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2.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292025

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A identificação precoce do dano miocárdico parece ser importante na abordagem do paciente com doença de Chagas. A ecocardiografia com strain obtida por speckle tracking e a avaliação da fibrose miocárdica por meio da ressonância magnética cardíaca podem ser métodos diagnósticos promissores nesse sentido. Objetivo: Avaliar o acometimento miocárdico especificamente na forma crônica cardíaca leve da doença de Chagas por meio do strain por speckle tracking e da fibrose miocárdica pela ressonância magnética cardíaca, além de suas correlações. Método: Estudo de corte transversal que analisou portadores da forma cardíaca crônica leve da doença de Chagas (fração de ejeção preservada) submetidos à ecocardiografia com strain por speckle tracking e à ressonância magnética cardíaca. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 participantes (mulheres: 62%; idade: 54 ± 5 anos). A prevalência de fibrose miocárdica por meio do realce tardio miocárdico foi de 50%. O strain longitudinal global encontrava-se diminuído em 17 pacientes (81%), com mediana de 14,1% (intervalo interquartil de 12,1 a 16,3). Os valores do mapa T1 encontravam-se, em média, elevados nos portadores de doença de Chagas (993 ± 163 ms). O mapa T1 foi significativamente correlacionado com o strain longitudinal global (r= 0,634; p = 0,015). Além disso, o índice de dispersão mecânica, obtido por strain, estava aumentado (> 55 ms) em 84%, com a maior área sob a curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (área sob a curva de 0,696; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 0,412-0,981) para discriminação de fibrose pelo realce tardio miocárdico. Conclusão: O strain miocárdico e o mapa T1 se comportam como marcadores precoces do dano miocárdico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica leve. O índice de dispersão mecânica estava elevado e foi o parâmetro que melhor se correlacionou com o realce tardio miocárdico. (AU)


Background: The early identification of myocardial damage seems important in the management of patients with Chagas disease. However, it is unknown whether speckle tracking echocardiography strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are promising methods for assessing myocardial involvement and fibrosis, respectively. Objective: To evaluate myocardial involvement in the mild chronic cardiac form of Chagas disease using speckle tracking strain and myocardial fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance and assess their correlations. Method: This cross-sectional study analyzed patients with the mild chronic cardiac form of Chagas disease (preserved ejection fraction) using speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: The study included 21 participants (women: 62%; age: 54 ± 5 years). The prevalence of myocardial fibrosis was 50% on delayed myocardial enhancement. The median global longitudinal strain was decreased (14.1%; interquartile range, 12.1­16.3%) in 17 patients (81%). The mean T1 mapping value was high in patients with Chagas disease (993 ± 163 ms). The T1 map was significantly correlated with the global longitudinal strain (r = 0.634; p = 0.015). In addition, the mechanical dispersion index obtained by strain was increased (>55 ms) by 84%, with the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve, 0.696; 95% confidence interval, 0.412­0.981) for fibrosis discrimination by delayed myocardial enhancement. Conclusion: Myocardial strain and T1 mapping are early markers of myocardial damage in mild chronic Chagas heart disease. The mechanical dispersion index was high and the most closely correlated with delayed myocardial enhancement. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Fibrosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Linear Models , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve
3.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292072

