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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879051

ABSTRACT

This project aimed to explore the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced H9 c2 cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying signaling pathway. The H/R model of H9 c2 cardiomyocytes was established and then the cells were divided into different treatment groups. CCK-8(cell counting kit-8) was used to detect the activity of cardiomyocytes; Brdu assay was used to detect the proliferation of H9 c2 cells; the caspase-3 activity was tested, and then the protein expression was assessed by Western blot. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the apoptosis level of cardiomyocytes. Ginsenoside Rg_1 inhibited H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, promoted nuclear transcription of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2), and enhanced the expression of the downstream heme oxygenase-1(HO-1). Ginsenoside Rg_1 could increase Nrf2 nuclear transcription and HO-1 expression with the increase of concentration(10, 20, 40, 60 μmol·L~(-1)). However, the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on cardiomyocytes was significantly weakened after the transfection of Nrf2-siRNA. Ginsenoside Rg_1 could protect cardiomyocytes by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Humans , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Cardiac , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878906

ABSTRACT

Nrf2 is the key transcription factor mainly for regulating oxidative homeostasis and cytoprotective responses against oxidative stress. Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against endogenous or exogenous oxidative stress. With its activation, a wide range of stress-related genes is transactivated to restore the cellular homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the aberrant activation of Nrf2 is related to the malignant progression, chemotherapeutic drug resistance and poor prognosis. Nrf2 plays a crucial role in cancer malignancy and chemotherapeutic resistance by controlling the intracellular redox homeostasis through the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes. Nrf2 inhibitor containing many natural products has been deemed as a novel therapeutic strategy for human malignancies. This article reviews the progress of studies of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, and its biological impact in solid malignancies and molecular mechanisms for causing Nrf2 hyperactivation in cancer cells. In conclusion, we summarized the deve-lopment of Nrf2 inhibitors in recent years, in the expectation of providing reference for further drug development and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion on Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and to explore the protective mechanism of moxibustion on ovarian reserve function.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a moxibustion group and a hormone group, 10 rats in each group. The rats in the model group, moxibustion group and hormone group were treated with intragastric administration of tripterysium glycosides turbid liquid to prepare DOR model. The rats in the blank group were treated with intragastric administration of sodium chloride solution with the same volume, once a day for 14 days. The rats in the hormone group were treated with hormone sequential therapy for 14 days from the day of modeling; the rats in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion at bilateral "Shenshu" (BL 23) or "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Zhongwan" (CV 12) from the day of modeling, and the two groups acupoints were alternated every other day, 10 min each time, for 14 consecutive days. The estrus cycle was observed every day by vaginal exfoliated cell smear, and the estrus cycle disorder rate in each group was calculated. After the intervention, the HE staining was used to observe the histological morphology of ovaries; ELISA was used to detect the contents of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the rate of estrus cycle disorder in the model group was increased (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could reduce the rate of estrus cycle disorder, improve the level of serum sex hormones and antioxidant stress in DOR rats, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Moxibustion , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Ovarian Reserve , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 89-99, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Koelreuteria henryi Dummer is an indigenous plant in Taiwan. The species has been used in traditional folk medicine for the promotion of liver functions and for treating malaria and urethritis. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of the flower extract of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. The extraction conditions were optimized by the contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity assays. Moreover, an in vitro study for investigating antioxidant activity of K. henryi flower extract was demonstrated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: K. henryi flower extracted for 150 min showed high contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids. In an in vitro model, L929 cells were pretreated with K. henryi flower extract, and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Results demonstrated that H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the treatment of 200 µg/ml K. henryi flower extract through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The caspase 8/9 activity and expression of p-p38 and pERK were repressed by K. henryi flower extract. In addition, the prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis by K. henryi flower extract activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) stress response pathway to transcript heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Also, K. henryi flower extract prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis through HO-1 production, as evident by the use of HO-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that K. henryi flower extract could inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis in L929 cells through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Flowers/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 8 , Hydrogen Peroxide
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of aerobic exercise combined with huwentoxin-I (HWTX-I)-mediated Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway on phase II detoxification enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 and their protective effects against obstructive jaundice (OJ)-induced central nervous system injury in mice.@*METHODS@#50 male KM mice were randomly divided into blank group (GO), model group (M), aerobic exercise group (T), HWTX-I group (H), and aerobic exercise combined with HWTX-I group (TH). Mouse models of OJ were established with surgical suture for 72 h in the mice in all the groups except for the blank control group. The mice received interventions by aerobic exercise and tail vein injection of HWTX-I (0.05 μg/g) and were assessed by behavioral observation, Clark's neurological function scores, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), brain tissue Nissl staining, hippocampal tissue Western blotting, and liver tissue mRNA expression profiling and sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The mice in group M had obvious jaundice symptoms after the operation with significantly increased Clark's neurological score ( < 0.01). Compared with those in group M, the mice in group T, group H, and group TH showed significantly decreased serum levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, and TBA ( < 0.01) with increased contents of 5-HT and BDNF and decreased contents of S100B and NSE in the hippocampus ( < 0.01). Synergistic effects between aerobic exercise and HWTX-I were noted on the above parameters except for the liver function indicators. Interventions with aerobic exercise and HWTX-I, alone or in combination, obviously lessened pathologies in the brain tissue induced by OJ, and the combined treatment produced the strongest effect. The treatment also increased the expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 mRNA and protein in brain tissues ( < 0.01 or 0.05) with a synergistic effect between aerobic exercise and HWTX-I. Illumina high-throughput sequencing showed that the differentially expressed factors participated mainly in such neural regulatory pathways as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, GABAergic synapses, dopaminergic synapses, synaptic vesicle circulation, and axon guidance, involving tissue cell neuronal signal transduction, apoptosis inhibition, immune response, and toxicity. Aerobic exercise and HWTX-I synergistically increased the accumulation of the signal pathways related with neuron damage repair and proliferation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Aerobic exercise combined with HWTX-I can up-regulate the expression of phase Ⅱ detoxification enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway to protect the central nervous system against OJ-induced damage in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Jaundice, Obstructive , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Male , Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Reptilian Proteins , Spider Venoms , Trauma, Nervous System
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828040

