, extracellular water and the inspiratory diameter of the ICV decreased significantly in parallel with a non-significant increase in the collapsing ICV index. Despite the reduction of anti-hypertensive drugs, systolic blood pressure during the sleep period decreased from 138.4 ± 18.6 to 126.7 ± 18.0 mmHg, the nocturnal blood pressure drop increased and the final systolic left ventricular diameter decreased significantly. Conclusion: Reduction of the volemia of patients on peritoneal dialysis, with no signs of hypervolemia, was associated with a better blood pressure control and with a decrease of the final systolic left ventricular diameter. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/chemistry , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Ubiquinone/metabolism , Binding Sites , Electron Transport Complex I , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Myocardium/enzymology , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Rotenone/pharmacology
5.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effect of aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum fructensces (cayenne pepper) and their mixture on oxidative stress in rats fed high Cholesterol/high fat diet was investigated. Rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 6) and given different dietary/spice treatments. Group 1 standard rat chow (control), group 2, hypercholesterolemic diet plus water, and groups 3, 4, 5, 6, hypercholesterolemic diet with 0.5 ml 200 mg · kg-1 aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, cayenne pepper or their mixture respectively daily for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Pronounced oxidative stress in the hypercholesterolemic rats evidenced by significant (p < 0.05) increase in MDA levels, and suppression of the antioxidant enzymes system in rat's liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues was observed. Extracts of spices singly or combined administered at 200 mg.kg-1 body weight significantly (p < 0.05) reduced MDA levels and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that consumption of garlic, ginger, pepper, or their mixture may help to modulate oxidative stress caused by hypercholesterolemia in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Spices , Brain/enzymology , Capsicum/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Garlic/metabolism , Ginger/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Hypercholesterolemia/etiology , Hypercholesterolemia/metabolism , Kidney/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardium/enzymology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
6.
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2014; 1 (1): S35-S38
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157511

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of common modifiable risk factors in patients with myocardial damage undergoing single vessel coronary angioplasty. Descriptive study. Armed forces Institute of Cardiology / National institute of Heart Disease Rawalpindi from June 2012 to Nov 2013. Hundred patients undergoing elective single vessel percutaneous coronary angioplasty were evaluated with creatinine kinase and creatinine kinase MB levels before, after 8 hours and 24 hours following coronary angioplasty. The detailed performa was filled from each patient covering the necessary variables. Out of 100 patients 22% had raised creatinine kinase at 8 hours and 43% had raised creatinirie kinase after 24 hours following coronary angioplasty. Whereas 19% patients and 38% patients had raised creatinine kinase MB levels at 8 hours and 24 hours following the procedure respectively. No patient had rise of creatinine kinase or creatinine kinase MB more than 3 times of normal limits in the study. Among patients with raised CK-MB highest frequency was of diabetes mellitus, raised LDL levels, smoking and hypertension. Patients with raised CK-MB levels after 1[st] day of coronary angiography had diabetes mellitus [84%], raised LDL levels [79%], smoking [68%] and hypertension [58%]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/analysis , Biomarkers , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/adverse effects , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Myocardium/enzymology , Stents/adverse effects
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 28(4): 482-490, out.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-703116

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: O aumento da atividade miocárdica da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase tem sido demonstrado na insuficiência cardíaca. Este estudo avalia a atividade miocárdica da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase no treinamento do ventrículo subpulmonar de cabras adultas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 18 cabras adultas, divididas em três grupos: convencional (bandagem fixa), sham e intermitente (bandagem ajustável; 12 horas diárias de sobrecarga). A sobrecarga sistólica (70% da pressão sistêmica) foi mantida durante quatro semanas. As avaliações hemodinâmica e ecocardiográfica foram realizadas durante todo o estudo. Depois de cumprido o protocolo, os animais foram mortos para avaliação morfológica e da atividade da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase dos ventrículos. RESULTADOS: Apesar de haver sobrecarga sistólica proporcionalmente menor no ventrículo subpulmonar do grupo intermitente (P=0,001), ambos os grupos de estudo apresentaram aumento da massa muscular de magnitude similar. Os grupos intermitente e convencional apresentaram aumento da massa de 55,7% e 36,7% (P<0,05), respectivamente, em comparação ao grupo sham. O conteúdo de água do miocárdio não variou entre os grupos estudados (P=0,27). O ecocardiograma demonstrou maior aumento (37,2%) na espessura do ventrículo subpulmonar do grupo intermitente, em relação aos grupos sham e convencional (P<0,05). Foi observada maior atividade da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase na hipertrofia miocárdica do ventrículo subpulmonar do grupo convencional, comparada aos grupos sham e intermitente (P=0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Ambos os grupos de treinamento ventricular desenvolveram hipertrofia ventricular, a despeito do menor tempo de sobrecarga sistólica no grupo intermitente. A maior atividade de Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase observada no grupo convencional pode refletir um desequilíbrio redox, com maior produção de fosfato de dinucleotídeo de nicotinamida e adenina e glutationa reduzida, um mecanismo importante da fisiopatologia da insuficiência cardíaca.


