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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree with suspected mitochondrial functional defects through combined next-generation sequencing (NGS), copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the proband and his family members were collected. The patient and his parents were subjected to family-trio whole-exome sequencing (WES), CNV-seq and mtDNA variant detection. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Trio-WES revealed that the proband has carried compound heterozygous variants of the NDUFS1 gene, including a paternally derived c.64C>T (p.R22X) nonsense variant and a maternally derived c.845A>G (p.N282S) missense variant. Both variants may cause loss of protein function. No variant that may cause the phenotype was identified by CNV-seq and mtDNA variant analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#Children with suspected mitochondrial disorders may have no specific syndromes or laboratory findings. A comprehensive strategy including mtDNA testing may facilitate the diagnosis and early clinical interventions.


Subject(s)
Child , China , DNA Copy Number Variations , Electron Transport , Humans , Mutation , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Pedigree
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786638

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a Spirometra species of Tanzania origin obtained from an African leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) was identified based on molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. One strobila and several segments of a Spirometra species were obtained from the intestine of an African male leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Maswa Game Reserve of Tanzania. The morphological characteristics of S. theileri observed comprised 3 uterine loops on one side and 4 on the other side of the mid-line, a uterine pore situated posterior to the vagina and alternating irregularly either to the right or left of the latter, and vesicular seminis that were much smaller than other Spirometra species. Sequence differences in the cox1 and nad1 genes between S. theileri (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei were 10.1% (cox1) and 12.0% (nad1), while those of S. decipiens and S. ranarum were 9.6%, 9.8% (cox1) and 13.0%, 12.6% (nad1), respectively. The morphological features of the Tanzania-origin Spirometra specimens coincided with those of S. theileri, and the molecular data was also consistent with that of S. theileri, thereby demonstrating the distribution of S. theileri in Tanzania. This places the leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) as new definitive hosts of this spirometrid tapeworm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Hyaenidae , Intestines , Male , NADH Dehydrogenase , Panthera , Spirometra , Tanzania , Vagina
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, while a calorie-restricted diet can extend life span by reducing the risk of these diseases. It is known that health effects of diet are partially conveyed through epigenetic mechanism including DNA methylation. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide hepatic DNA methylation to identify the epigenetic effects of HFD-induced obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed control diet (CD), calorie-restricted control diet (CRCD), or HFD for 16 weeks (after one week of acclimation to the control diet). Food intake, body weight, and liver weight were measured. Hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels were determined using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Changes in genome-wide DNA methylation were determined by a DNA methylation microarray method combined with methylated DNA immunoprecipitation. The level of transcription of individual genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The DNA methylation statuses of genes in biological networks related to lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis were influenced by HFD-induced obesity. In HFD group, a proinflammatory Casp1 (Caspase 1) gene had hypomethylated CpG sites at the 1.5-kb upstream region of its transcription start site (TSS), and its mRNA level was higher compared with that in CD group. Additionally, an energy metabolism-associated gene Ndufb9 (NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex 9) in HFD group had hypermethylated CpG sites at the 2.6-kb downstream region of its TSS, and its mRNA level was lower compared with that in CRCD group. CONCLUSIONS: HFD alters DNA methylation profiles in genes associated with liver lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. The methylation statuses of Casp1 and Ndufb9 were particularly influenced by the HFD. The expression of these genes in HFD differed significantly compared with CD and CRCD, respectively, suggesting that the expressions of Casp1 and Ndufb9 in liver were regulated by their methylation statuses.


Subject(s)
Acclimatization , Animals , Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Caspase 1 , Cholesterol , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , DNA Methylation , DNA , Eating , Epigenomics , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Male , Methods , Methylation , Mice , Mice, Obese , NADH Dehydrogenase , Obesity , Oxidoreductases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Initiation Site , Triglycerides
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296487

