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Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 23(1)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1389031


Resumen Los receptores del cotransportador de sodio-glucosa han demostrado una gran relevancia en la función miocárdica. Los receptores tipo 1 se encuentran en el miocardio en valores bajos, sin embargo, se elevan en patologías cardiacas por medio de distintos mecanismos moleculares. Por otra parte, los receptores tipo 2 están ausentes en el miocardio. Los fármacos que inhiben este receptor tienen beneficio cardiovascular evidente en estudios clínicos y experimentales, principalmente en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e insuficiencia cardiaca, en los que se ha demostrado una reducción de la mortalidad por causas cardiovasculares y reducción en hospitalización por insuficiencia cardiaca. Existen interrogantes sobre el mecanismo de acción directo de este grupo antihiperglicemiantes sobre el cardiomiocito y se han desarrollado hipótesis y teorías para explicar este efecto. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar y analizar los diferentes mecanismos metabólicos, estructurales, funcionales y mitocondriales en un contexto molecular de los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa tipo 2. La acción fisiopatológica del receptor tipo 1 en el miocardio también es importante y se encuentran en desarrollo estudios clínicos para establecer el efecto de su inhibición a nivel cardíaco.

Abstract Sodium-glucose cotransporter receptors have demonstrated relevance in myocardial function. Type 1 receptors are found in the myocardium in low values, however, they are elevated in cardiac pathologies by means of different molecular mechanisms. On the other hand, type 2 receptors are absent in the myocardium. The drugs that inhibit this receptor have been shown to have a cardiovascular benefit demonstrated in clinical and experimental studies, mainly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure, presenting a reduction in mortality due to cardiovascular causes and a reduction in hospitalization due to heart failure. Due to the above, many questions arise about the mechanism of direct action of this antihyperglycemic group on cardiomyocyte, which is why they have been developed from hypotheses and theories to clarify this action by medicines. The objective of this article is to analyze the different metabolic, structural, functional and mitochondrial mechanisms in a molecular context of the inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2. On the other hand, to analyze the pathophysiological action of the type 1 receptor in the myocardium, since that future clinical studies will be developed to establish the effect with its inhibition at the cardiac level.

Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins/metabolism , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Myocardium/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 100-105, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055084


Abstract Background: The emergence of coronary heart disease is increased with menopause, physical inactivity and with dyslipidemia. Physical training is known to promote the improvement of cardiovascular functions. Objective: To investigate the effects of aerobic physical training on the left ventricle in ovariectomized LDL knockout mice. Methods: Thirty animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): Sedentary non-ovariectomized control; Sedentary ovariectomized control; Trained ovariectomized control; Sedentary non-ovariectomized LDL-knockout, sedentary ovariectomized LDL-knockout and trained ovariectomized LDL-knockout. We analyzed the average parameters of apparent density of collagen fibers types I and III, and metalloproteinase type 2 and type 9, were considered significant p < 0.05. Results: The results showed that the proposed exercise protocol altered the volume of type I collagen fibers, altered collagen remodeling parameters (MMP-2), and also reduced the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) oxidative stress parameter. Conclusion: Moderate intensity aerobic training acts on collagen fiber volume, on collagen remodeling with the reduction of oxidative stress in the left ventricles of ovariectomized LDL-knockout mice.

Resumo Fundamento: O surgimento da doença cardíaca coronariana aumenta com a menopausa, inatividade física e dislipidemia. Sabe-se que o treinamento físico promove a melhora das funções cardiovasculares Objectivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento físico aeróbico sobre o ventrículo esquerdo em camundongos LDL knockout ovariectomizadas. Métodos: Trinta animais foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5): controle sedentário não ovariectomizado, controle sedentário ovariectomizado, controle treinado ovariectomizado, sedentário LDL-knockout não ovariectomizado, sedentário LDL-knockout ovariectomizado e treinado LDL-knockout ovariectomizado. Analisamos os parâmetros médios da densidade de volume de fibras colágenas tipo I e III, e metaloproteinases 2 e 9. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que o protocolo de exercício proposto alterou o volume de fibras colágenas do tipo I e os parâmetros de remodelamento do colágeno (MMP-2), e ainda reduziu o parâmetro de estresse oxidativo do 8-hidroxi-2'-deoxiganosina (8-OhdG). Conclusão: O treinamento aeróbico de intensidade moderada age sobre o volume das fibras colágenas e sobre o remodelamento de colágeno, com redução do estresse oxidativo em ventrículos esquerdos de camundongos ovariectomizados LDLr Knockout.