OBJECTIVE: Increased glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in heart failure. This study sought to assess myocardial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in retraining of the subpulmonary ventricle of adult goats. METHODS: Eighteen adult goats were divided into three groups: traditional (fixed banding), sham, and intermittent (adjustable banding, daily 12-hour systolic overload). Systolic overload (70% of systemic pressure) was maintained during a 4-week period. Right ventricle, pulmonary artery and aortic pressures were measured throughout the study. All animals were submitted to echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations throughout the protocol. After the study period, the animals were killed for morphological and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity assessment. RESULTS: A 55.7% and 36.7% increase occurred in the intermittent and traditional right ventricle masses, respectively, when compared with the sham group (P<0.05), despite less exposure of intermittent group to systolic overload. No significant changes were observed in myocardial water content in the 3 groups (P=0.27). A 37.2% increase was found in right ventricle wall thickness of intermittent group, compared to sham and traditional groups (P<0.05). Right ventricle glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was elevated in the traditional group, when compared to sham and intermittent groups (P=0.05). CONCLUSION: Both study groups have developed similar right ventricle hypertrophy, regardless less systolic overload exposure of intermittent group. Traditional systolic overload for adult subpulmonary ventricle retraining causes upregulation of myocardial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It may suggest that the undesirable "pathologic systolic overload" is influenced by activation of penthose pathway and cytosolic Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate availability. This altered energy substrate metabolism can elevate levels of free radicals by Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of heart failure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/enzymology , Myocardium/enzymology , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Transposition of Great Vessels/surgery , Blood Pressure , Biomarkers/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Energy Metabolism , Goats , Hemodynamics , Heart Ventricles/enzymology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/physiopathology , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/enzymology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159138

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have documented that Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway can modulate the apoptotic program in a myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. To date, however, limited studies have examined the role of JAK3 on myocardial I/R injury. Here, we investigated the potential effects of pharmacological JAK3 inhibition with JANEX-1 in a myocardial I/R model. Mice were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by varying periods of reperfusion. JANEX-1 was injected 1 h before ischemia by intraperitoneal injection. Treatment with JANEX-1 significantly decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, reduced infarct size, reversed I/R-induced functional deterioration of the myocardium and reduced myocardial apoptosis. Histological analysis revealed an increase in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration within the infarcted area, which was markedly reduced by JANEX-1 treatment. In parallel, in in vitro studies where neutrophils and macrophages were treated with JANEX-1 or isolated from JAK3 knockout mice, there was an impairment in the migration potential toward interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), respectively. Of note, however, JANEX-1 did not affect the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in the myocardium. The pharmacological inhibition of JAK3 might represent an effective approach to reduce inflammation-mediated apoptotic damage initiated by myocardial I/R injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Chemokines/pharmacology , Heart Function Tests/drug effects , Inflammation/pathology , Janus Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Myocardium/enzymology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Neutrophils/drug effects , Quinazolines/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(5): 500-505, May 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546327

ABSTRACT

The regulatory function of á1B-adrenoceptors in mammalian heart homeostasis is controversial. The objective of the present study was to characterize the expression/activity of key proteins implicated in cardiac calcium handling (Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPases) and growth (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) in mice with cardiac-selective overexpression of constitutively active mutant á1B-adrenoceptor (CAMá1B-AR), which present a mild cardiac hypertrophy phenotype. Immunoblot assays showed that myocardial plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) expression was increased by 30 percent in CAMá1B-AR mice (N = 6, P < 0.05), although there was no change in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) expression. Moreover, total Ca2+-ATPase activity was not modified, but a significant increase in the activity of the thapsigargin-resistant (PMCA) to thapsigargin-sensitive (SERCA) ratio was detected. Neither Na+/K+-ATPase activity nor the expression of á1 and á2 subunit isoforms was changed in CAMá1B-AR mouse hearts. Moreover, immunoblot assays did not provide evidence for an enhanced activation of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases studied in this stage of hypertrophy. Therefore, these findings indicate that chronic cardiac á1B-AR activation in vivo led to mild hypertrophy devoid of significant signs of adaptive modifications concerning primary intracellular calcium control and growth-related proteins, suggesting a minor pathophysiological role of this adrenergic receptor in mouse heart at this stage of development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Myocardium/enzymology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/metabolism , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Mice, Transgenic , Up-Regulation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203592