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to investigate the genetic background of mitochondrial genes in young patients with Coronary heart disease (CHD) to provide a foundation for the early prevention of young patients with CHD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>115 cases of young (⋜ 45 years) CHD Chinese Han patients (case group), 100 cases of older (> 45 years) Chinese Han CHD patients (experimental group) hospitalized and 100 cases of healthy people through physical examination (control group) at the General Hospital of PLA between January 2014 and December 2015 were selected. General information, clinical assessment, pedigree analysis, and mitochondrial full sequence scanning were performed. The pedigrees of one patient harbouring the C5263T mutation were recruited. Mitochondrial functional analysis including cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were performed on pedigrees with the C5263T mutation (mutation group) and without the mutation (non-mutation group).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The differences in biochemical tests (P > 0.05) between the case group and experimental group were not significant. The C5263T single-nucleotide mutation of the mitochondrial ND2 gene was observed in 2 young CHD patients in the case group. The premature CHD of these 2 patients followed a pattern of maternal inheritance. The mutation group (I1, II2) had higher ROS levels (4750.82 ± 1045.55 vs. 3888.58 ± 487.60, P = 0.022) and lower MMP levels (P = 0.045) than the non-mutation group (II1, III1, III2).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We speculated that the mitochondrial C5263T mutation might be associated with the occurrence CHD in Chinese Han young people.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Base Sequence , China , Epidemiology , Coronary Disease , Epidemiology , Genetics , Female , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondrial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation , NADH Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345370

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of MT-ND1 m.3635G>A mutation in the pathogenesis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Biochemical characteristics including the activity of complex Ⅰ, ATP production and oxygen consumption rate among lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 3 carriers, 3 affected matrilineal relatives of the families and 3 controls were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Comparison of mitochondrial functions in lymphoblastoid cell lines of the carriers, patients and controls showed a 51.0% decrease in the activity of complex Ⅰ in patients compared with controls (P<0.05). The m.3635G>A mutation has resulted in decreased efficiency of ATP synthesis (P<0.05). Comparison of oxygen consumption rate showed that the basal OCR (P<0.05), ATP-linked OCR (P<0.05) and the maximum OCR (P<0.05) have all reduced to some extent compared with the controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These results showed that m.3635G>A, as a LHON-associated mutation, can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Genetics , Asians , Genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Mitochondria , Genetics , Mutation , Genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber , Genetics , Pedigree
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99315

ABSTRACT

The genus Spirometra belongs to the family Diphyllobothriidae and order Pseudophyllidea, and includes intestinal parasites of cats and dogs. In this study, a plerocercoid labeled as Spirometra mansonoides from the USA was examined for species identification and phylogenetic analysis using 2 complete mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3). The cox1 sequences (1,566 bp) of the plerocercoid specimen (USA) showed 99.2% similarity to the reference sequences of the plerocercoid of Korean Spirometra decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679), and 99.1% similarity in regard to nad3 (346 bp). Phylogenetic tree topologies generated using 4 analytical methods were identical and showed high confidence levels with bootstrap values of 1.00, 100%, 100%, and 100% for Bayesian inference (BI), maximum-likelihood (ML), neighbor-joining (NJ), and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, respectively. Representatives of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra species formed a monophyletic group, and the sister-genera status between these species was well supported. Trapezoic proglottids in the posterior 1/5 region of an adult worm obtained from an experimentally infected cat were morphologically examined. The outer uterine loop of the uterus coiling characteristically consisted of 2 complete turns. The results clearly indicated that the examined Spirometra specimen from the USA matched to S. decipiens very well, and indicated possible presence of the life cycle of this species in this region.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cats , Diphyllobothrium , Dogs , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , NADH Dehydrogenase , Parasites , Sparganum , Spirometra , Trees , United States , Uterus
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239506

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To report on the clinical, genetic and molecular characteristics of three ethnic Han Chinese families affected with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The three families were all diagnosed with LHON. Ophthalmologic examinations were conducted on the probands . The ND1, ND4 and ND6 genes of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were amplified with PCR respectively for the screening of three primary mutations G3460A, G11778A and T14484C. The entire mtDNA of the probands were also amplified by PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Analysis of mtDNA in the three pedigrees has failed to find the presence of the three LHON associated mutations but presence of a homoplastic ND1 T3866C mutation in all probands and their matrilineal relatives . The probands had different levels of visual impairment. The penetrance in the three families has been calculated as 12.5%, 11.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The T3866C mutation has resulted in replacement of isoleucine at position 187 with theronine. The isoleucine at position 187 is located at one of the transmembrane domains of ND1 polypeptide.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Above results have suggested that the ND1 T3866C mutation might have been involved in the pathogenesis of LHON in the three Chinese families studied.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asians , Ethnology , Genetics , Base Sequence , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Mitochondria , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , NADH Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber , Ethnology , Genetics , Pedigree , Point Mutation
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350537