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: O papel da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica em pacientes assintomáticos permanece restrito a situações clínicas muito específicas, muitas delas abordadas nos Critérios de Uso Apropriado (AUC) de Cintilografia de Perfusão Miocárdica. Objetivo: Realizar uma análise crítica da aplicação desses critérios nas indicações de exames realizados em pacientes assintomáticos do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, cuja população é notadamente de alto risco cardiovascular. Métodos: Foram selecionados pacientes assintomáticos que realizaram cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica para pesquisa de isquemia. As indicações dos exames foram classificadas em apropriadas, inapropriadas ou incertas. Hipocaptação fixa, hipocaptação transitória ou dilatação isquêmica transitória foram consideradas exames alterados. Na análise estatística, buscou-se avaliar a correlação entre o grau de recomendação das indicações e a presença de exames alterados. Resultados: A partir de uma seleção inicial de 2.999 prontuários, 490 foram considerados assintomáticos e incluídos conforme critérios de inclusão estabelecidos previamente. Apenas 9,8% das indicações foram inapropriadas, enquanto que 61,4% foram apropriadas, e 28,8% foram incertas. A hipocaptação fixa do radiofármaco ocorreu em 43,5% dos casos e a hipocaptação transitória, em 16,1%. Solicitar o exame de maneira apropriada ou incerta foi fator preditor de exame com resultado alterado nesta população. Conclusão: O uso dos critérios de uso apropriado da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica mostrou-se eficaz em predizer exames alterados em uma população assintomática de alto risco cardiovascular, especialmente no grupo de pacientes com indicação incerta, o que pode significar que algumas das indicações consideradas incertas talvez sejam apropriadas para uma população de alto risco cardiovascular. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Asymptomatic Diseases , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Fibrosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Myocardium/pathology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888215

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Dnm3os plays a critical role in peritendinous fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis, but its role in the process of cardiac fibrosis is still unclear. Therefore, we carried out study by using the myocardial fibrotic tissues obtained by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) in an early study of our group, and the


Subject(s)
Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Humans , Myocardium/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 530-538, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137302

ABSTRACT

Abstract In December 2019, a striking appearance of new cases of viral pneumonia in Wuhan led to the detection of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). By analyzing patients with severe manifestations, it became apparent that 20 to 35% of patients who died had preexisting cardiovascular disease. This finding warrants the important need to discuss the influence of SARS-CoV2 infection on the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics in the context of clinical management, particularly during mechanical ventilation. The SARS-CoV2 enters human cells through the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is important to cardiovascular modulation and endothelial signaling. As ACE2 is highly expressed in lung tissue, patients have been progressing to acute respiratory injury at an alarming frequency during the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 leads to high D-dimer levels and prothrombin time, which indicates a substantial coagulation disorder. It seems that an overwhelming inflammatory and thrombogenic condition is responsible for a mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, with a somewhat near-normal static lung compliance, which describes two types of pulmonary conditions. As such, positive pressure during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) must be applied with caution. The authors of this review appeal to the necessity of paying closer attention to assess microhemodynamic repercussion, by monitoring central venous oxygen saturation during strategies of IMV. It is well known that a severe respiratory infection and a scattered inflammatory process can cause non-ischemic myocardial injury, including progression to myocarditis. Early strategies that guide clinical decisions can be lifesaving and prevent extended myocardial damage. Moreover, cardiopulmonary failure refractory to standard treatment may necessitate the use of extreme therapeutic strategies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hemodynamics , Respiration, Artificial , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Myocardium/pathology
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(2): 273-277, ago., 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131294

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O SARS-CoV-2 é um vírus de RNA emergente associado à doença respiratória aguda grave conhecida como COVID-19. Embora a COVID-19 seja predominantemente uma doença pulmonar, alguns pacientes apresentam graves danos cardiovasculares. Realizamos uma síntese de evidências quantitativas de dados clínicos, biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica e complicações cardíacas associadas ao óbito hospitalar em pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos Buscamos nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Google Scholar para identificar estudos que comparassem dados clínicos, biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica e complicações cardíacas entre pacientes sobreviventes e não sobreviventes da COVID-19. Os tamanhos dos efeitos foram apresentados como diferença média ou diferença média padronizada para variáveis contínuas e razão de risco para variáveis dicotômicas, com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Foi utilizado um modelo de efeitos aleatórios para agrupar os resultados. Resultados Foram incluídos seis estudos retrospectivos que relataram dados de 1.141 pacientes (832 sobreviventes e 309 não sobreviventes). Verificamos que condições cardiovasculares subjacentes; elevação de troponina cardíaca I de alta sensibilidade; N-terminal do pró-hormônio do peptídeo natriurético do tipo B e creatina quinase-MB; e complicações cardíacas foram associadas ao aumento do risco de óbito em pacientes com infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões A confirmação de que condições cardiovasculares subjacentes, elevação de biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica durante a infecção por COVID-19 e descompensação cardiovascular aguda são preditores de mortalidade na infecção por SARS-CoV-2 deve incentivar novas pesquisas para esclarecer possíveis mecanismos e testar tratamentos adequados. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):273-277)


Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging RNA virus associated with a severe acute respiratory disease known as COVID-19. Although COVID-19 is predominantly a pulmonary disease, some patients have severe cardiovascular damage. We performed a quantitative evidence synthesis of clinical data, myocardial injury biomarkers, and cardiac complications associated with in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. Methods We searched the databases PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify studies comparing clinical data, myocardial injury biomarkers, and cardiac complications between non-survivors and survivors of COVID-19. Effect sizes were reported as mean difference or standardized mean difference for continuous variables and risk ratio for dichotomous variables with 95% confidence intervals. A random effects model was used to pool the results. Results Six retrospective studies reporting data from 1,141 patients (832 survivors and 309 non-survivors) were included. We found that underlying cardiovascular conditions; elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatine kinase-MB; and cardiac complications were associated with increased risk of death for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions The confirmation that underlying cardiovascular conditions, elevation of myocardial injury biomarkers during COVID-19 infection, and acute cardiovascular decompensation are predictors for mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection must encourage new research to clarify potential mechanisms and test appropriate treatments. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):273-277)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Myocardium/pathology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8969, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089337

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the repercussions of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) on body composition and the structural organization of the soleus and cardiac muscles, including their vascularization, at different times of disease manifestation. Male rats were submitted to AIA induction by intradermal administration of 100 μL of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (50 mg/mL), in the right hind paw. Animals submitted to AIA were studied 4 (AIA4), 15 (AIA15), and 40 (AIA40) days after AIA induction as well as a control group of animals not submitted to AIA. Unlike the control animals, AIA animals did not gain body mass throughout the evolution of the disease. AIA reduced food consumption, but only on the 40th day after induction. In the soleus muscle, AIA reduced the wet mass in a time-dependent manner but increased the capillary density by the 15th day and the fiber density by both 15 and 40 days after induction. The diameter of the soleus fiber decreased from the 4th day after AIA induction as well as the capillary/fiber ratio, which was most evident on the 40th day. Moreover, AIA induced slight histopathological changes in the cardiac muscle that were more evident on the 15th day after induction. In conclusion, AIA-induced changes in body composition as well as in the soleus muscle fibers and vasculature have early onset but are more evident by the 15th day after induction. Moreover, the heart may be a target organ of AIA, although less sensitive than skeletal muscles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/pathology , Body Composition , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Arthritis, Experimental/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardium/metabolism
10.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(3): 222-232, jul.-sep. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149071

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios tempranos en la función miocárdica en niños con sobrepeso y obesidad, sin hipertensión arterial. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que se incluyeron 150 participantes de ambos sexos entre 6 y 15 años. Se realizaron evaluaciones antropométricas, bioquímicas y de función ventricular mediante métodos ecocardiográficos convencionales y análisis de deformación miocárdica con ecocardiografía bidimensional speckle tracking. La comparación global entre los grupos de estudio (niños con peso normal, sobrepeso y obesidad) se llevó a cabo con la prueba de análisis de varianza (ANOVA) de una vía y análisis post hoc con corrección de Bonferroni para las comparaciones múltiples, y se consideró a los niños con peso normal como grupo de referencia. Resultados: La muestra final fue de 142 participantes, 50 (35%) con peso normal, 39 (28%) con sobrepeso y 53 (37%) con obesidad. El diámetro diastólico del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) y el septum interventricular, y el diámetro de la aurícula izquierda (AI) y la masa del VI fueron significativamente más altos en el grupo con obesidad en comparación con el grupo con peso normal. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los indicadores convencionales de la función sistólica y diastólica ventricular izquierda. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la deformación miocárdica regional entre los tres grupos. La media de deformación miocárdica longitudinal global fue más baja en los pacientes con obesidad (−20.9% vs. −23.5%; p menor 0.05) en comparación con los niños con peso normal. Conclusiones: La obesidad infantil se asoció a alteraciones en la deformación miocárdica, incluso en presencia de fracción de expulsión normal. La evaluación de la deformación miocárdica es relevante en los pacientes pediátricos con obesidad.


Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate early changes in myocardial function in overweight and obese children without hypertension. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 150 participants of both sexes between 6 and 15 years old. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluations were performed. Ventricular function was assessed by conventional echocardiographic methods and myocardial deformation analysis by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. One-way analysis of variance was employed for the global comparison of study variables between groups (children with normal weight, overweight and obesity), and post hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparison, considering normal-weight children as the reference category. Results: Overall, 142 participants were included, 50 (35%) with normal weight, 39 (28%) overweight and 53 (37%) obesity. Diastolic diameter of the left ventricular (LV) and interventricular septum, diameter of the left atrium and LV mass were significantly higher in children with obesity compared to those with normal weight. No significant differences in the conventional indicators of LV systolic and diastolic function were found between groups. Significant differences in the regional myocardial deformation between the three groups were observed. Mean global longitudinal myocardial deformation was smaller in patients with obesity (−20.9% vs. −23.5%, p less 0.05) compared to children with normal weight. Conclusions: The childhood obesity was associated with altered myocardial deformation, even in the presence of normal ejection fraction. Myocardial deformation evaluation is relevant in the assessment of pediatric patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Echocardiography , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 475-481, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Mucopolysaccharidosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by the intralysosomal deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Cardiovascular impairment is a common feature. Cardiac signs and symptoms are underestimated due to the disease involvement in other organs. Enzyme replacement therapy can be used in mucopolysaccharidosis I, II, IV, and VI. Thus, the knowledge about the use of new echocardiography tools is relevant to improve the care of this population. This study aimed to describe left ventricular function assessment by conventional echocardiography and left ventricular global longitudinal strain analysis and compare the alterations in patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy and who had different ages at the start of therapy. Method: Outpatient-based descriptive study. The patients were submitted to conventional echocardiography and left ventricular global longitudinal strain measurement. Results: Sixteen patients were evaluated; median age of 14.2 years (SD = 5.2 years). Left ventricular hypertrophy was found in nine patients (56.2%). All patients had preserved left ventricular systolic function (Simpson and Teichholz). Nine (56.2%) patients showed alterations in left ventricular global longitudinal strain. The study showed a positive association between left ventricular hypertrophy and alteration in the left ventricular global longitudinal strain, and late start of enzyme replacement therapy and alteration in the left ventricular global longitudinal strain. Conclusion: Echocardiographic alterations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis were frequently observed, especially alterations in the left ventricular geometry and subclinical dysfunction. Patients who had a late enzyme replacement therapy start showed an association with worse left ventricular global longitudinal strain values, reinforcing the need for early diagnosis and treatment. The use of new echocardiographic tools may improve the follow-up of these patients.