Animals , Female , Rats , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Models, Animal
Acta cir. bras ; 35(12): e351206, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152686


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-carnitine on myocardial injury in rats with heatstroke. Methods: orty-eight rats were randomly divided into control, heatstroke and 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine groups. The last three groups were treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine, respectively, for seven successive days. Then, except for the control group, the other four groups were transferred into the environment with ambient temperature of (39.5 ± 0.4 °C) and relative humidity of (13.5 ± 2.1%) for 2 h. The core temperature (Tc), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and serum and myocardial indexes were detected. Results: Compared with the heatstroke group, in the 100 mg/kg L-carnitine group, the Tc was significantly decreased, the MAP and HR were significantly increased, the serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β levels were significantly decreased, the myocardial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly increased, the myocardial malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis index and myocardial caspase-3 protein expression level were remarkably decreased (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The L-carnitine pretreatment can alleviate the myocardial injury in heatstroke rats through reducing the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

Animals , Carnitine/pharmacology , Heat Stroke/metabolism , Heat Stroke/drug therapy , Rats , Oxidative Stress , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8969, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089337


This study investigated the repercussions of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) on body composition and the structural organization of the soleus and cardiac muscles, including their vascularization, at different times of disease manifestation. Male rats were submitted to AIA induction by intradermal administration of 100 μL of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (50 mg/mL), in the right hind paw. Animals submitted to AIA were studied 4 (AIA4), 15 (AIA15), and 40 (AIA40) days after AIA induction as well as a control group of animals not submitted to AIA. Unlike the control animals, AIA animals did not gain body mass throughout the evolution of the disease. AIA reduced food consumption, but only on the 40th day after induction. In the soleus muscle, AIA reduced the wet mass in a time-dependent manner but increased the capillary density by the 15th day and the fiber density by both 15 and 40 days after induction. The diameter of the soleus fiber decreased from the 4th day after AIA induction as well as the capillary/fiber ratio, which was most evident on the 40th day. Moreover, AIA induced slight histopathological changes in the cardiac muscle that were more evident on the 15th day after induction. In conclusion, AIA-induced changes in body composition as well as in the soleus muscle fibers and vasculature have early onset but are more evident by the 15th day after induction. Moreover, the heart may be a target organ of AIA, although less sensitive than skeletal muscles.

Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/pathology , Body Composition , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Arthritis, Experimental/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardium/metabolism
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5022, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090060


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on insulin signaling in cardiac tissue of obese mice. Methods Thirty Swiss mice were equally divided (n=10) into three groups: Control Group, Obese Group, and Obese Group Treated with N-acetylcysteine. After obesity and insulin resistance were established, the obese mice were treated with N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 50mg/kg daily for 15 days via oral gavage. Results Higher blood glucose levels and nitrite and carbonyl contents, and lower protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and phosphorylated protein kinase B were observed in the obese group when compared with their respective control. On the other hand, treatment with N-acetylcysteine was effective in reducing blood glucose levels and nitrite and carbonyl contents, and significantly increased protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and phosphorylated protein kinase B compared to the Obese Group. Conclusion Obesity and/or a high-lipid diet may result in oxidative stress and insulin resistance in the heart tissue of obese mice, and the use of N-acetylcysteine as a methodological and therapeutic strategy suggested there is a relation between them.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos do estresse oxidativo sobre a sinalização da insulina em tecido cardíaco de camundongos obesos. Métodos Utilizaram-se 30 camundongos Swiss subdivididos igualmente (n=10) em três grupos: Grupo Controle, Grupo Obeso e Grupo Obeso Tratado com N-acetilcisteína. Após estabelecidas a obesidade e a resistência à insulina, os camundongos obesos foram tratados diariamente, durante 15 dias, via gavagem oral, com N-acetilcisteína na dose de 50mg/kg. Resultados Observaram-se maiores níveis de glicose sanguínea, conteúdos de nitrito e carbonil, e menores níveis proteicos de glutationa peroxidase e proteína quinase B fosforilada no Grupo Obeso quando comparado a seu respectivo controle. Por outro lado, o tratamento com N-acetilcisteína se mostrou eficiente em diminuir os níveis glicêmicos, os conteúdos de nitrito e carbonil, e aumentar significativamente os níveis proteicos de glutationa peroxidase e proteína quinase B fosforilada, quando comparados ao Grupo Obeso. Conclusão Obesidade e/ou dieta hiperlipídica levam a estresse oxidativo e à resistência à insulina no tecido cardíaco de camundongos obesos, e o uso da N-acetilcisteína como estratégia metodológica e terapêutica sugeriu haver relação entre ambos.