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of indium exposure on the relative content of mitochondrial ND1 gene in lymphocytes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Venous blood was obtained from 14 healthy workers and anticoagulated with heparin. Blood lymphocytes were separated and divided into three tube cultures. For two tubes in the exposed group, indium chloride was added to final concentrations of 0.2 mmol/L and 0.8 mmol/L, respectively. For one tube in the control group, an equal volume of normal saline solution was added. After incubation for 72 h, the relative content of mitochondrial gene in each group was determined using quantitative real-time PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Lymphocytes exposed to 0.8 mmol/L indium chloride had a significantly higher relative content of mitochondrial gene than those exposed to 0.2 mmol/L indium chloride and those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Lymphocytes exposed to a high concentration of indium and its compounds have an elevated relative content of mitochondrial ND1 gene, indicating increased oxidative DNA damage induced by exposure to a high concentration of indium and its compounds.</p>


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Humans , Indium , Toxicity , Lymphocytes , NADH Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Occupational Exposure
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol and excessive iron intake on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the progression of alcoholic liver injury in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups (Control, EtOH, Fe, and EtOH + Fe), and fed either control or ethanol (36% of total calories) liquid diet with or without 0.6% carbonyl iron for eight weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, liver malondialdehyde concentrations were measured by colorimetric assays. Liver histopathology was examined by Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the fixed liver tissues. The integrity of the hepatic mtDNA and nuclear DNA was measured by long-range PCR. The gene expression levels of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (Nd4) were examined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Serum ALT and AST activities were significantly higher in the EtOH+Fe group, as compared to the Control group. Similarly, among four groups, liver histology showed the most severe lipid accumulation, inflammation, and necrosis in the EtOH + Fe group. PCR amplification of near-full-length (15.9 kb) mtDNA showed more than 50% loss of full-length product in the liver of the EtOH + Fe group, whereas amounts of PCR products of a nuclear DNA were unaffected. In addition, the changes in the mtDNA integrity showed correlation with reductions in the mRNA levels of mitochondrial gene Cox1 and Nd4. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that the liver injury associated with excessive iron and alcohol intake involved mtDNA damage and corresponding mitochondrial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alcoholics , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Diet , DNA , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport Complex IV , Ethanol , Gene Expression , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans , Inflammation , Iron , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , NADH Dehydrogenase , Necrosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
10.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 708-712, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242079

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship of the mutational status of the ND4 gene and the clinical features of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients with ND4 mutations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using PCR combined with directly sequencing, we identified somatic mutations of ND4 in 121 primary AML patients to couple with their clinical features.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 58 male patients and 63 female patients (median age 49 years, 10-86 years). Eight of 121 patients (6.6%) with de novo AML were found harboring missense mutation of ND4 gene, including 3 patients with A131V (3/8, 37.5%), 2 patients with A404T (2/8, 25%), 1 patient with F149L (1/8, 12.5%), 1 patient with G242D (1/8, 12.5%) and 1 patient with Y409H (1/8, 12.5%), respectively. Patients with ND4 mutations were associated with good karyotype (P=0.049), regardless of gender, age, white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet, blast cells of bone marrow or immunophenotype (P>0.05). There were no statistical significance in mutations of FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA, c-KIT and DNMT3A between patients with ND4 mutation and wild-type (wt) ND4 (P>0.05). The median overall survival of patients with ND4 mutations and wt ND4 were all not reached. The median relapse-free survival were not reached and 29(2-53) months, respectively (P>0.05). There was no significance in the ratio of CR and RR patients between wt ND4 and ND4 mutated groups (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It was concluded that novel ND4 mutations could be found in de novo AML patients, especially in patients with good karyotype. Thus, ND4 mutations might play an important role in AML prognosis. However, whether the mitochondria dysfunction contribute to leukemogenesis needs to be further investigated.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , NADH Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Prognosis , Young Adult
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(supl.1): 89-98, set. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695800