Resumo Objetivo: A mucopolissacaridose é uma doença genética rara, caracterizada por depósito intralisossômico de glicosaminoglicanos. O comprometimento cardiovascular é frequente. Sinais e sintomas cardíacos são subestimados pelo envolvimento da doença em outros órgãos. A terapia de reposição enzimática pode ser usada em mucopolissacaridose I, II, IV e VI. Assim, o conhecimento da aplicação de novas ferramentas de ecocardiografia é relevante para melhorar a assistência dessa população. Este estudo visou descrever a função do ventrículo esquerdo pelo ecocardiograma convencional e pela análise do strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo e comparar as alterações em pacientes que fazem uso da terapia de reposição enzimática e que tiveram idades distintas de início da terapia. Método: Estudo descritivo de base ambulatorial. Os pacientes foram submetidos à ecocardiografia convencional e medida do strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo. Resultados: Foram avaliados 16 pacientes; mediana de 14,2 anos (desvio: 5,2 anos). Hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo foi encontrada em nove pacientes (56,2%). Todos os pacientes tiveram função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (Simpson e Teichholz). Nove (56,2%) pacientes apresentaram alteração no strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo. O estudo mostrou associação positiva entre hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo e alteração no strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo e início tardio da terapia de reposição enzimática e alteração no strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo. Conclusão: Alterações ecocardiográficas em pacientes com mucopolissacaridose foram frequentes, especialmente alterações na geometria e disfunção subclínica do ventrículo esquerdo. Pacientes que iniciaram tardiamente a terapia de reposição enzimática apresentaram associação com piores valores de strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo, o que reforça a necessidade do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces. O uso de novas ferramentas de ecocardiografia pode melhorar o acompanhamento desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mucopolysaccharidoses/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(2): 156-164, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objetive: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) improved symptoms and increased survival and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. However, it should be the main cause of a complex organic systemic inflammatory response that greatly contributes to several postoperative adverse effects. Methods: We aimed to evaluate heat-shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression as a morbimortality predictor in patients with preserved ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to determine their association with the lactate as a marker of tissue hypoperfusion and the EuroSCORE risk score. This is a prospective, observational study including 46 patients and occurring between May and July 2016. Patients without ventricular dysfunction undergoing myocardial revascularization with extracorporeal circulation were included. They were divided into (1) complicated and (2) uncomplicated postoperative evolution groups. EuroSCORE, lactate levels, and HSP 70 expression and their correlations were determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the group with complicated evolution had higher EuroSCORE values than the other group. HSP 70 protein levels were significantly increased in the group with uncomplicated evolution and showed similar results. According to our results, HSP family proteins may be independent predictors of uncomplicated evolution in patients without ventricular dysfunction undergoing CABG with CPB. Conclusion: HSP 70 should be a good discriminator and protection marker for complications in cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Risk Assessment/methods , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/analysis , Lactic Acid/blood , Preoperative Period , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Logistic Models , Blotting, Western , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Myocardium/pathology
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(11): 722-725, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977797

ABSTRACT

Abstract Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), in their isolated form, are rare cardiomyopathies. They are characterized by a thickened myocardium due to the presence of deep trabeculae recesses, and to thick trabeculae. This condition is associated with a variable clinical phenotype including heart failure, thromboembolism, and sudden death. We report a case of LVNC at 26 weeks and 4 days of gestation revised on the basis of what is currently reported in the literature. A review of the literature was performed to better describe this rare condition. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare fetal condition and it should be suspected in case of cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 744-752, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973504

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate cardiac changes in young rats, whose mothers underwent autogenic fecal peritonitis, during organogenesis phase and to evaluate the role of intravenous administration of moxifloxacin and dexamethasone in preventing infection-related cardiac changes. Methods: A prospective histomorphometric study was performed on 29 hearts of Wistar four-month old rats. Animals were divided into three groups: Negative Control Group (NCG) included 9 subjects from healthy mothers; Positive Control Group (PCG) included 10 subjects from mothers with fecal peritonitis (intra-abdominal injection of 10% autogenic fecal suspension in the gestational period) and did not receive any treatment; and Intervention Group (IG), with 10 animals whose infected mothers received moxifloxacin and dexamethasone treatment 24 hours after induction of fecal peritonitis. Results: Nuclear count was higher in the IG group as compared to PCG (p = 0.0016) and in NCG as compared to PCG (p = 0.0380). There was no significant difference in nuclear counts between NCG and IG. Conclusion: Induced autogenic fecal peritonitis in pregnant Wistar rats determined myocardial changes in young rats that could be avoided by the early administration of intravenous moxifloxacin and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Myocardium/pathology , Peritonitis/complications , Peritonitis/pathology , Pregnancy Complications , Prospective Studies , Rats, Wistar , Organogenesis , Disease Models, Animal , Moxifloxacin , Heart/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 664-672, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949374