ABSTRACT

Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption is one of the causes of heart diseases. However, the effects of ethanol on insulin sensitivity in myocardium has been unclear. To investigate the effects of ethanol on the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), all of which are involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, in the myocardium, we performed three parts of experiments in vivo and in vitro. I: Rats were injected with 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR, 0.8 mg.kg(-1)) for 2 h. II: Rats received different dose (0.5, 2.5 or 5 g.kg(-1).d(-1)) of ethanol for 22-week. III: Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and treated with or without 100 mM ethanol or 1 mM AICAR for 4 h. The cardiac protein and mRNA expression of AMPKalpha subunits, MEF2 and GLUT4 were observed by western-blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Serum TNFalpha levels were assessed by ELISA. The results showed chronic ethanol exposure induced insulin resistance. Ethanol decreased the mRNA levels of AMPKalpha1 and alpha2, the protein levels of total- and phospho-AMPKalpha in cardiomyocytes. Similarly, ethanol showed inhibitory effects on both the mRNA and protein levels of MEF2A and 2D, and GLUT4 in a dose-response-like fashion. Correlation analysis implied an association between phospho-AMPKalpha and MEF2A or MEF2D, and between the levels of MEF2 protein and GLUT4 transcription. In addition, ethanol elevated serum TNFalpha level. Taken together, chronic ethanol exposure decreases the expression of AMPKalpha and MEF2, and is associated with GLUT4 decline in rat myocardium.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/genetics , Insulin/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Male , Myocardium/enzymology , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Isoforms/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Ribonucleotides/pharmacology , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 319-325, May 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519173

ABSTRACT

The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.


O perfil metabólico de vários tecidos foi analisado em quelônios aquáticos recém-eclodidos: Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis e P. sextuberculata. O potencial metabólico dessas espécies foi avaliado por meio das atividades absolutas das enzimas do metabolismo energético com ênfase no metabolismo dos carboidratos, lipídios, aminoácidos e corpos cetônicos. Todas as espécies estudadas apresentaram alto potencial glicolítico em todos os tecidos analisados. Com base nos baixos níveis da enzima hexoquinase, as reservas de glicogênio podem ser importantes substratos energéticos para estas espécies. A alta atividade da lactato desidrogenase no fígado pode indicar que este órgão desempenha um importante papel no metabolismo dos carboidratos, possivelmente relacionado com a resistência ao mergulho prolongado. O perfil metabólico de P. sextuberculata parece organizado para utilizar preferencialmente lipídios, aminoácidos e corpos cetônicos. Os dados das atividades máximas das enzimas 3-hidroxi-acil-Co A desidrogenase, malato desidrogenase e succinil-Co A ceto-transferase, especialmente no músculo branco e no fígado dessa espécie corroboram esta hipótese. Por outro lado, os carboidratos e os lipídios parecem ser os principais substratos metabólicos de P. expansa e P. unifilis, muito embora, os corpos cetônicos e aminoácidos sejam importantes metabólitos para sustentar o potencial oxidativo nessas espécies. Os dados enzimáticos parecem estar correlacionados com o hábito alimentar e o estilo de vida dos quelônios de água doce da Amazônia. O perfil metabólico sugere que os recém-eclodidos de P. unifilis e P. expansa são predominantemente herbívoros, enquanto que P. sextuberculata pode depender de uma dieta mista de material vegetal e proteína animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Turtles/metabolism , Brain/enzymology , Fresh Water , Liver/enzymology , Muscles/enzymology , Myocardium/enzymology , Turtles/classification , Turtles/physiology
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 166-171
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135190