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Aedes aegypti es el principal vector del dengue en zonas urbanas. A pesar de su importancia epidemiológica, se desconoce la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones del vector en Colombia. Objetivo. Determinar la variabilidad genética del gen mitocondrial ND4 , que codifica para la subunidad 4 de la enzima NADH-deshidrogenasa, entre poblaciones de Ae. aegypti de los municipios de Sincelejo y Guaranda, donde se registra alta y baja incidencia de dengue, respectivamente. Materiales y métodos. A partir del material genético extraído de 36 hembras de Ae. aegypti , se determinó la secuencia parcial del gen mitocondrial ND4 y se estimaron los parámetros de diversidad de nucleótidos, diversidad haplotípica, estructura genética y flujo de genes entre las poblaciones de Sincelejo y Guaranda. También, se analizó la varianza molecular y se construyó una red haplotípica. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 36 secuencias de nucleótidos de 282 pb; éstas presentaron doce sitios polimórficos y se agruparon en diez haplotipos, dos presentes en ambas poblaciones, tres exclusivos de la población de Sincelejo y cinco de la población de Guaranda. Los estimadores de estructura genética ( F ST =0,15) y de flujo de genes ( Nm =1,40) evidencian diferenciación genética y un limitado intercambio de genes entre las poblaciones. Conclusión. Las poblaciones de Ae. aegypti de Sincelejo y Guaranda son genéticamente divergentes.


Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue in urban areas. Despite its epidemiological importance, the genetic variability of Colombian populations of this species is unknown. Objetive: To determine the genetic variability of mitocondrial gene ND4, which codes for subunit 4 of the enzyme NADH deshydrogenase, between populations of Ae. aegypti from municipalities of Sincelejo and Guaranda. The incidences of dengue reported from these two localities are high and low, respectively. Materials and methods: Genetic material extracted from 36 females of Ae. aegypti was used to determine the partial sequence of the mitocondrial gene ND4 as well as to estimate the parameters of nucleotidic and haplotypic diversities, genetic structure and gene flow between the Sincelejo and Guaranda populations. The molecular variance was also analysed and a haplotypic network constructed. Results: In all 36 nucleotide sequences of 282pb were obtained. These presented 12 polymorphic sites and could grouped into 10 haplotypes, two of them present in both populations, three exclusive to the Sincelejo population and five to that of Guaranda. The estimators of genetic structure ( F ST = 0.15) and gene flow ( Nm = 1.40) are both indicative of genetic differentiation and a limited exchange of genes between the populations. Conclusions: The Sincelejo and Guaranda populations of Ae. aegypti are genetically divergent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/genetics , Aedes/classification , Colombia/epidemiology , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Dengue/transmission , Ecosystem , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Genes, Insect , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , Incidence , Insect Proteins/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity , Urban Health
12.
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 July-Sept; 50(3): 206-213
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (Mt DNA) defects have been identified in a variety of Tumors, but the exact role of these defects in the pathogenicity and tumor progression is poorly understood. This study aims at identifying the status of mitochondrial OXPHOS genes in neoplastic transformation and attempts to establish a cause and effect relationship between mitochondrial OXPHOS defects and tumor progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mutational, expression and functional analysis of l2 of the 13 mitochondrial OXPHOS genes has been carried out using PCR, Real-Time PCR and protein modeling in 180 sporadic samples of a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant tumors like that of benign, malignant, matched blood and adjacent normal tissue of breast and benign hemangioma. RESULTS: Mutations were identified in the ND4L, ND6 and COX-II regions of the mitochondrial OXPHOS genes. All the mutations were limited only to the malignant breast tissues. On relative quantification, a compromised expression of OXPHOS genes was identified in all the malignant tissues irrespective of their mutational states. Protein modeling revealed loss of function mutations of ND6 and COX-II proteins. CONCLUSION: This is the first study worldwide wherein a comparative study using different benign and malignant tumors has been carried out to assess the role of Mt DNA defects. Our data reveals mitochondrial dysfunction only in malignant cells and not in their benign counterparts, indicating that the dysfunction may arise after the pro-proliferative pathway has set in. We hypothesize that compromised OXPHOS may be a responsive mechanism of the cell to counter cancers, rather than a mechanism of initiating tumorigenesis.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 3-10, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697827