Humans , Animals , Male , Mice , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diet, High-Fat , Myocardium/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight , Blotting, Western , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protein Carbonylation , Fluoresceins/analysis
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 67-75, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973833


Abstract Background: Prenatal stress may increase risk of developing cardiovascular disorders in adulthood. The cardiotoxic effects of catecholamines are mediated via prolonged adrenergic receptor stimulation and increased oxidative stress upon their degradation by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). Objectives: We investigated long-term effects of prenatal stress on β (1, 2, 3) adrenergic receptors and MAO-A gene expression in the hearts of adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to unpredictable mild stress during the third week of gestation. RNA was isolated from left ventricular apex and base of adult offspring. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression in collected ventricular tissue samples. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Results: β3 adrenergic receptor mRNA was undetectable in rat left ventricle. β1 adrenergic receptor was the predominantly expressed subtype at the apical and basal left ventricular myocardium in the control females. Male offspring from unstressed mothers displayed higher apical cardiac β1 than β2 adrenergic receptor mRNA levels. However, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor mRNAs were similarly expressed at the ventricular basal myocardium in males. Unlike males, prenatally stressed females exhibited decreased β1 adrenergic receptor mRNA expression at the apical myocardium. Prenatal stress did not affect cardiac MAO-A gene expression. Conclusions: Collectively, our results show that prenatal stress may have exerted region- and sex-specific β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor expression patterns within the left ventricle.

Resumo Fundamento: Estresse pré-natal pode aumentar os riscos de desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares na idade adulta. Os efeitos cardiotóxicos de catecolaminas são mediados pela estimulação prolongada dos receptores adrenérgicos e pelo aumento do estresse oxidativo após sua degradação pela monoamina oxidase A (MAO-A). Objetivos: Investigamos os efeitos a longo prazo de estresse pré-natal nos receptores β (1, 2, 3) adrenérgicos e na expressão do gene MAO-A nos corações da prole adulta de ratos. Método: Ratas prenhes foram expostas a estresse crônico moderado imprevisível durante a terceira semana de gestação. O RNA foi isolado do ápice e da base do ventrículo esquerdo da prole adulta. Utilizou-se PCR quantitativa em tempo real para medir a expressão gênica nas amostras de tecido ventricular coletadas. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em p < 0,05. Resultados: Foi indetectável o mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β3 no ventrículo esquerdo dos ratos. O receptor adrenérgico β1 foi o subtipo mais expresso no miocárdio ventricular esquerdo apical e basal nas fêmeas controle. A prole masculina das mães não estressadas apresentou níveis cardíacos apicais de mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β1 mais altos do que os de β2. Porém, mRNAs dos receptores adrenérgicos β1 e β2 foram expressos de forma semelhante no miocárdio basal ventricular na prole masculina em geral. Ao contrário da prole masculina, a prole feminina exposta ao estresse pré-natal exibiu uma expressão diminuída do mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β1 no miocárdio apical. O estresse pré-natal não afetou a expressão gênica de MAO-A cardíaca. Conclusões: Coletivamente, nossos resultados mostram que estresse pré-natal pode ter exercido padrões de expressão região- e sexo-específica dos receptores adrenérgicos β1 e β2 no ventrículo esquerdo.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Pregnancy, Animal/psychology , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/analysis , Monoamine Oxidase/analysis , Myocardium/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reference Values , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Gene Expression , Sex Factors , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Monoamine Oxidase/genetics , Mothers/psychology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 291-302, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958412


Abstract The heat shock proteins are endogenous proteins with the ability to act as molecular chaperones. Methods that provide cell protection by way of some damage can positively influence the results of surgery. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective role of the heat shock proteins as occurs in heart damage, including relevant information about the stresses that regulate the expression of these proteins and their potential role as biomarkers of heart disease.

Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Heat-Shock Proteins/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/analysis , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/chemistry
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(3): e1383, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949243


ABSTRACT Background: The role of autonomic nervous system in the development and maintenance of portal hypertension is not fully elucidated. It is known that the gene expression of norepinephrine in the superior mesenteric artery varies with time, and it may contribute for splanchnic vasodilation and its consequent hemodynamic repercussions. It is still not known exactly how the adrenergic expression behaves at the heart level in the initial stages of this process. Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase), involved in the synthesis of norepinephrine, in the myocardium of rats submitted to partial ligation of the portal vein. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Sham Operated and Portal Hypertension. The partial ligation was performed in the Portal Hypertension group, and after 1/6/24 h and 3/5/14 days the animals were euthanized. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to quantify the expression of the stained enzyme using the ImageJ program. Results: The Portal Hypertension group expressed percentages between 4.6-6% of the marked area, while the Sham Operated group varied between 4-5%. Although there was no statistical significance, the percentage stained in the Portal Hypertension group followed an increasing pattern in the first 6 h and a decreasing pattern after 24 h, which was not observed in the Sham Operated group. Conclusion: The expression of noradrenaline in rat myocardium during the first two weeks after partial ligation of the portal vein, with tyrosine hydroxylase as marker, did not show differences between groups over time.