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is one of the major causes of damage to the fetal and neonatal brain and cardiac functions. In earlier studies, we have reported the brain damage caused by hypoxia and resuscitation with oxygen and epinephrine and have found that glucose treatment to hypoxic rats and hypoxic rats treated with oxygen shows a reversal of brain damage. The neonatal rats are shown to be deficient in free radical scavenging system, which offers a high risk of oxidative stress. In the present study, we induced hypoxia in neonatal Wistar rats and resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Heart tissue and cerebral cortex were used to study the kinetics of superoxide dismutase activity in experimental groups of rats to assess the free radical status. Results showed that glucose supplementation in hypoxia (Hx + G) and hypoxic + oxygen (Hx + O) had an efficient free radical scavenging capability, compared to all other experimental groups. The observation was ascertained by studying the activity of catalase, another antioxidant enzyme in the body. Our results suggested that in neonatal rats during hypoxic condition, damage to heart and brain was more prominent in all groups, except when supplemented with glucose. These findings may have clinical significance in the proper management of heart and brain function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia/enzymology , Catalase/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/enzymology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/therapeutic use , Heart/drug effects , Myocardium/enzymology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/pharmacology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Resuscitation , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
13.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Mar; 76(3): 261-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-83771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the usefulness of cardiac enzymes in evaluating myocardial damage in perinatal asphyxia. METHODS: Thirty term babies with perinatal asphyxia and without any congenital malformations were selected as cases. They were compared with thirty healthy term babies without asphyxia. Myocardial dysfunction was evaluated using clinical, electrocardiography, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes i.e, troponin-T and CK-MB levels. RESULTS: Among the 30 cases 23 had evidence of myocardial involvement while one baby in the control group had ECG evidence compatible with cardiac involvement. Cardiac enzymes were significantly increased in babies with perinatal asphyxia. The mean level of C-troponin-T among cases and controls were 0.22+/-0.28 and 0.003+/-0.018 while CK-MB levels were 121+/-77.4 IU/L and 28.8 +/- 20.2 IU/L respectively. C-troponin-T had higher sensitivity and specificity compared to CK-MB levels. Moreover, C troponin-T levels correlated well with severity and outcome in babies with perinatal asphyxia. CONCLUSION: C-Tropopnin assay is useful in evaluating the severity of myocardial damage and outcome in perinatal asphyxia.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay , Myocardium/enzymology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Troponin T/blood
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Feb; 47(2): 129-35
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58620

ABSTRACT

Myocardial reperfusion is believed to be associated with free radical injury. The present study evaluates the effect of aqueous extract of D. gangeticum (DG) on lipid peroxides and antioxidants in ischemic reperfused (IR) Wistar albino male rats. Significant elevation in lipid peroxide products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were observed in the rat hearts during ischemia reperfusion phase. Pre treatment of rats with aqueous extract of DG orally for 30 days showed significantly improved preservation of antioxidant enzymes and subsequent reduction in lipid peroxidation. But 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) stained rat heart did not show much significant antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, TTC unstained rat heart showed significant improvement in the antioxidant activities indicating cardio protective effect of aqueous extract of DG in myocardium affected by ischemia reperfusion insult. The administration of DG to normal rats did not have any significant effect on any of the parameter studied. These results indicate that DG improves the antioxidant capacity of heart and attenuate the degree of lipid peroxidation after IR.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Heart/drug effects , Male , Mitochondria, Heart/drug effects , Mitochondria, Heart/enzymology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardium/enzymology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Jan; 47(1): 41-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63173