ABSTRACT

The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance ( kdr ) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Mutation/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Disease Outbreaks , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Haplotypes/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Portugal/epidemiology , Venezuela
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197171

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4+/-0.09degrees C and 85.9+/-0.08degrees C for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asia , Clonorchis sinensis/classification , Feces/parasitology , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Opisthorchis/classification , Parasitology/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transition Temperature , Zygote
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(6): 325-329, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-656268

ABSTRACT

Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, along with the coxA and wsp genes of the maternally-inherited Wolbachia endosymbiont. The nd4 fragment was invariant between samples, whilst cox1 exhibited four haplotypes that separated two types of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one clustered in southern Brazil. Low sequence diversity was generally observed, being discussed. Both Brazilian and Argentinian mosquitoes were infected with a single Wolbachia strain. As reported in previous studies with these populations, cox1 and nd4 diversity is not congruent with the population structure revealed by nuclear markers or alar morphology. Future Cx. quinquefasciatus research should, if possible, evaluate mtDNA diversity in light of other markers.


Culex quinquefasciatus é vetor de patógenos humanos, incluindo nematódeos filarídeos e vários vírus. Embora a sua relevância epidemiológica varie entre as diferentes regiões geográficas, o conhecimento da estrutura genética da população é ainda incipiente. Em vista disso, foram avaliados os níveis de diversidade genética de Cx. quinquefasciatus e de híbridos Cx. quinquefasciatus x Cx. pipiens de nove cidades do Brasil e em La Plata, na Argentina. Para os testes foram utilizados fragmentos dos genes mitocondriais cox1 e nd4, juntamente com coxA e wsp do endossimbionte Wolbachia, herdado maternalmente. O fragmento nd4 não apresentou variação entre as amostras, e o cox1 exibiu quatro haplótipos que separaram dois tipos de Cx. quinquefasciatus, com um deles agrupado no sul do Brasil. Os dados de sequência mostraram baixa diversidade, sendo esta discutida. Ambas as amostras de mosquitos brasileiros e argentinos estão infectados com uma única cepa de Wolbachia. A diversidade apresentada por nd4 e cox1 não é congruente com a estrutura da população revelada por marcadores nucleares e morfologia alar de estudos anteriores com estas mesmas populações. Pesquisas com Cx. quinquefasciatus devem, se possível, avaliar a diversidade por DNA mitocondrial na luz de outros marcadores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex/genetics , Culex/microbiology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Wolbachia , Argentina , Brazil , Genes, Insect/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 30(2): 207-214, jun. 2010. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-560976

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Triatoma dimidiata es el segundo vector más importante de la enfermedad de Chagas en Colombia, después de Rhodnius prolixus. El conocimiento de la composición genética y la diferenciación de poblaciones es fundamental para el adecuado diseño e implementación de estrategias de control y vigilancia vectorial. Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de variabilidad y diferenciación genética en tres poblaciones colombianas de T. dimidiata provenientes de distintas localidades y hábitats, mediante el análisis molecular de un fragmento del gen mitocondrial ND4. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó el nivel de polimorfismo y la estructura genética de dos poblaciones silvestres de los departamentos de La Guajira (n=10) y Santander (n=10), y de una población intradomiciliaria (n=15) y peridomiciliaria (n=5) del Cesar. Para tal fin, se analizaron las secuencias de nucleótidos de un fragmento del gen mitocondrial ND4. Resultados. T. dimidiata en Colombia demostró tener gran diversidad genética, tanto a nivel de nucleótidos (π: 0,034) como de haplotipo (Hd: 0,863), además de una significativa estructuración de población (fST: 0,761) con un bajo número de migrantes (Nm: 0,157). Las distancias genéticas y las diferencias en los niveles de variabilidad genética entre las tres poblaciones fueron coherentes con una posible subdivisión de población.Conclusión. Este trabajo demostró diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones de T. dimidiata de La Guajira, Cesar y Santander. Se sugiere una posible relación entre tal subdivisión y algunas características eco-epidemiológicas que posee T. dimidiata en el centro-oriente y en el norte de Colombia. Finalmente, este trabajo describe, por primera vez, la utilidad del ND4 como un marcador molecular para el estudio de poblaciones naturales de T. dimidiata.