RESUMO Racional: O papel do sistema nervoso autônomo na hipertensão portal não está completamente elucidado. Sabe-se que, nessa condição, a expressão gênica da norepinefrina na artéria mesentérica superior modifica-se com o tempo, podendo ser importante contribuinte para a vasodilatação esplâncnica e suas repercussões hemodinâmicas. Apesar dos estudos sobre as repercussões cardiovasculares na hipertensão portal, ainda não se sabe como a expressão adrenérgica se comporta a nível cardíaco nas etapas iniciais desse processo. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão imunoistoquímica da enzima tirosina hidroxilase (tirosina 3-mono-oxigenase), relacionada à síntese da norepinefrina, no miocárdio de ratos submetidos à ligadura parcial da veia porta. Métodos: Foram utilizados 24 ratos, distribuídos em dois grupos: Sham Operated e Hipertensão Portal. A ligadura parcial da veia porta foi realizada apenas no grupo Hipertensão Portal e, após 1/6/24 h e 3/5/14 dias, os animais foram eutanasiados. Foi feita a análise imunoistoquímica para quantificar a expressão da enzima corada, utilizando o programa ImageJ. Resultados: No grupo Hipertensão Portal, o miocárdio expressou percentuais entre 4,6-6% de área marcada, enquanto que no grupo Sham Operated variou entre 4-5%, sem significância estatística. Apenas no grupo Hipertensão Portal, a porcentagem corada pela enzima seguiu padrão crescente nas primeiras 6 h e decrescente após 24 h. Conclusão: A expressão da noradrenalina no miocárdio de ratos durante as primeiras duas semanas após a ligadura parcial da veia porta, tendo como marcador a enzima tirosina hidroxilase, não apresentou diferenças entre grupos ao longo do tempo.

Animals , Male , Rats , Norepinephrine/biosynthesis , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/biosynthesis , Catecholamines/physiology , Norepinephrine/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e6921, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951749


Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent and difficult illnesses in pregnancy, which jeopardizes both mother and fetus. There are several diagnostic criteria for preeclampsia. However, the preeclampsia-associated myocardial damage has not been described. In this study, we employed reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) to generate a rat model of preeclampsia for the evaluation of myocardial damage in late-gestation rats. The expressions of cardiac injury markers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The arterial pressure and myocardial tissue velocities were also measured. The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in RUPP-associated myocardial damage was further explored. The results showed that RUPP rats had significant myocardial damage, as demonstrated by the high expressions of myoglobin, creatine kinase isoenzyme, cardiac troponin I, and brain natriuretic peptide. In addition, RUPP increased the mean arterial pressure and the early transmitral flow velocity to mitral annulus early diastolic velocity ratio (E/Ea). Furthermore, IL-6 deteriorated these abnormalities, whereas inhibition of IL-6 significantly relieved them. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that RUPP rats displayed myocardial damage in an IL-6-dependent manner.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Perfusion , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Random Allocation , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color , Troponin I/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/metabolism , Arterial Pressure , Heart/drug effects , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Myoglobin/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7508, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951712


The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of aerobic exercise (AE) lasting 12 weeks to that of resistance exercise (RE) of the same duration on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cardiac muscle of middle-aged obese rats. Obesity was induced in thirty 50-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats over 6 weeks by administration of a high-fat diet. The rats were then subjected to treadmill-running (AE) and ladder-climbing (RE) exercises 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Rats in the AE group showed significantly lower increases in body weight and intraperitoneal fat than those in the sedentary control (SC) group (P<0.05). The 12-week exercise regimes resulted in a significant increase in expression of mitochondrial biogenesis markers and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α in the cardiac muscle (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase, an ER stress marker, decreased significantly (P<0.05) after the exercise training. Although a trend for decreased C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression was observed in both exercise groups, only the AE group had a statistically significant decrease (P<0.05). Levels of GRP78, an ER stress marker that protects cardiac muscle, did not significantly differ among the groups. Although only the AE group decreased body weight and fat mass, the two exercise regimes had similar effects on cardiac muscle with the exception of CHOP. Therefore, we suggest that both AE, which results in weight loss, and high-intensity RE, though not accompanied by weight loss, protect obese cardiac muscle effectively.

Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Organelle Biogenesis , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , Diet, High-Fat , Myocardium/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Running , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Resistance Training , Obesity/physiopathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e7033, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889046


In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV) tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP) and high running performance (HRP) rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified). We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase), whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2). In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.

Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Running/physiology , Proteins/metabolism , Heart Function Tests/methods , Myocardium/metabolism , Organ Size , Rats, Inbred Strains , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Proteins/isolation & purification , Contractile Proteins/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics , Desmin/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 516-526, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887983


Abstract Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) could provide tissue-protective effect at a remote site by anti-inflammatory, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of remote IPreC on myocardium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in streptozotocin- induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. Methods: 48 male Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC+MCAo, STZ+IPreC, STZ+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo groups. We induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes, and performed IPreC 72 hours before transient MCAo. Remote myocardial injury was investigated histopathologically. Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) of myocardial tissue were measured by colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress index(OSI) was calculated as TOS-to-TAS ratio. For all statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: We observed serious damage including necrosis, congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in myocardial tissue of the diabetic and ischemic groups. In these groups TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher; TAS levels were lower than those of IPreC related groups (p < 0.05). IPreC had markedly improved histopathological alterations and increased TAS levels in IPreC+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo compared to MCAo and STZ+MCAo groups (p < 0.05). In non-diabetic rats, MCAo activated apoptotic cell death via increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. IPreC reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing pro-apoptotic proteins. Diabetes markedly increased apoptotic protein levels and the effect did not reversed by IPreC. Conclusions: We could suggest that IPreC attenuates myocardial injury via ameliorating histological findings, activating antioxidant mechanisms, and inducing antiapoptotic activity in diabetic rats.

Resumo Fundamentos: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto (IPreC) poderia fornecer efeito protetor de tecido em um local remoto por vias de sinalização anti-inflamatórias, neuronais e humorais. Objetivos: O objetivo do estudo foi investigar os possíveis efeitos protetores do IPreC remoto no miocárdio após a oclusão transitória da artéria cerebral média (MCAo) em ratos com diabetes induzida por estreptozotocina (STZ) e ratos não diabéticos. Métodos: 48 ratos Spraque Dawley machos foram divididos em oito grupos: grupos Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC + MCAo, STZ + IPreC, STZ + MCAo e STZ + IPreC + MCAo. Induzimos MCAo sete dias após a diabetes induzida por STZ e realizamos IPreC 72 horas antes do MCAo. A lesão miocárdica remota foi investigada histopatologicamente. Os níveis de proteína Bax, Bcl2 e caspase-3 foram medidos pela análise Western Blot. O estado de antioxidante total (TAS), e o estado de oxidação total (TOS) do tecido miocárdico foram medidos por meio de um estudo colorimétrico. O índice de estresse oxidativo (OSI) foi calculado como a relação TOS-TAS. Para todas as análises estatísticas, os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Observamos danos graves, incluindo necrose, congestão e infiltração de células mononucleares no tecido miocárdico dos grupos diabético e isquêmico. Nesses grupos os níveis de TOS e OSI foram significativamente maiores; os níveis de TAS foram inferiores aos dos grupos relacionados com IPreC (p < 0,05). O IPreC melhorou marcadamente as alterações histopatológicas e aumentou os níveis de TAS em IPreC + MCAo e STZ + IPreC + MCAo em comparação com os grupos MCAo e STZ + MCAo (p < 0,05). Em ratos não diabéticos, MCAo activou a morte celular apoptótica através do aumento da relação Bax / Bcl2 e dos níveis de caspase-3. IPreC reduziu a morte celular apoptótica pela supressão de proteínas pró-apoptóticas. O diabetes aumentou acentuadamente os níveis de proteína apoptótica e o efeito não foi revertido pelo IPreC. Conclusões: Podemos sugerir que o IPreC atenua a lesão miocárdica através da melhora dos achados histológicos, ativando mecanismos antioxidantes e induzindo atividade antiapoptótica em ratos diabéticos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Antioxidants/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(5): 404-409, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887965


Abstract Background: Hyperlipidemia, which is characterized by an elevation of lipids in the bloodstream, is a major risk factor for cardiac disease. Objectives: The present study investigated the role of fibrosis in the progression of hyperlipidemia in the mice heart, and whether mast cell activation was associated with the fibrosis process. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was produced in C57BL / 6 mice by feeding them on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks.To assess tissue fibrosis, picrosirius red staining was performed. Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in the hearts. Immunohistochemistry was also accomplished to determine the localization of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of chymase, tryptase, TGF-β, α-SMA and activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. At the end, serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured. All the values were expressed as means ± SD, the statistical significance level adopted was 5%. Results: Hyperlipidemia mice showed significantly increased collagen deposition in the hearts compared with normal mice. In addition, H&E staining showed significant cellular degeneration. Cardiac muscle was arranged in disorder with fracture in mice of the model group. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of tryptase, chymase, β-catenin, TGF-β and α-SMA were significantly increased in the hyperlipidemia mice compared with the control group. Conclusions: The results indicated that mast cell activation might induce cardiac fibrosis by tryptase and chymase in hyperlipidemia, which had a close relationship with the increased activity of TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Resumo Fundamentos: A hiperlipidemia, que se caracteriza por uma elevação dos lipídeos na corrente sanguínea, é um importante fator de risco para a doença cardíaca. Objetivos: O presente estudo investigou o papel da fibrose na progressão da hiperlipidemia no coração do rato e se a ativação dos mastócitos estava associada ao processo de fibrose. Método: A hiperlipidemia foi produzida em ratos C57BL/6 alimentando-os com uma dieta rica em gordura durante 8 semanas. Para avaliar a fibrose tecidual, foi realizada coloração vermelha picro-Sirius. A coloração com hematoxilina e eosina (H & E) foi feita para identificar as alterações histopatológicas nos corações. A imuno-histoquímica também foi levada a cabo para determinar a localização do fator de crescimento transformante (TGF) -β e α-actina do músculo liso (α-SMA). O Western Blot foi realizado para analisar as expressões de quimase, triptase, TGF-β, α-SMA e a atividade da via Wnt / β-catenina. Finalmente, se mediram os níveis séricos de colesterol total (TC) e triglicerídeos (TG). Todos os valores foram expressos como média ± DP, o nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Os ratos hiperlipidêmicos mostraram aumento significativo da deposição de colágeno nos corações em comparação com ratos normais. Além disso, a coloração de H & E mostrou degeneração celular significativa. O músculo cardíaco estava em desordem com ruptura de fibras em ratos do grupo modelo. A análise imuno-histoquímica e o Western Blot revelaram que os níveis de expressão de triptase, quimase, β-catenina, TGF-β e α-SMA estavam significativamente aumentados nos ratos hiperlipidêmicos em comparação com o grupo controle. Conclusões: Os resultados indicaram que a ativação de mastócitos pode induzir fibrose cardíaca por triptase e quimase em hiperlipidemia, a qual teve uma relação estreita com a atividade aumentada da via TGF-β / Wnt / β-catenina.