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the correlation of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on plasma levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, granule membrane protein 140 (GMP-140) in rabbits with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Thirty apanese white rabbits were divided into 3 groups, thrombus were injected in model group (n = 10), NO were inhalated for 24 h after massive PE in NO group (n = 10), saline were injected in control group (n = 10). The concentrations of vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, GMP-140 and cTnI were tested at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h, Correlation analyses were conducted between cTnI and vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140 by Pearson's correlation. Results: The concentration of cTnI and vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140 was increased in the model group, compared to control group. In the inhaled group, the concentrations of cTnI, vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140 were reduced compared to model group. There was a positive correlation between cTnI and vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140. Conclusion: Inhaled nitric oxide can lead to a decrease in levels of cardiac troponin I, von Willebrand factor, glycoprotein, and granule membrane protein 140, after an established myocardial damage, provoked by acute massive pulmonary embolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/analysis , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Troponin I/blood , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Reference Values , Time Factors , Administration, Inhalation , von Willebrand Factor/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , P-Selectin/drug effects , Troponin I/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , X-Ray Microtomography , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Myocardium/pathology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 306-313, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886286

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cause of congenital anomalies resulted from gestational diabetes on fetal cardiac tissue in experimental animal study model. Methods: Totally 12 female Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups, each consisting of 6 rats. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to the study group by dissolving in citrate solution. The rats with a blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL and above were considered to be diabetic rats. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative stress (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) values were calculated in the cardiac tissues and maternal serum samples of the fetuses delivered by cesarean section after the mating process. The cardiac tissues were also subjected to histopathological examination. Results: TOS and OSI values in fetal cardiac tissues of the diabetic rats were found to be significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.026 and p=0.005). Histopathological examination revealed that the mitotic index was lower and the cell organization was found to be damaged in the fetuses of the study group rats. Conclusion: Increased levels of free oxygen radicals considered to be due to hyperglycemia may cause congenital anomalies, especially during organogenesis period, by disrupting cell homeostasis and adversely affecting mitosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Heart/embryology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/embryology , Hyperglycemia/complications , Microscopy , Antioxidants/analysis
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 278-288, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many non-invasive methods, such as imaging tests, have been developed aiming to add a contribution to existing studies in estimating patients' prognosis after myocardial injury. This prognosis is proportional to myocardial viability, which is evaluated in coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction patients only. While myocardial viability represents the likelihood of a dysfunctional muscle (resulting from decreased oxygen supply for coronary artery obstruction), hibernation represents post-interventional functional recovery itself. This article proposes a review of pathophysiological basis of viability, diagnostic methods, prognosis and future perspectives of myocardial viability. An electronic bibliographic search for articles was performed in PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane and Scielo databases, according to pre-established criteria. The studies showed the ability of many imaging techniques in detecting viable tissues in dysfunctional areas of left ventricle resulting from coronary artery injuries. These techniques can identify patients who may benefit from myocardial revascularization and indicate the most appropriate treatment.


Resumo Diversos métodos não invasivos, como novos exames de imagem, vem sendo aprimorados, a fim de somar esforços com os atuais em estimar o prognóstico de pacientes pós-injúria miocárdica. Este prognóstico é proporcional à viabilidade miocárdica, a qual tem sua avaliação reservada para pacientes portadores de doença arterial coronariana e insuficiência ventricular esquerda. Enquanto a viabilidade miocárdica se mostra como a capacidade de recuperação funcional do músculo com disfunção por redução de oxigênio fornecido por artérias coronárias obstruídas, a hibernação consiste na própria recuperação funcional após intervenções. Este artigo propõe uma revisão sobre as bases fisiopatológicas do processo de viabilidade, métodos diagnósticos disponíveis, prognóstico e perspectivas para o futuro acerca dessa condição. Realizou-se pesquisa de busca bibliográfica informatizada em bases eletrônicas de dados, como PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane e Scielo, onde foram selecionados os estudos de acordo com critérios pré-determinados. Os estudos demonstram a capacidade de várias técnicas de imagem de identificar tecido viável em regiões disfuncionais do ventrículo esquerdo em decorrência de lesões em artérias coronárias. Estas técnicas podem identificar pacientes com potencial benefício da revascularização miocárdica e orientar o tratamento mais adequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue Survival/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 219-228, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888028

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Anthracycline generates progressive left ventricular dysfunction associated with a poor prognosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether layer-specific strain analysis could assess the subclinical left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to anthracycline. Methods: Forty-two anthracycline-treated survivors of large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, aged 55.83 ± 17.92 years (chemotherapy group) and 27 healthy volunteers, aged 51.39 ± 13.40 years (control group) were enrolled. The cumulative dose of epirubicin in chemotherapy group was 319.67 ± 71.71mg/m2. The time from last dose of epirubicin to the echocardiographic examination was 52.92 ± 22.32 months. Global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS) and radial strain (GRS), subendocardial, mid and subepicardial layer of longitudinal (LS-ENDO, LS-MID, LS-EPI) and circumferential strain (CS-ENDO, CS-MID, CS-EPI) values were analyzed. Transmural strain gradient was calculated as differences in peak systolic strain between the subendocardial and subepicardial layers. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Conventional parameters of systolic and diastolic function showed no significant difference between two groups. Compared with controls, patients had significantly lower GCS and GLS. Multi-layer speckle tracking analysis showed significant reduction of circumferential strain of subendocardial layer, transmural CS gradient and longitudinal strain of all three layers. In contrast, the two groups did not differ in transmural longitudinal strain gradient and radial strains. Conclusions: It proved the preferential impairment of subendocardial deformation in long-term survivors after exposure to anthracycline. Multi-layer speckle tracking echocardiography might facilitate the longitudinal follow-up of this at-risk patient cohort.


Resumo Fundamentos: A antraciclina gera uma disfunção ventricular esquerda progressiva associada a um prognóstico ruim. Objetivos: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar se a análise layer específico de strain poderia avaliar disfunção ventricular esquerda subclínica após exposição a antraciclina. Métodos: Foram inscritos quarenta e dois sobreviventes tratados com antraciclina por linfoma não Hodgkin de células B grandes, de 55,83 ± 17,92 anos (grupo de quimioterapia) e 27 voluntários saudáveis, de 51,39 ± 13,40 anos (grupo controle). A dose cumulativa de epirrubicina no grupo de quimioterapia foi de 319,67 ± 71,71 mg/m2. O tempo desde a última dose de epirrubicina até o exame ecocardiográfico foi de 52,92 ± 22,32 meses. Analisaram-se o strain longitudinal global (GLS), o circunferencial (GCS) e o strain radial (GRS), os valores das camadas subendocárdica, média e subepicárdica so strain longitudinal (LS-ENDO, LS-MID, LS-EPI) e do strain circunferencial (CS-ENDO, CS-MID, CS-EPI). O gradiente de strain transmural foi calculado como a diferença no strain sistólico pico entre as camadas subendocárdicas e subepicárdicas. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Os parâmetros convencionais da função sistólica e diastólica não mostraram diferenças significativas entre dois grupos. Comparados aos controles, os pacientes apresentaram GCS e GLS significativamente menores. A análise de speckle tracking multi-layer mostrou uma redução significativa no strain circunferencial da camada subendocárdica, o gradiente transmural CS e o strain longitudinal das três camadas. Em contraste, os dois grupos não diferiram no gradiente de strain longitudinal transmural e de strain radiais. Conclusões: Provou-se a deterioração preferencial do strain subendocárdico em sobreviventes de longa duração após exposição à antraciclina. O ecocardiograma de speckle tracking multi-layer pode facilitar o acompanhamento longitudinal dessa coorte de pacientes em risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; 110(3):219-228)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/chemically induced , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Stroke Volume/physiology , Epirubicin/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiopathology , Myocardium/pathology
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