ABSTRACT

Preventive role of lipistat against doxorubicin induced myocardial toxicity in rats has been reported. Cardiotoxicity was produced by doxorubicin administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Lipistat (350 mg/kg, orally) was administered as pretreatment for 2 weeks and then for 2 weeks alternated with doxorubicin. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were monitored after 3 weeks of last dose. Pretreatment with the lipistat significantly protected myocardium from the toxic effects of doxorubicin by reducing the elevated level of biomarker enzymes like LDH and CPK to the normal and serum lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL back to normal. Lipistat increases the decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT and decreases the increased level of malondialdehyde in cardiac tissue. The repeated administration of doxorubicin causes cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficit and increased level of lipid profiles by interfering with fatty acid metabolism. The results support the lipid lowering and antioxidant properties of lipistat, which indicate the cardioprotective property against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Catalase/metabolism , Doxorubicin/antagonists & inhibitors , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Female , Glutathione/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Myocardium/enzymology , Myocardium/pathology , Organ Size/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
16.
Clinics ; 64(3): 245-252, 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-509430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is associated with tissue inflammation. Early coronary reperfusion clearly improves the outcome but may help propagate the inflammatory response and enhance tissue damage. Cyclooxygenase-2 is an enzyme that catalyzes the initial step in the formation of inflammatory prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase-2 levels are increased when ischemic cardiac events occur. The overall function of COX-2 in the inflammatory process generated by myocardial ischemic damage has not yet been elucidated. GOAL: The objective of this study was to determine whether a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (rofecoxib) could alter the evolution of acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was performed with 48 mongrel dogs divided into two groups: controls and those treated with the drug. All animals were prepared for left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. The dogs then underwent 180 minutes of coronary occlusion, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Blood samples were collected from the venous sinus immediately before coronary occlusion and after 30 minutes of reperfusion for measurements of CPK-MB, CPK-MBm and troponin I. During the experiment we observed the mean blood pressure, heart rate and coronary flow. The coronary flow and heart rate did not change, but in the control group, there was blood pressure instability, in addition to maximal levels of CPK-MB post-infarction. The same results were observed for CPK-MBm and troponin I. CONCLUSION: In a canine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, selective inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 with rofecoxib was not associated with early detrimental effects on the hemodynamic profile or the gross extent of infarction; in fact, it may be beneficial by limiting cell necrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , /therapeutic use , Lactones/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardium/pathology , Sulfones/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate , Myocardial Infarction/enzymology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/enzymology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocardium/enzymology , Troponin I/blood
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2008 Dec; 75(12): 1223-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-82590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the usefulness of cardiac enzymes in evaluating myocardial damage in perinatal asphyxia. METHODS: Thirty term babies with perinatal asphyxia and without any congenital malformations were selected as cases. They were compared with thirty healthy term babies without asphyxia. Myocardial dysfunction was evaluated using clinical, electrocardiography, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes i.e, troponin-T and CK-MB levels. RESULTS: Among the 30 cases 23 had evidence of myocardial involvement while one baby in the control group had ECG evidence compatible with cardiac involvement. Cardiac enzymes were significantly increased in babies with perinatal asphyxia. The mean level of C-troponin-T among cases and controls were 0.22+/-0.28 and 0.003+/-0.018 while CK-MB levels were 121+/-77.4 IU/L and 28.8 +/- 20.2 IU/L respectively. C-troponin-T had higher sensitivity and specificity compared to CK-MB levels. Moreover, C troponin-T levels correlated well with severity and outcome in babies with perinatal asphyxia. CONCLUSION: C-Tropopnin assay is useful in evaluating the severity of myocardial damage and outcome in perinatal asphyxia.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Myocardium/enzymology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Troponin T/blood
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 23(3): 389-395, jul.-set. 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-500526

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações ultra-estruturais de dois tipos de cardioplegia (com e sem procaína) em corações de pacientes submetidos a troca valvar aórtica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 18 pacientes submetidos a circulação extracorpórea para troca valvular aórtica eletiva, no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre num período de 10 meses. Cada paciente foi distribuído aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo A - oito pacientes que receberam solução cardioplégica sem procaína; grupo B - Dez pacientes que receberam solução cardioplégica com procaína. Em ambos os grupos, o saco pericárdico foi irrigado com solução salina hipotérmica. As biópsias miocárdicas foram realizadas em três momentos: I - antes da parada isquêmica, II- no final do período isquêmico e III-15 minutos após a reperfusão. RESULTADOS: A avaliação ultra-estrutural comparando os grupos nos três momentos não demonstrou diferenças significativas, sendo a média dos escores no grupo A, nos momentos I, II, e III, de 0,1 ± 0,2; 0,4 ± 0,3 e 0,4 ± 0,4. No grupo B, a médio dos escores foi 0,2 ± 0,2; 0,4 ± 0,3 e 0,7 ± 0,2, respectivamente), nos momentos I, II, e III. A curva de CK-MB foi similar entre os dois grupos. O retorno espontâneo do ritmo cardíaco, pós-despinçamento, ocorreu em 70% dos pacientes no grupo B e, em 12,5% no grupo A (p=0,024). CONCLUSÃO: As duas soluções testadas protegeram o miocárdio de forma eficaz e não foi possível demonstrar, em nível ultra-estrutural, a superioridade da solução contendo procaína. Constatou-se que o retorno ao ritmo espontâneo do coração após o despinçamento aórtico foi significativamente maior no grupo que utilizou procaína adicionada à solução.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of procaine in crystalloid cardioplegic solution increases myocardial protection at the ultra structural level. METHODS: Eighteen patients that underwent aortic valve replacement in the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre over a 10-month period were studied. They were randomly allocated into two groups: group A - eight patients receiving cardioplegia without procaine; group B - ten patients receiving cardioplegia with procaine. Myocardial biopsies were performed in three different periods: 1st - before ischemic arrest, 2nd - at the end of ischemic arrest, and 3rd -15 minutes after reperfusion. RESULTS: The ultra structural analysis comparing the groups in the three moments did not show any statistically significant difference. The mean score in group A at moment I, II and III was 0.1 ± 0.2; 0.4 ± 0.3; 0.4 ± 0.4, and group B 0.2 ± 0.2; 0.4 ± 0.3; 0.7 ± 0.2. Comparative analysis of CK-MB was similar. The spontaneous return to sinus rhythm after aortic declamping in group B occurred in 70% and in group A 12.5% (p=0.024). CONCLUSION: Both cardioplegic solutions tested were equally effective in myocardial preservation, and we could not demonstrate at the ultrastructural level any benefit when procaine was added. The spontaneous return to sinus rhythm after aortic declamping was significantly greater when procaine was added.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aortic Valve/surgery , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Procaine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Chi-Square Distribution , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardium/enzymology , Remission, Spontaneous , Time Factors , Young Adult
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(7): 600-609, July 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-489518

ABSTRACT

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is important in calcification and its expression seems to be associated with the inflammatory process. We investigated the in vitro acute effects of compounds used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases on total ALP activity from male Wistar rat heart homogenate. ALP activity was determined by quantifying, at 410 nm, the p-nitrophenol released from p-nitrophenylphosphate (substrate in Tris buffer, pH 10.4). Using specific inhibitors of ALP activity and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we showed that the rat heart had high ALP activity (31.73 ± 3.43 nmol p-nitrophenol·mg protein-1·min-1): mainly tissue-nonspecific ALP but also tissue-specific intestinal ALP type II. Both ALP isoenzymes presented myocardial localization (striated pattern) by immunofluorescence. ALP was inhibited a) strongly by 0.5 mM levamisole, 2 mM theophylline and 2 mM aspirin (91, 77 and 84 percent, respectively) and b) less strongly by 2 mM L-phenylalanine, 100 mL polyphenol-rich beverages and 0.5 mM progesterone (24, 21 to 29 and 11 percent, respectively). â-estradiol and caffeine (0.5 and 2 mM) had no effect; 0.5 mM simvastatin and 2 mM atenolol activated ALP (32 and 36 percent, respectively). Propranolol (2 mM) tended to activate ALP activity and corticosterone activated (18 percent) and inhibited (13 percent) (0.5 and 2 mM, respectively). We report, for the first time, that the rat heart expresses intestinal ALP type II and has high total ALP activity. ALP activity was inhibited by compounds used in the prevention of cardiovascular pathology. ALP manipulation in vivo may constitute an additional target for intervention in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardium/enzymology , Alkaline Phosphatase/antagonists & inhibitors , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2008; 18 (3): 142-146
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100285

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of myocardial damage in elective, successful, single vessel percutaneous coronary angioplasty by assessing myocardial band [MB], creatinine kinase levels and to find out the association of common modifiable risk factors with myocardial damage in patients undergoing single vessel coronary angioplasty. Descriptive. Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology / National Institute of Heart Disease, Rawalpindi, from September 2006 to September 2007. Fifty patients undergoing elective and successful single vessel percutaneous coronary angioplasty were evaluated with creatinine kinase and creatinine kinase MB levels before and after 8 hours and 1[st] day following coronary angioplasty. Studied variables included the length of stent deployed, maximum deployment pressure and total balloon inflation time, apart from hypertension, cholesterol level, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Out of 50 patients, 9 had raised creatinine kinase at 8 hours [18%] and 10 had raised creatinine kinase [20%] on 1[st] day following coronary angioplasty, 7 [14%] patients and 8 [16%] patients had raised creatinine kinase MB levels at 8 hours and 1st day following coronary angioplasty respectively. The rise of either was equal to or more than 3 times the normal limits. Modifiable risk factors, significantly associated with myocardial damage, were diabetes mellitus [p=0.006] and LDL levels [p=0.009] in patients undergoing single vessel coronary angioplasty. Successful elective, uncomplicated, single vessel coronary angioplasty resulted in some myocardial damage evident by mild rise in cardiac enzymes but rise of creatinine kinase MB above 3 times of normal, which signifies percutaneous coronary angioplasty-related myocardial infarction, was not seen. There was a significant association between diabetes mellitus, LDL levels and myocardial damage in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty but no significant association was found between hypertension, smoking and myocardial damage


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/adverse effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Myocardium/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus , Stents/adverse effects
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