Animals , Rats , Collagen/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Mast Cells/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperlipidemias/etiology , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Mast Cells/chemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardium/metabolism
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(3): 287-292, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899520


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar as modificações na concentração sanguínea do lactato e da saturação de oxigênio em pacientes no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. Métodos: Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 35 pacientes, de forma rápida e aleatória, do acesso arterial e das portas proximal e distal de um cateter pulmonar. Resultados: Não foram verificadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre saturação de oxigênio no átrio direito (72% ± 0,11%) e na artéria pulmonar (71% ± 0,08%). A concentração sanguínea de lactato no átrio direito foi de 1,7mmol/L ± 0,5mmol/L, enquanto na artéria pulmonar esta concentração foi de 1,6mmol/L ± 0,5mmol/L (p < 0,0005). Conclusão: A diferença entre as concentrações sanguíneas de lactato no átrio direito e na artéria pulmonar pode ser consequência da baixa concentração de lactato no sangue do seio coronário, já que o lactato é um importante substrato para o miocárdio durante este período. A ausência de diferenças entre saturação sanguínea de oxigênio no átrio direito e na artéria pulmonar sugere extração de oxigênio mais baixa pelo miocárdio, em razão do menor consumo de oxigênio.

ABSTRACT Objective: This prospective study aimed to characterize the changes in blood lactate concentration and blood oxygen saturation in patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 35 patients in a rapid and random order from the arterial line and from the proximal and distal port of a pulmonary artery catheter. Results: The results showed no statistically significant differences between the blood oxygen saturation in the right atrium (72% ± 0.11%) and the blood oxygen saturation in the pulmonary artery (71% ± 0.08%). The blood lactate concentration in the right atrium was 1.7mmol/L ± 0.5mmol/L, and the blood lactate concentration in the pulmonary artery was 1.6mmol/L ± 0.5mmol/L (p < 0.0005). Conclusion: The difference between the blood lactate concentration in the right atrium and the blood lactate concentration in the pulmonary artery might be a consequence of the low blood lactate concentration in the blood from the coronary sinus, as it constitutes an important substrate for the myocardium during this period. The lack of differences between the blood oxygen saturation in the right atrium and the percentage of blood oxygen saturation in the pulmonary artery suggests a lower oxygen extraction by the myocardium given a lower oxygen consumption.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Postoperative Period , Pulmonary Artery , Prospective Studies , Heart Atria , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(1): 63-70, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887895


Abstract Background: The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results: LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion: GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium.

Resumo Fundamento: A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Métodos: Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de 60 dias de idade foram medidos por meio de um método indireto de manguito de cauda usando um eletro esfigmomanômetro. Os corações (d60) foram coletados para avaliação da expressão de RNAm da conexina 43 (Cx43) e análise morfológica e morfométrica. Resultados: A prole BP não mostrou diferença no peso corporal, embora tenha nascido mais leve do que a prole PN. Os níveis de PA foram significativamente mais altos no grupo BP. Observou-se um aumento significativo na área ocupada pelas fibras colágenas, diminuição do número de cardiomiócitos em 104 µm2 e aumento da área de cardiomiócitos associada ao aumento da expressão de Cx43. Conclusão: A RPG altera os níveis miocárdicos de RNAm de Cx43 em ratos adultos jovens, sugerindo que este mecanismo visa compensar o processo fibrótico pelo acúmulo de fibras de colágeno no interstício cardíaco.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Myocardium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Connexin 43/analysis
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(1): 54-62, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887892


