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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879112

ABSTRACT

Myrtus communis is a traditional medicinal aromatic plant in the Mediterranean. At present, the plant has been introduced and cultivated in the southern part of China, and it is mostly used for ornamental or cosmetic purposes. Based on literature analysis and the theory of Chinese medicine, we discussed the medicinal parts and properties of M. communis in this paper to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the medicinal value of M. communis and its compatibility with traditional Chinese medicines. Literatures were searched from Web of Science(core collection), PubMed, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang by using the set conditions as key words. Then the obtained literatures were screened and classified. Finally, a total of 376 articles were included, consisting of 44 reviews, 54 germplasm resources, 78 chemical researches, 48 studies on application, extraction, or quality, 18 human trials, 132 pharmacological studies, and 2 safety studies. Based on literature analysis and theories of Chinese medicine, the leaves of M. communis were finally selected as the medicinal part of Chinese medicine, and the traditional Chinese medicine properties of M. communis leaves were deduced as pungent, bitter, and cool. The channel tropisms of M. communis leaves included lung, liver, and large intestine, with functions of detoxifying, resolving a mass, and insecticide. It was used for mouth sores, vaginal itching, hemorrhoids and warts, etc.; appropriate amount shall be applied for external use, and the decoction form shall be used for washing the affected parts; 3-12 g equivalent product shall be used in decoction, and this herb shall be put into the decoction in a later stage. The clarification of the medicinal parts of M. communis, and the determination of the Chinese medicine properties of M. communis leaves would lay a theoretical foundation for its compatibility and application with Chinese medicines, and can do more contribution to the medical and healthcare industry in our country.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myrtus , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130576

ABSTRACT

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were alpha-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 mug/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 mug/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 mug/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclohexanols/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leishmania tropica/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Myrtus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130569

ABSTRACT

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were alpha-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 mug/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 mug/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 mug/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclohexanols/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leishmania tropica/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Myrtus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
4.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 15 (4): 59-65
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-139743

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans is the most frequent etiological agent of oral candidiasis. This study was done to compare the anticandidal effect of Thymus vulgaris and Myrtus communis to nystatin on Candida albicans. In this laboratory study thirty-two strains of Candida albicans isolated from patients with oral candidiasis. Yeast suspension of Candida yeast cells was provided, subsquntly a serial dilution from Thymus vulgaris and Myrtus communis and Nystatin in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar [SDA] medium were prepared. Then a loop of Candida suspension was cultured on all of the solid media and was incubated at 25°C. The findings of fungus growing were recorded during 7 days. MIC of Thymus vulgaris, Myrtus communis L, mix of these essences and Nystatin was 0.390 microl/ml, 12.5 microl/ml, 0.78 microl/ml and 160 IU/ml, respectively. Thymus vulgaris contained antifungal activity against Candida albicans, but Myrtus communis demonstrated a very low activity against Candida albicans


Subject(s)
Thymus Plant , Myrtus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
5.
PUJ-Parasitologists United Journal. 2011; 4 (1): 89-100
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125321

ABSTRACT

Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoal infections in humans. Although metronidazole [MTZ] is the drug of choice for treatment of giardiasis, yet its chemical composition poses major threats. The search for new alternative therapeutic approaches for this parasitic disease in replacement of MTZ. The effect of Myrtus Communis [MC; called Aas plant in Arabic] and Olibanum [OL; called Leban in Arabic] on G. lamblia were studied. Extracts of MC [methyl alcohol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts] amid ethanol extract of OL were used. In vitro culture of G. lamblia trophozoites on TYI-S-33 medium was done, followed by inoculation of the plants' extracts in three different concentrations. This was evaluated by trophiozoite multiplication, adherence assay and electron microscopic study. The in viva effect was evaluated by histopathological study of the duodenum of experimentally infected mice after treatment by each herb. All plant extracts affected G. lamblia trophozoites in a manner dependent on concentration and time of exposure. In low concentration, both herbs significantly decreased the in vitro adherence of tropliozoites when compared to infection control group, while there was no statistical difference when compared to MTZ control group. Extensive ultrastructural changes of Giardia trophozoites were evident after 48 hours exposure to each medical herb. Histopathological examination of duodenum of G. lamblia infected mice showed epithelial microvillus abnormalities, which improved after administration of MC and OL extracts. Results confirm the antiparasitic effect of MC and OL on G. lamblia as an alternative to MTZ, to overcome its resistance and hazards


Subject(s)
Humans , Giardia lamblia , Myrtus/chemistry , Boswellia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , Duodenum/pathology , Histology , Duodenum/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Treatment Outcome
6.
Armaghane-danesh. 2010; 15 (3): 191-198
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117899

ABSTRACT

Aphthous stomamtitis is characterized by single or multiple painful recurrent lesions in oral mucosa. Lesions can relapse in some patients for several years. Therefore treatment of such cases seems necessary. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of topical Myrtus communis [myrtle] solution with topical triamcinolone [Adcortyle] in the treatment of minor apotheosis. This clinical-trial study was conducted at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. 100 patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The 1[st] group received topical myrtle solution. The 2[nd] group received topical trimcinolone [Adcortyle]. After one week patients' declaration about time of the recovery of the pain and deterioration of oral lesion was recorded. The gathered data was then analyzed using the SPSS statistical software using t-test and chi-square. After treatment, both groups showed response to topical medications with no significant difference between them [p>0.05]. results of this study showed that topical myrtle solution is effective in the treatment of minor aphthous stomatitis and its therapeutic effect is comparable with topical triamcinolone [Adcortyle]


Subject(s)
Humans , Myrtus , Triamcinolone , Random Allocation , Administration, Topical
7.
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2008; 18 (67): 118-132
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-119065

ABSTRACT

According to the statistics provided by the World Health Organization [WHO], about 80% of the world population nowadays uses herbal drugs for treatment of diseases. Natural products obtained from medicinal plants, serve as a great source for drug production and are the main basis of new drug compounds. Unicellular organisms [Protozoa] are the cause of deaths and spread of diseases in various societies, especially in developing countries. There are anti-malaria herbal dugs produced from various medicinal plants, some of which are used for treatment of the disease and some under study. The first anti-malaria drug was quinine, produced from bark of the Cinchona tree. Recently, the drug artemisinin has been introduced by Chinese scientists for the treatment of malaria and is currently used extensively. Coetaneous leishmaniosis [salak] is one of the endemic diseases in most parts of Iran. Common drugs used against leishmaniosis [such as glucantim], have severe side-effects and in 10 to 25% of cases, there is a recurrence of the disease. Emetine is one of the drugs obtained from a root of the plant Ipecac, which is used for treatment of the disease sub-cutaneously. Giardiasis is an acute protozoan infection usually with no clinical symptoms, however, may appear as acute or chronic diarrhea. According to the announcement of WHO, more than 2/3 of the world's population is infected with intestinal parasites and the prevalence of giardia is higher than other intestinal parasites. Herbal drugs, such as wild garlic, eucalyptus and thyme, are some of the major plants which can annihilate the giarda cysts. Annually, 75000 to 100000 people die of amebiasis [dysentery] worldwide. Due to the motility of the organism, it causes sever pathological changes and sometimes colon ulcers, and if entered into the blood stream, it may appear as liver or brain abscess. Medicinal plants such as ipecac, mango, and papaya tree are some of the anti-amebic [Entamoeba histolytic] plants. Trichomoniasis is a protozoal urogentital infection in men and women transmitted through sexual intercourse. The most effective drug against trichomona is metronidazole, albeit, there are several reports on its side effects and its spread of resistance. Medicinal plants, such as Myrtle and Lavender are among the main plants whose extracts and essence are effective against Trichomonas vaginalis


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents , Malaria/therapy , Leishmaniasis/therapy , Trichomonas Infections/therapy , Giardiasis/therapy , Amebiasis/therapy , Cinchona , Garlic , Thymus Plant , Myrtus , Lavandula
8.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2006; 35 (3): 7-13
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-77161

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis [ZCL] is an increasing and important public health problem in Iran. The use of repellents is recommended as one of the important means of personal protection against vectors of ZCL. This paper reports the repellency effect of the plant Myrtle, Myrtus communis [Myrtaceae], essential oil for protection against 3-7-day-old unfed females of the sandfly, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli for the first time in Iran. The tests were carried out under laboratory conditions, using dose-response testing procedure on white rabbits and the results were compared with commonly used repellent, diethyl-3-methylbenzamid [DEET]. The modified Wirtz method using K and D apparatus was employed. Effective Dose [EDs] values were estimated from the probit regression line. ED50 was measured as 0.1140 and 0.0006 mg/cm2 for Myrtle essential oil and DEET, respectively. The laboratory tests showed that both Myrtle essential oil and DEET had repellency effects against P.papatasi. In addition, the insecticidal action of Myrtle oil was also observed. We concluded that the two repellents could be used as a mean of personal protection against sand flies


Subject(s)
Insecta , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insect Vectors , Myrtus , DEET , Insect Repellents
9.
Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences and Health Services [The]. 2006; 10 (1): 6-15
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-78122

ABSTRACT

Myrtle [Myrtus Communis] is an indigenous plant of northern parts of Iran and has been traditionally used for its healing effect on burn wounds. To compare the histopathological effect of Myrtle extract and 1% silver sulfadiazine on healing of second degree burn wound in rats. This was an experimental study performed on 100 adult male rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups [25 in each group]. Following nesdonal anaesthesia, a second degree burn wound of 4 cm2 was made on back of each rat. Methanolic extract of Myrtle; ointment base; 1% silver sulfadiazine and normal saline [control group] were used as treatment protocols for burn wounds. Revascularization, number of neutrophils and fibroblasts were parameters studied histopathologically. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, One way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Histopathological study was indicative of an increase of 9.87 +/- 1.48 in revascularization [p<0.001] in Myrtle extract group which was greater than those in other. There was also a higher number of fibroblasts [23.62 +/- 2.2] [p<0.001] in this group. Silver sulfadiazine [1%] was only showed to have increased the number of neutrophils [p<0.001] in epidermis of injured areas of rats. Extract of Myrtus Communis was found to have more healing potential on second-degree burn wound. Faster healing process, less complications and easy availability of Myrtle are among the reasons suggesting more clinical trails using this preparation..


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Myrtus , Silver Sulfadiazine , Burns/pathology , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Plant Extracts
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