Introduction. Triatoma dimidiata is the second most important vector of Chagas disease in Colombia after Rhodnius prolixus. Population genetic studies are essential for the adequate design and implementation of vector control and surveillance strategies. Objective. The level of genetic variability and population differentiation was surveyed among three Colombian populations of T. dimidiata from different geographic locations and ecotopes, using ND4 mitochondrial gene. Materials and methods. Genetic comparison was made between two wild populations from La Guajira (n=10) and Santander (n=10) provinces, and one intra (n=15) and one peridomiciliary (n=5) population from the Cesar province. The polymorphism frequencies of the ND4 mitochondrial gene sequence were analyzed to deduce population structure based on the 40 samples. Results. Colombian T. dimidiata showed a high nucleotide (π: 0.034) and haplotype diversity (Hd: 0.863), as well as significant population subdivision (fST: 0.761) and a low migration rate (Nm: 0.157). Genetic distances and variability differences among populations indicate distinct population subdivision amongst the three provinces. Conclusion. ND4 proved useful in elucidating the significant genetic differentiation that has occurred among T. dimidiata populations from La Guajira, Cesar and Santander. The analysis suggested a relationship between population subdivision and some eco-epidemiological attributes of this vector from the central eastern and northwestern regions of Colombia.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Genetics, Population , Triatoma , Triatominae , NADH Dehydrogenase , Polymorphism, Genetic
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176235

ABSTRACT

We describe a Korean family presenting with pediatric-onset, progressive, generalized dystonia with bilateral striatal necrosis and the homoplasmic G14459A mutation in the mitochondrial ND6 gene. The G14459A mutation has been reported in families presenting with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) alone, LHON plus dystonia, or pediatric-onset dystonia. The proband had shown dysarthria, progressive generalized dystonia, and spasticity at 5 yr. Brain MRI demonstrated bilateral striatal necrosis. Additional investigation of family members revealed the presence of homoplasmic G14459A mutation in asymptomatic individuals. The clinical manifestation of the homoplasmic G14459A mtDNA mutation within the same family showed asymptomatic or pediatric-onset dystonia, without optic neuropathy. This study reemphasizes that the G14459A mutation is a candidate mutation for maternally inherited dystonia, regardless of optic neuropathy, and supports the hypothesis that nuclear genes may play a role in modifying the clinical expression of mitochondrial disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians/genetics , Base Sequence , Brain/pathology , Dystonia/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mitochondrial Diseases/complications , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Necrosis , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber/genetics , Pedigree , Point Mutation , Republic of Korea
18.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Jul; 29(4): 567-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113825

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) has been frequently used as genetic markers for the population genetic studies. In this study we used chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from Korea, Japan andAmerica, and compared their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) genes by DNA sequence analysis. Sequence variation was studied in the ND3 among total 11 individuals from three populations. The ND3 gene was amplified by PCR targeting parts of cytochrome oxidase III gene (COIII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L gene (ND4L). ND3 gene sequence, encoded 752 bps, presented some genetic variation in the chum salmon populations. The observed nucleotide variations inferred the distinct genetic differentiation of American salmons from Korean and Japanese chum salmons. Six sites of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were explored in the ND3 locus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis also showed a clear heterogenous band in American salmons compared to Asian salmons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electrophoresis , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Korea , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Oncorhynchus keta/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 28(5): 241-248, maio 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-485061

ABSTRACT

Whole-mount preparations were prepared and submitted to NADH-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry techniques. The myenteric plexus arrangement and the number of neurons were comparatively evaluated among the different portions of the cecum. The neurons from the apical and basal regions were distributed in classes at intervals of 100µm², the means of the corresponding intervals being compared. The ganglia, in both techniques, were often connected by fine bundles, which became thicker in the mesenteric region and in the region next to the cecal ampulla. The number of positive NADH-d neurons was higher than that of NADPH-d neurons in all portions, from both regions. The numbers of reactive NADH-d e NADPH-d neurons were significantly different among the different portions of the cecum, except for the antimesenteric basal and intermediate basal regions, considering the NADH-d neurons. The profile area for the reactive NADH-d e NADPH-d neurons was higher in the apical region than in the basal area. Differences in arrangement, distribution and size of positive NADH-d e NADPH-d neurons in the different cecum portions evidenced the importance of the subdivision of the analyzed organ.


Estudaram-se o arranjo do plexo mioentérico, o número de neurônios e a área do perfil do corpo celular (µm²) dos neurônios mioentéricos, nas regiões apical e basal do ceco de ratos Wistar com 6 meses de idade. Estas regiões foram subdivididas nas seguintes porções: apical mesentérica (AM); apical intermediária (AI); apical antimesentérica (AA); próximo à ampola cecal (PA); basal intermediária (BI), e basal antimesentérica (BA). Foram montados preparados de membrana que receberam as técnicas histoquímica de NADH-diaforase (NADH-d) e NADPH-diaforase (NADPH-d). O arranjo do plexo mioentérico e o número de neurônios foram avaliados comparativamente entre as diferentes porções das regiões do ceco. Os neurônios das regiões apical e basal foram distribuídos em classes com intervalos de 100µm², sendo comparadas às médias da mensuração dos pares. Os gânglios, em ambas as técnicas, apresentavam-se, em geral, conectados por feixes delicados, tornando-se mais espessos na porção mesentérica e naquela próxima à ampola cecal. O número de neurônios NADH-d positivos foi maior do que o de NADPH-d em todas as porções, de ambas as regiões. O número de neurônios reativos a NADH-d e NADPH-d foi significativamente diferente entre as diferentes porções do ceco, com exceção das comparações entre as porções basal antimesentérica e basal intermediária, para os primeiros; e entre a basal intermediária e porção próxima à ampola cecal, e comparando-se a apical mesentérica e porção próxima à ampola cecal, para os neurônios NADPH-d positivos. A área do perfil dos neurônios NADH-d e NADPH-d reativos foi maior na região apical do que na basal. Pela primeira vez, o número de neurônios do plexo mioentérico é reportado em porções pré-estabelecidas do ceco de ratos. Nossos resultados reiteram a importância da indicação precisa da porção estudada em pesquisas envolvendo este segmento intestinal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cecum/anatomy & histology , Cell Count/methods , Cell Count/veterinary , NADH Dehydrogenase , NADPH Dehydrogenase , Neurons/physiology , Myenteric Plexus/cytology , Rats, Wistar
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anesthetics have been suspected of impairing various aspects of the immune function either directly by affecting the function of immunocompetent cells or indirectly by modulating the stress response. Splenocytes play important roles in the cellular host defense against infection. In order to assess the immune modulatory effects of propofol, this study examined the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of propofol on splenocytes. METHODS: Splenocytes, as responders, were isolated from BALB/c mice (n = 10). The cells were pretreated with different propofol concentrations (0micrometer, 30micrometer, 100micrometer, 300micrometer) for 24 hours. The cytotoxic effect was assayed by the NADH dehydrogenase activity and the proliferation was evaluated by the level of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyunridine (BrdU) incorporation during DNA synthesis in the presence or absence of propofol, in addition to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microgram/ml) for mitogenic stimulation. A cell proliferation enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) system was used, and the stimulation index was calculated in the presence or absence of propofol. RESULTS: The percentage of the NADH dehydrogenase activity was changed by the propofol pretreatment (P < 0.001). LPS stimulation significantly decreased the NADH dehydrogenase activity at 100micrometer and 300micrometer compared with the propofol-added or pretreated cells (P < 0.05). The stimulation index to LPS was lower at concentrations of 100micrometer and 300micrometer than at 30micrometer, and proliferative response of splenocytes were completely abrogated by adding toxic concentrations (100micrometer) of propofol (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Neither cytotoxicity, as defined by the NADH dehydrogenase activity, nor a proliferative effect, as measured by the level of (BrdU) incorporation in the splenocytes, were affected by the clinical concentration of propofol.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , DNA , Mice , NADH Dehydrogenase , Propofol
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