Abstract Background: Crocin is reported to have a wide range of biological activities such as cardiovascular protection. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crocin and voluntary exercise on miR-126 and miR-210 expression levels and angiogenesis in the heart tissue. Methods: Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, exercise, crocin, and exercise-crocin. Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Akt, ERK1/2 protein levels, miR-126 and miR-210 expression were measured in the heart tissue. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect CD31 in the heart tissue. Results: Akt and ERK1/2 levels of the heart tissue were higher in crocin treated group and voluntary exercise trained group after 8 weeks. Combination of crocin and exercise also significantly enhanced Akt and ERK1/2 levels in the heart tissue. MiR-126, miR-210 expression and CD31 in the heart increased in both crocin and voluntary exercise groups compared with control group. In addition, combination of exercise and crocin amplified their effect on miR-126 and miR-210 expression, and angiogenesis. Conclusion: Crocin and voluntary exercise improve heart angiogenesis possibly through enhancement of miR-126 and miR-210 expression. Voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with crocin could have beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Resumo Fundamentos: A crocina tem uma vasta gama de atividades biológicas, tais como a proteção cardiovascular. Estudos epidemiológicos recentes demonstraram que o exercício reduz a morbidade e a mortalidade cardiovasculares na população em geral. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da crocina e do exercício voluntário nos níveis de expressão miR-126 e miR-210 e na angiogênese no tecido cardíaco. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: controle, exercício, crocina e exercício-crocina. Os animais receberam a administração oral de crocina (50 mg/kg) ou realizaram exercício voluntário sozinhos ou em conjunto durante 8 semanas. Os níveis de proteína Akt, ERK1/2, e a expressão de miR-126 e miR-210 foram medidos no tecido cardíaco. O método imunohistoquímico foi utilizado para detectar CD31 no tecido cardíaco. Resultados: Os níveis de Akt e ERK1/2 do tecido cardíaco foram maiores no grupo tratado com crocina e no grupo de exercício voluntário após 8 semanas. A combinação de crocina e exercício também aumentou significativamente os níveis de Akt e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco. A expressão de MiR-126, miR-210 e CD31 no coração aumentou tanto em no grupo de crocina como no grupo de exercício voluntário em comparação com o grupo de controle. Além disso, a combinação de exercício e crocina amplificou seu efeito na expressão de miR-126 e miR-210 e angiogênese. Conclusão: A Crocina e o exercício voluntário melhoram a angiogênese cardíaca possivelmente através do aumento da expressão de miR-126 e miR-210. O exercício voluntário e a suplementação dietética com crocina podem ter efeitos benéficos na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares.

Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , MAP Kinase Signaling System
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 147-153, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794560


Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart.

Resumo Fundamento: Deficiência de hormônio da tireoide durante vida fetal pode afetar a função cardíaca no futuro. O mecanismo subjacente dessa ação em hipotireoidismo fetal (HF) em ratos ainda não tem explicação. Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar o efeito de HF na função cardíaca em ratos macho e determinar a contribuição da α-miosina de cadeia pesada (α-MCP) e de isoformas β-MCP. Métodos: Seis ratos fêmea gestantes foram aleatoriamente divididas em dois grupos. O grupo do hipotireoidismo recebeu água contendo 6-propil-2-tiouracil durante a gestação, e os ratos no grupo de controle receberam água de torneira. Os filhotes dos ratos foram testados quando atingiram idade adulta. O coração dos ratos HF e controle foram isolados e submetidos a perfusão pelo método de Langendorff para medição de parâmetros hemodinâmicos. Também foram medidas as expressões de mRNA do coração de α-MCP e β-MCP por qPCR. Resultados: PVED de base (74,0 ± 3,1 vs. 92,5 ± 3,2 mmHg, p < 0,05) e pressão arterial (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 batidas/min, p < 0,05) mostraram-se mais baixas em ratos HF do que em ratos controle. Além disso, esses resultados mostraram a mesma significância em ±dp/dt. Em ratos HF, a expressão de β-MCP foi mais alta (201%) e a de α-MCP foi mais baixa (47%) do que em ratos controle. Conclusão: Deficiência de hormônio da tireoide durante a vida fetal pode enfraquecer funções cardíacas normais em ratos adultos, efeito devido em parte à expressão aumentada de β-MCP em relação a α-MCP no coração.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Body Weight/drug effects , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , Congenital Hypothyroidism/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Propylthiouracil , Antithyroid Agents , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Congenital Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Congenital Hypothyroidism/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 456-462, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787264


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of β-myrcene (MYR) on oxidative and histological damage in mice heart tissue caused global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in C57BL/J6 mice. METHODS: Animals(n=40) were randomly divided into four groups: (1)control, (2)IR, (3)MYR and (4)MYR+IR. The control group was received 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose as a vehicle following a medial incision without carotid occlusion. In the IR group, the bilateral carotid arteries were clipped for 15min, and treated with the vehicle intraperitoneally(ip) for 10 days. MYR (200mg/kg) was received dissolved in 0.1%CMC for 10 days. In the MYR+IR group, the IR model was applied exactly as in the IR group, and then they were treated with MYR 10 days. RESULTS: The cerebral IR caused oxidative damage (increase TBARS, decrease antioxidant parameters). Treatment of MYR was increased in GSH,GPx,CAT,SOD activity while TBARS level was decreased. In addition, degenerative changes in I/R group heart tissue were ameliorated by MYR administration. CONCLUSİON: The administration of β-myrcene protects oxidative and histological damage in the heart tissue after global ischemia-reperfusion and may be useful safe alternative treatment for cardiac tissue after ischemic stroke.

Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Brain Ischemia/complications , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Random Allocation , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(1): 41-48, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771055


Abstract Background: Sleep deprivation (SD) is strongly associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To determine the effect of SD on basal hemodynamic functions and tolerance to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in male rats. Method: SD was induced by using the flowerpot method for 4 days. Isolated hearts were perfused with Langendorff setup, and the following parameters were measured at baseline and after IR: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP); heart rate (HR); and the maximum rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt). Heart NOx level, infarct size and coronary flow CK-MB and LDH were measured after IR. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at start and end of study. Results: In the SD group, the baseline levels of LVDP (19%), +dp/dt (18%), and -dp/dt (21%) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, and HR (32%) was significantly higher compared to the controls. After ischemia, hearts from SD group displayed a significant increase in HR together with a low hemodynamic function recovery compared to the controls. In the SD group, NOx level in heart, coronary flow CK-MB and LDH and infarct size significantly increased after IR; also SD rats had higher SBP after 4 days. Conclusion: Hearts from SD rats had lower basal cardiac function and less tolerance to IR injury, which may be linked to an increase in NO production following IR.

Resumo Fundamento: A privação de sono (PS) acha-se fortemente associada a alto risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da PS nas funções hemodinâmicas basais e tolerância à lesão miocárdica de isquemia‑reperfusão (IR) em ratos machos. Métodos: A PS foi induzida com o método da plataforma única por 4 dias. Utilizou-se o modelo de perfusão de coração isolado de Langendorff, medindo-se os seguintes parâmetros nas condições basais e após IR: pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), frequência cardíaca (FC) e taxa máxima de aumento e redução da pressão do ventrículo esquerdo (±dp/dt). O nível cardíaco de NOx, o tamanho do infarto e os níveis de CK-MB e LDH no efluente coronário foram medidos após IR. A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) foi medida no início e no final do estudo. Resultados: No grupo PS, os valores basais de PDVE (19%), +dp/dt (18%) e-dp/dt (21%) foram significativamente mais baixos (p < 0,05), e a FC (32%) significativamente mais alta em comparação aos dos controles. Após isquemia, os corações do grupo PS apresentavam um significativo aumento da FC além de uma menor recuperação da função hemodinâmica em comparação aos dos controles. No grupo PS, os níveis de NOx no coração e de CK-MB e LDH no efluente coronário, além do tamanho do infarto, foram significativamente maiores após IR. O grupo PS também apresentou maior PAS após 4 dias. Conclusão: Os corações do grupo PS apresentaram menor função cardíaca basal e menor tolerância à lesão de IR, o que pode estar relacionado ao aumento da produção de NO após IR.

Animals , Male , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Sleep Deprivation/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Sleep Deprivation/metabolism , Time Factors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1115-1121, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762912


The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in heart tissues in response to different frequencies of intermittent hypoxia (IH) and the antioxidant tempol were evaluated. Wistar rats (64 males, 200-220 g) were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups and 2 control groups. Four groups were exposed to IH 10, 20, 30, or 40 times/h. The other 2 experimental groups were challenged with IH (30 times/h) plus tempol, either beginning on day 0 (IH30T0) or on day 29 (IH30T29). After 6 weeks of challenge, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and interleukin-10 were measured, and western blot analysis was used to detect NF-κB p65 and HIF-1α in myocardial tissues. Serum levels of TNF-α and ICAM-1 and myocardial expression of NF-κB p65 and HIF-1α were all significantly higher in IH rats than in controls (P<0.001). Increased IH frequency resulted in more significant changes. Administration of tempol in IH rats significantly reduced levels of TNF-α, ICAM-1, NF-κB and HIF-1α compared with the non-tempol-treated group (F=16.936, P<0.001). IH induced an inflammatory response in a frequency-dependent manner. Additionally, HIF-1α and NF-κB were increased following IH administration. Importantly, tempol treatment attenuated this effect.

Animals , Male , Hypoxia/complications , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Cyclic N-Oxides/administration & dosage , Inflammation/prevention & control , Hypoxia/blood , Blood Gas Analysis , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/analysis , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , /blood , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , NF-kappa B/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Spin Labels , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood