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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e54-e57, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147264

ABSTRACT

La mioclonía palatina esencial es una entidad otoneurológi-ca rara. Se caracteriza por movimientos involuntarios de los músculos del paladar blando que causan un tinnitus objetivo.La mioclonía del paladar se clasifica en dos tipos: secundaria y primaria (mioclonía palatina esencial); esta última es más frecuente en pediatría. La tomografía computada y la reso-nancia magnética de cerebro normal orientan al diagnóstico. La mioclonía palatina esencial, generalmente, se resuelve en forma espontánea.Se presenta a una paciente de 8 años de edad con un "clic" rápido en forma rítmica en su boca que cedía en forma espontánea


Essential palatal myoclonus is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the soft palate musculature causing objective-clicking tinnitus. The palatal myoclonus is classified in two forms, secondary and essential palatal myoclonus. Primary (essential) palatal myoclonus is the most common type in childhood. Normal computed tomography and magnetic resonance guide the diagnosis. Spontaneous resolution usually occurs in the essential type of palatal myoclonus.In this report, we present an 8-year-old child making rhythmic, rapid clicking noises from her throat with spontaneous resolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Pediatrics , Tinnitus , Myoclonus/therapy
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 512-522, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131740

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Neurophysiological studies are ancillary tools to better understand the features and nature of movement disorders. Electromyography (EMG), together with electroencephalography (EEG) and accelerometer, can be used to evaluate a hypo and hyperkinetic spectrum of movements. Specific techniques can be applied to better characterize the phenomenology, help distinguish functional from organic origin and assess the most probable site of the movement generator in the nervous system. Objective: We intend to provide an update for clinicians on helpful neurophysiological tools to assess movement disorders in clinical practice. Methods: Non-systematic review of the literature published up to June 2019. Results: A diversity of protocols was found and described. These include EMG analyses to define dystonia, myoclonus, myokymia, myorhythmia, and painful legs moving toes pattern; EMG in combination with accelerometer to study tremor; and EEG-EMG to study myoclonus. Also, indirect measures of cortical and brainstem excitability help to describe and diagnose abnormal physiology in Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, dystonia, and myoclonus. Conclusion: These studies can be helpful for the diagnosis and are usually underutilized in neurological practice.


RESUMO Introdução: Os estudos neurofisiológicos são métodos auxiliares para compreender melhor as características e a natureza dos distúrbios do movimento. A eletromiografia (EMG), em associação com o eletroencefalograma (EEG) e o acelerômetro, podem ser utilizados para avaliar um espectro de movimentos hipo e hipercinéticos. Técnicas específicas podem ser aplicadas para melhor caracterizar a fenomenologia, ajudar a distinguir a origem psicogênica da orgânica e avaliar o local mais provável de geração do movimento no sistema nervoso. Objetivo: Pretendemos fornecer ao clínico uma atualização sobre ferramentas neurofisiológicas úteis para avaliar distúrbios do movimento na prática clínica. Métodos: Revisão não sistemática da literatura publicada até junho de 2019. Resultados: Uma diversidade de protocolos foi encontrada e descrita. Dentre eles, inclui-se o uso de EMG para a definição do padrão de distonia, mioclonia, mioquimia, miorritmia e painfull legs moving toes, além do uso de EMG em associação ao acelerômetro para avaliar tremor e, em associação ao EEG para avaliar mioclonia. Ademais, técnicas para medida indireta de excitabilidade cortical e do tronco encefálico ajudam a descrever e diagnosticar a fisiologia anormal da doença de Parkinson, parkinsonismo atípico, distonia e mioclonia. Conclusão: Esses estudos podem ser úteis para o diagnóstico e geralmente são subutilizados na prática neurológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dystonia , Movement Disorders/diagnosis , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Tremor/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Electromyography , Neurophysiology
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 778-786, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1129176

ABSTRACT

O perfil epizootiológico da cinomose canina em Belo Horizonte é desatualizado e não alberga algumas características relevantes. Uma análise recente da distribuição do vírus em relação às características do hospedeiro e do meio ambiente associada aos principais sinais clínicos e achados laboratoriais são importantes para se adotarem medidas estratégicas para o controle da enfermidade. Objetivou-se, assim, determinar as características epizootiológicas da infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina associada à variedade de sinais clínico-neurológicos e laboratoriais em Belo Horizonte, auxiliando no diagnóstico precoce da infecção e na diminuição das taxas de morbidade e mortalidade da doença. A avaliação do perfil epizootiológico de 90 cães revelou que a doença é mais frequente em animais adultos (um a seis anos de idade) e que não receberam vacinas conforme recomendado pelos protocolos. Os sinais clínicos extraneurais e neurais foram variados, com predomínio para manifestações gastrentérica e respiratória, mioclonia e déficit motor, respectivamente. O exame do fluido cérebro-espinhal demonstrou predomínio de proteinorraquia associada à pleocitose linfocítica. O teste de imunocromatografia para pesquisa de antígeno com amostras do fluido cerebroespinhal foi eficaz para identificar a doença em pacientes com sinais neurológicos, diferentemente das amostras do swab conjuntival, que não devem ser utilizadas.(AU)


The epizootiology profile of canine distemper in Belo Horizonte is outdated and does not harbor some important characteristics. A recent analysis of the virus distribution in relation to host and environmental characteristics associated with the main clinical signs and laboratory findings are important for adopting strategic measures to control the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the epizootiology characteristics of canine distemper virus infection associated with a variety of clinical and neurologic signs and laboratory findings in Belo Horizonte, helping to detect early infection and reduce morbidity and mortality rates. The evaluation of the epizootiology profile of 90 dogs revealed that the disease is more frequent in adult animals (1-6 years of age) and did not receive vaccines as recommended by the protocols. Extra neural and neural clinical signs were varied, with predominance for gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations and myoclonus and motor deficit, respectively. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid of 16 dogs showed a predominance of increase protein associated with lymphocytic pleocytosis. The immunochromatography test for antigen screening with samples of cerebrospinal fluid in 76 animals with neurological signs was effective in identifying the disease, unlike conjunctival swab samples, which should not be used.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Distemper/epidemiology , Distemper Virus, Canine/isolation & purification , Myoclonus/veterinary , Neurologic Manifestations , Chromatography, Affinity/veterinary , Motor Skills Disorders/virology , Lymphocytosis/veterinary
4.
Rev. MED ; 27(2): 103-111, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115232

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (ECJ) es una patología neurodegenerativa transmisible, producida por una proteína anómala infectante denominada prion. Junto con el kuru, el insomnio familiar fatal y el síndrome de Gerstmann-Stráussler-Scheinker, configura el grupo de las llamadas encefalopatías espongiformes. La ECJ es la forma más común en el ser humano: se calcula que afecta a una persona por cada millón, a nivel mundial, y la mayoría de los pacientes presenta síntomas clásicos de demencia y mioclonías, asociadas a cambios específicos en el electroencefalograma (EEG). Conforme la enfermedad progresa, el cuadro demencial empeora y pueden presentarse síntomas visuales, cerebelosos, piramidales y extrapiramidales. El diagnóstico definitivo se logra demostrando la degeneración espongiforme de las neuronas en histopatología. La ECJ siempre es mortal y no tiene tratamiento específico: cerca del 90% de los pacientes fallece dentro del primer año después del diagnóstico. En este artículo, se reporta el caso de un paciente con ECJ esporádica probable, de acuerdo con los criterios diagnósticos actuales de la OMS y se da a conocer una revisión de la literatura.


Abstract: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a transmissible neurodegenerative pathology produced by an infecting abnormal protein called prion. Together with kuru, fatal familial insomnia, and Gerstmann-Stráussler-Scheinker syndrome, it forms the group of so-called spongiform encephalopathies. CJD is the most common form in humans: it is estimated to affect one person per million worldwide and most patients have classic symptoms of dementia and myoclonus, associated with specific changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG). As the disease progresses, the dementia condition worsens and visual, cerebellar, pyramidal, and extrapyramidal symptoms may develop. The final diagnosis is achieved by proving the spongiform degeneration of neurons in the histopathology. CJD is always fatal and has no specific treatment: about 90 % of patients die within the first year of diagnosis. This article reports the case of a patient with probable sporadic CJD, following current who diagnostic criteria, and provides a literature review.


Resumo: A doença de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (DCJ) é uma doença patologia neurodegenerativa transmissível, produzida por uma proteína anormal infectante denominada prion. Juntamente com o kuru, a Insónia familiar fatal e a síndrome de Gerstmann-Stráussler-Scheinker, forma o grupo das chamadas encefalopatias espongiformes. A DCJ é a forma mais comum em humanos: estima-se que ela afete uma em cada um milhão de pessoas em todo o mundo, e a maioria dos pacientes apresenta sintomas clássicos de demência e mioclonia, associados a alterações específicas no eletroencefalograma (EEG). À medida que a doença progride, o quadro de demência piora e podem surgir sintomas visuais, ce-rebelares, piramidais e extrapiramidais. O diagnóstico definitivo é obtido por meio da demonstração da degeneração espongiforme dos neurónios na histopatologia. A dcj é sempre fatal e não possui tratamento específico: cerca de 90% dos pacientes morrem no primeiro ano após o diagnóstico. Neste artigo, é relatado o caso de um paciente com dcj esporádica provável, de acordo com os atuais critérios de diagnóstico da oms, e é apresentada uma revisão da literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome , Prion Diseases/pathology , Dementia , Myoclonus
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1188-1192, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041067

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We aimed to explore the effects of neuropeptides ghrelin, obestatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on seizures and plasma concentrations of neuroinflammation biomarkers including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance-P (SP), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rats. METHODS Ghrelin (80 µg/kg), obestatin (1 µg/kg), VIP (25 ng/kg) or saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally 30 min before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 50 mg/kg) injections. Stages of epileptic seizures were evaluated by Racine's scale, and plasma CGRP, SP, and IL-1β concentrations were measured using ELISA. RESULTS Both obestatin and VIP shortened onset-time of generalized tonic-clonic seizure, respectively, moreover VIP also shortened the onset-time of first myoclonic-jerk induced by PTZ. While PTZ increased plasma CGRP, SP and IL-1β concentrations, ghrelin reduced the increases evoked by PTZ. While VIP further increased PTZ-evoked CGRP levels, it diminished IL-1β concentrations. However, obestatin did not change CGRP, SP, and IL-1β concentrations. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that ghrelin acts as an anticonvulsant, obestatin acts as a proconvulsant, and VIP has dual action on epilepsy. Receptors of those neuropeptides may be promising targets for epilepsy treatment.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Nosso objetivo foi explorar os efeitos dos neuropeptídeos grelina, obestatina e peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) nas convulsões e concentrações plasmáticas de biomarcadores neuroinflamatórios, incluindo peptídeo relacionado ao gene da calcitonina (CGRP), substância-P (SP) e interleucina-1 beta (IL-1β) em convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol em ratos. MÉTODOS Grelina (80 µg/kg), obestatina (1 µg/kg), VIP (25 ng/kg) ou solução salina foram administrados a ratos intraperitonealmente 30 minutos antes de injeções de pentilenotetrazol (PTZ, 50 mg/kg). Os estágios das crises epilépticas foram avaliados pela escala de Racine e as concentrações plasmáticas de CGRP, SP e IL-1β foram medidas usando Elisa. RESULTADOS Tanto a obestatina quanto o VIP encurtaram o tempo de início da crise tônico-clônica generalizada, respectivamente. Além disso, o VIP também encurtou o tempo de início do primeiro impulso mioclônico induzido por PTZ. Enquanto o PTZ aumentou as concentrações plasmáticas de CGRP, SP e IL-1β, a grelina reduziu os aumentos evocados por PTZ. Enquanto o VIP aumenta ainda mais os níveis de CGRP evocados por PTZ, diminui as concentrações de IL-1β. No entanto, a obestatina não alterou as concentrações de CGRP, SP e IL-1β. CONCLUSÃO Nossos resultados sugerem que a grelina tem anticonvulsivante, a obestatina tem proconvulsivante e o VIP tem ação dupla na epilepsia. Receptores desses neuropeptídeos podem ser alvos promissores para o tratamento da epilepsia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Seizures/chemically induced , Neuropeptides/adverse effects , Convulsants/adverse effects , Peptide Hormones/pharmacology , Seizures/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Random Allocation , Substance P/adverse effects , Substance P/blood , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/adverse effects , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/adverse effects , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Ghrelin/pharmacology , Inflammation , Myoclonus
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764357

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Myoclonus
8.
Gut and Liver ; : 649-657, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated that etomidate is a safe sedative drug with noninferior sedative effects. In our recent study, we revealed that etomidate/midazolam was more hemodynamically stable than propofol/midazolam in elderly patients undergoing colonoscopies. We aimed to investigate whether compared with propofol/midazolam, etomidate/midazolam causes fewer cardiopulmonary adverse events with noninferior efficacy for screening colonoscopies in patients of all ages. METHODS: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind study, we prospectively enrolled 200 patients. The patients were divided into etomidate and propofol groups. The primary outcome was the occurrence of cardiopulmonary adverse events. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients with fluctuations in vital signs (oxygen desaturation and transient hypotension), adverse events interrupting the procedure, and sedation-related outcomes. RESULTS: Adverse cardiopulmonary events were more common in the propofol group than the etomidate group (65.0% vs 51.0%, respectively; p=0.045). Forty-six patients (46.0%) in the propofol group and 29 (29.0%) in the etomidate group experienced fluctuations in their vital signs (p=0.013). The proportions of patients experiencing adverse events that interrupted the procedure, including myoclonus, were not significantly different between the two groups (etomidate: 20.0% vs propofol: 11.0%; p=0.079). Both groups had similar sedation-related outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that compared with the propofol groups, the etomidate group had a significantly lower risk of fluctuations in vital signs (odds ratio, 0.427; 95% confidence interval, 0.230 to 0.792; p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with using propofol/midazolam, using etomidate/midazolam for screening colonoscopies results in more stable hemodynamic responses in patients of all ages; therefore, we recommend using etomidate/midazolam for colonoscopies in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Colonoscopy , Double-Blind Method , Etomidate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Mass Screening , Midazolam , Multivariate Analysis , Myoclonus , Propofol , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vital Signs
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766822

ABSTRACT

Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin, developed in 1994, and is well known for its adverse effects. In 2002, the Food and Drug Administration adjusted the labeling to account for increased risk of seizures, encephalopathy and myoclonus, especially in the setting of renal impairment. Here we present a case of an 86-year-old female, undergoing Cefepime treatment, with encephalopathy mimicking acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Brain Diseases , Female , Humans , Myoclonus , Seizures , Stroke , United States Food and Drug Administration
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759852

ABSTRACT

Opioids are important drugs for the management of severe cancer pain without a ceiling effect. However, opioid administration leads to dose-limiting complications including drowsiness, hallucinations, delirium, respiratory depression, cognitive impairment, seizure, myoclonus, and hyperalgesia. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a paradoxical phenomenon as opioid exposure increases pain sensitivity. Reducing or stopping opioids, opioid rotation, or co-administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists have been suggested for the management of OIH. In this study, we report two clinical cases of successful management of OIH in cancer pain patients that were treated with opioids.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Cognition Disorders , Delirium , Hallucinations , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Myoclonus , N-Methylaspartate , Pain Management , Respiratory Insufficiency , Seizures , Sleep Stages
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760128

ABSTRACT

The dizziness associated with paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome is hard to diagnose clinically because the prevalence of disease is rare, and radiologic and serologic examination result may come out normal. Opsoclonus-myoclonus symdrome is a representative of classical paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes. In this paper, we report 2 cases of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes with negative serologic auto-antibody test and no brain lesion on MRI. Both cases were eventually diagnosed through PET. Patients with opsoclonus-myoclonus type nystagmus should be evaluated for paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome even if their radiologic and serologic findings are normal.


Subject(s)
Brain , Dizziness , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myoclonus , Ocular Motility Disorders , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System , Prevalence
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 798-800, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716422

ABSTRACT

Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is a form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy characterized by stimulation-induced myoclonus and seizures. This disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, and the gene CSTB, which encodes cystatin B, a cysteine protease inhibitor, is the only gene known to be associated with ULD. Although the prevalence of ULD is higher in the Baltic region of Europe and the Mediterranean, sporadic cases have occasionally been diagnosed worldwide. The patient described in the current report showed only abnormally enlarged restriction fragments of 62 dodecamer repeats, confirming ULD, that were transmitted from both her father and mother who carried the abnormally enlarged restriction fragment as heterozygotes with normal-sized fragments. We report the first case of a genetically confirmed patient with ULD in Korea.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Southern , Cystatin B , Cysteine Proteases , Diagnosis , Europe , Fathers , Heterozygote , Humans , Korea , Mothers , Myoclonic Epilepsies, Progressive , Myoclonus , Prevalence , Seizures , Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Etomidate injection is often associated with myoclonus. Etomidate injection technique influences the incidence of myoclonus. This study was designed to clarify which of the two injection techniques—slow injection or priming with etomidate—is more effective in reducing myoclonus. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on 189 surgical patients allocated to three study groups. Control group (Group C, n = 63) received 0.3 mg/kg etomidate (induction dose) over 20 s. Priming group (Group P, n = 63) received pretreatment with 0.03 mg/kg etomidate, followed after 1 min by an etomidate induction dose over 20 s. Slow injection group (Group S, n = 63) received etomidate (2 mg/ml) induction dose over 2 min. The patients were observed for occurrence and severity of myoclonus for 3 min from the start of injection of the induction dose. RESULTS: The incidence of myoclonus in Group P (38/63 [60.3%], 95% CI: 48.0–71.5) was significantly lower than in Group C (53/63 [84.1%], 95% CI: 72.9–91.3, P = 0.003) and Group S (49/63 [77.8%], 95% CI: 66.0–86.4, P = 0.034). Myoclonus of moderate or severe grade occurred in significantly more patients in Group C (68.3%) than in Group P (36.5%, P < 0.001) and Group S (50.8%, P = 0.046), but the difference between Groups P and S was not significant (P = 0.106). CONCLUSIONS: Priming is more effective than slow injection in reducing the incidence of myoclonus, but their effects on the severity of myoclonus are comparable.


Subject(s)
Etomidate , Humans , Incidence , Myoclonus , Prospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) are variable; images range from having a normal appearance, to showing ischemic lesions, demyelination, or vasogenic edema. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old woman presented with a sudden onset of dysarthria and dizziness. Routine blood tests were normal and the MRI was unremarkable. After admission, she developed aphasic seizures and myoclonus, and eventually became comatose. A follow up MRI showed diffuse high signal intensities at the bilateral cerebral white matter on fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging. The serum titers of the anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroperoxidase antibody were increased. After 5 days of 1,000 mg/day of intravenous methylprednisolone infusion, she recovered rapidly. CONCLUSION: We propose that repeated brain MRIs are necessary for the diagnosis of HE. Diffuse leukoencephalopathy may be a pathologic finding on MRI and, in this case study, was shown to be reversible after applying an appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Diseases , Coma , Demyelinating Diseases , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Dysarthria , Edema , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hashimoto Disease , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone , Middle Aged , Myoclonus , Seizures , White Matter
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765810

ABSTRACT

Mutations in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report a Canadian-Vietnamese family carrying a PSEN1 p.Met233Val mutation with an exceptionally early and severe presentation that includes a wide range of atypical symptoms, including prominent ataxia, Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, action tremor, myoclonus, bulbar symptoms, seizures, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the affected proband after many assessments over several years proved diagnostically inconclusive. The results were analyzed using the AnnEx “Annotated Exomes” browser (http://annex.can.ubc.ca), a web-based platform that facilitates WES variant annotation and interpretation. High-throughput sequencing can be especially informative for complex neurological disorders, and WES warrants consideration as a first-line clinical test. Data analyses facilitated by web-based bioinformatics tools have great potential for novel insight, although confirmatory, diagnostically accredited Sanger sequencing is recommended prior to reporting.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Ataxia , Computational Biology , Dystonia , Exome , Hallucinations , Humans , Muscle Spasticity , Myoclonus , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinsonian Disorders , Presenilin-1 , Seizures , Statistics as Topic , Tremor
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766715

ABSTRACT

Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (fCJD) is characteristic with older age onset, relatively low occurrence rate, slower progression and lower possibility of developing myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal signs and visual disturbance compared with classical sporadic CJD. We report a case of 75-year-old male patient presented with sudden onset of right side weakness with Broca's aphasia who has been diagnosed with fCJD with V180I mutation. This case indicates that fCJD with V180I mutation can have stroke-like initial presentation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aphasia , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome , Humans , Male , Myoclonus
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787104

ABSTRACT

Negative myoclonus (NM) is a jerky, shock-like involuntary movement caused by a sudden, brief interruption of muscle contraction. An 80-year-old man presented with multifocal NM and confusion. Two days before the onset of NM, he commenced the intake of pregabalin at a dose of 150 mg/day for neuropathic pain. His NM resolved completely and mental status improved gradually after the administration of lorazepam intravenously and the discontinuation of pregabalin. Our study suggests that pregabalin can cause NM even in patients without a history of seizures.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Dyskinesias , Humans , Lorazepam , Muscle Contraction , Myoclonus , Neuralgia , Pregabalin , Seizures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739809

ABSTRACT

Palatal myoclonus (PM) is a rare disease that may induce dysphagia. Since dysphagia related to PM is unique and is characterized by myoclonic movements of the involved muscles, specific treatments are needed for rehabilitation. However, no study has investigated the treatment effectiveness for this condition. Therefore, the aim of this case report was to describe the benefit of combining behavioral treatment with valproic acid administration in patients with dysphagia triggered by PM. The two cases were treated with combined treatment. The outcomes evaluated by videofluoroscopic swallowing studies before and after the treatment showed significant decreases in myoclonic movements and improved swallowing function. We conclude that the combined treatment was effective against dysphagia related to PM.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Humans , Muscles , Myoclonus , Rare Diseases , Rehabilitation , Stroke , Treatment Outcome , Valproic Acid
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728852

ABSTRACT

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited neurodegenerative disorders, which are caused by the accumulation of lipopigment in lysosomes. Variant forms of late infantile NCLs (vLINCLs) characterized by a later onset of seizures and visual impairment (3–8 years) than in the classic form (2–4 years) are caused by mutations of the gene encoding ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal protein 6 (CLN6). In a girl with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, we found heterozygous variants of CLN6 (NM_017882.2; NP_060352.1): c.296A>G (p.Lys99Arg) and c.307C>T (p.Arg103Trp). They were identified with whole-exome sequencing and verified with Sanger sequencing. At 7 years and 9 months, our patient had developed multiple types of seizures, prominent myoclonus with photosensitivity, regression in motor and language skills, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, and brain atrophy in brain images, all of which were progressive and were compatible with vLINCLs. However, this first Korean report shows no visual impairment, which resembles the previously reported Japanese case.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atrophy , Brain , Ceroid , Child , Female , Humans , Lysosomes , Myoclonic Epilepsies, Progressive , Myoclonus , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses , Neurons , Seizures , Vision Disorders
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646775

ABSTRACT

Lumbar epidural block using a “loss of resistance” technique (LORT) with air can potentially cause pneumocephalus. Herein, we present a pneumocephalus that occurred after an epidural block. A 58-year-old male patient underwent an interlaminar lumbar epidural block using a LORT with air for L4–5 disc herniation. After the block, the patient complained of headache, vomiting, and truncal myoclonus. For further evaluation, a brain computed tomography was performed, and pneumocephalus was finally diagnosed. The patient underwent conservative treatment and recovered without any complications. He was discharged on the 11th day after the block.


Subject(s)
Brain , Headache , Humans , Injections, Epidural , Male , Middle Aged , Myoclonus , Pneumocephalus , Vomiting
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