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease(DKD) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease, without any effective treatment available. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of Guanxin Danshen Formulation(GXDSF) on diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice. The db/m and db/db mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, model group, metformin group, and GXDSF group. After 8 weeks' treatment with GXDSF, metformin or normal saline, the mice were sacrificed, and the blood and kidney tissues were collected for the further analysis. Compared with the model group, TG, TCH and LDL levels significantly decreased in the GXDSF group. The results from HE and PAS staining showed that db/db mice exhibited abnormal kidney tissues with increased glomerular volume, basement-membrane thickening and mesangial cell proliferation, which could be significantly alleviated by GXDSF treatment. GXDSF treatment also reduced serum creatinine and BUN. Meanwhile, GXDSF treatment markedly elevated GSH-PX levels, while reduced LDH and MDA levels in the kidney tissues. Western blot assay showed that GXDSF evidently up-regulated protein levels of ERα and p-Akt, and subsequently promoted HO-1 expression mediated by Nrf2. These data collectively indicated that GXDSF protects db/db mice against DN by regulating ERα and Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Kidney , Kidney Glomerulus , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Salvia miltiorrhiza
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 986-991, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136303

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ antioxidant response element (ARE) is a novel defensive pathway involved in the oxidative and chemical stress of cells. The aim of the study was to explore the role of Nrf2 on the apoptosis of human disc nucleus pulpous cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). METHODS The degeneration model of human intervertebral disc nucleus pulpous cells was established. The expression of Nrf2 was interfered with using sulforaphane (SFN); for that end, three groups were established: a blank group (H2O2-/SFN-), control group (H2O2+/SFN-), and an experimental group (H2O2+/SFN+). CCK8, Hoechst 33258 living cell staining was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. RESULTS The apoptotic rates of the three groups were [(0.40±0.46)%], [(25.98±11.28)%], and [(3.83±2.06)%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The relative content of ROS in the three groups was [(100±7)%], [(1538±91)%], and [(818±63)%]; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). In Western blotting, Nrf2 content in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. CONCLUSION Nrf2 exists in the nucleus pulpous cells of human intervertebral discs, which is related to the degeneration of the intervertebral disc. It has negative feedback regulation and can prevent the degeneration of the intervertebral disc by inhibiting the apoptosis of nucleus pulpous cells of human intervertebral discs caused by excessive ROS, which provides a new intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of the degeneration of intervertebral discs.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O fator 2 relacionado a NF-E2 (Nrf2)/elemento de resposta antioxidante (ARE) é uma nova via defensiva envolvida no estresse oxidativo e químico das células. O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar o papel do Nrf2 na apoptose das células do núcleo pulposo do disco humano induzida pelo peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2). MÉTODOS O modelo de degeneração das células do núcleo pulposo do disco intervertebral humano foi estabelecido. A expressão do Nrf2 foi interferida utilizando-se sulforafano (SFN). Para isso foram estabelecidos três grupos: um grupo vazio (H2O2-/SFN-), um grupo de controle (H2O2+/SFN-), e um grupo experimental (H2O2+/SFN+). Utilizando CCK8 e Hoechst 33258, o conteúdo de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) foi detectado. RESULTADOS As taxas de apoptose dos três grupos foram [(0,40 ± 0,46)%], [(25,98 ± 11,28%)] e [(3,83 ± 2,06)%], respectivamente. A diferença apresentou significância estatística (p < 0,05). O conteúdo relativo de ERO nos três grupos foi [(100±7)%], [(1538±91%)], e [(818±63%); a diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05). O método de Western blotting indicou um maior conteúdo de Nrf2 no grupo experimental do que no grupo de controle. CONCLUSÃO O Nrf2 existe em células do núcleo pulposo do disco intervertebral humano, que estão relacionadas à degeneração do disco intervertebral. Ele apresenta regulação por feedback negativo e pode evitar a degeneração do disco intervertebral inibindo a apoptose de células do núcleo pulposo do disco causada por excesso de ERO. Essa informação proporciona uma nova estratégia de intervenção para a prevenção e o tratamento da degeneração do disco intervertebral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide
8.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1): 1-11, 20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095406

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) desempenha papel fundamental na expressão de genes mediados por elemento de resposta antioxidante (ERA); sendo assim, é uma via importante para proteger as células de substâncias carcinogênicas. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca da ação quimiopreventiva dos fitoquímicos por meio da regulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2. Método: O levantamento de artigos para a revisão integrativa da literatura sobre essa temática foi realizado nos periódicos indexados nas bases de dados: Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e SpringerLink, utilizando-se os descritores advindos do MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicais livres, estresse oxidativo, carcinogênese, quimioprevenção e Nrf2. Os critérios de seleção foram artigos publicados de 2000 a 2019, relacionados, ou que investiguem diretamente a atuação de fitoquímicos no fator de transcrição Nrf2, e a prevenção do desenvolvimento de câncer. Resultados: Foram selecionados 58 artigos que estavam relacionados com o objetivo da revisão. Os estudos revisados apontaram que fitoquímicos, tais como resveratrol, curcumina, isotiocianato, luteolina, entre outros, atuam na ativação da via Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, sendo eles dependentes ou independentes da proteína repressora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusão: Diante disso, conclui-se que a modulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2 é um mecanismo que se configura como um importante mediador no que concerne compostos nocivos ao organismo humano, e que a atuação dos fitoquímicos nessa via contribui para a redução do risco de câncer. No entanto, ainda não são completamente elucidados todos os mecanismos utilizados pelos fitoquímicos, sendo necessários ulteriores estudos na área


Introduction: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a fundamental role in the expression of genes mediated by antioxidant response element (ARE), thus it is an important pathway to protect the cells from carcinogenic substances. Objective: To perform an integrative literature review on the quimiopreventive action of phytochemicals through regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Method: Search of papers for the integrative literature review about this theme conducted in journals indexed in the databases: Academic Google, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Springer Link, using the MeSH descriptors: phytochemicals, free radicals, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and Nrf2. The selection criteria were articles published from 2000 to 2019, related to or that directly investigate the role of phytochemicals in the transcription factor Nrf2, and the prevention of cancer development. Results: 58 articles were selected, all related to the objective of the review. The reviewed studies showed that phytochemicals, such as resveratrol, curcumin, isothiocyanate, luteolin, among others, act on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, using different mechanisms, which are dependent or independent of the repressor protein Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion is that the modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 is a mechanism that configures itself as an important mediator for harmful compounds to the human organism, and that the action of phytochemicals, in this pathway, contributes to the reduction of cancer risk. However, all the mechanisms used by phytochemicals, are not completely elucidated, and further studies are needed in the area


Introducción: El factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2) desenvuelve un papel fundamental en la expresión de los genes mediados por él elemento de respuesta antioxidante (ERA), por lo tanto, es una vía importante para proteger las células de las sustancias carcinógenas. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre la acción quimiopreventiva de los fitoquímicos mediante la regulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2. Método: El levantamiento de artículos para la revisión integral de la literatura sobre este tema se realizó en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos: Google Académico, PubMed, Scielo, ScienceDirect y SpringerLink, usando los descriptores MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicales libres, estrés oxidativo, carcinogénesis, quimioprevención y Nrf2. Los criterios de selección fueron artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2019, relacionados o que investigan directamente el papel de los fitoquímicos en el factor de transcripción Nrf2 y la prevención del desarrollo del câncer. Resultados: 58 artículos relacionados con el objetivo de la revisión fueron seleccionados. Los estudios revisados mostraron que los fitoquímicos, como el resveratrol, la curcumina, el isotiocito, la luteolina, entre otros, actúan sobre la activación de la vía Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, que son dependientes o independientes de la proteína represora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, se concluí que la modulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2 es un mecanismo que se configura como un importante mediador en relación con los compuestos nocivos para el cuerpo humano, y que la acción de los fitoquímicos en esta vía contribuye a reducir el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, todos los mecanismos utilizados por los fitoquímicos aún no se han dilucidado por completo, por lo que se necesitan más estudios en esta área


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Antioxidant Response Elements , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1121-1127, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055071

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are present in coronary artery disease (CAD) and are linked to the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). To attenuate these complications, transcription factors like nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) can be activated to inhibit NF-κB. However, the available data on expression of NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARβ/δ in CAD patients are limited. Objective: To evaluate the expression of the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 and PPAR��/�� in CAD patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients (17 men, mean age 62.4 ? 7.55 years) with CAD and twelve patients (5 men, mean age 63.50 ? 11.46 years) without CAD were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and processed for mRNA expression of Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and PPARβ/δ mRNAs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 (1.35 ? 0.57), NF-κB (1.08 ? 0.50) or in the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 (1.05 ? 0.88) in the CAD group compared to the group without CAD (1.16 ? 0.76, 0.95 ? 0.33, 0.81 ? 0.55, respectively). However, PPARβ/δ was highest expressed in the CAD group (1.17 ? 0.86 vs. 0.56 ? 0.34, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The main finding of this study was the PPARβ/δ being more expressed in the PBMC of patients with CAD compared to the control group, whereas no differences were observed in Nrf2 or NF-κB mRNA expressions.


Resumo Fundamentos: O estresse oxidativo e a inflamação estão presentes na doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e estão ligados à ativação do fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NF-κB). Para atenuar essas complicações, fatores de transcrição como o fator nuclear eritroide 2-relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) e o receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma β/δ (PPARβ/δ) podem ser ativados para inibir o NF-κB. No entanto, os dados disponíveis sobre a expressão de NF-κB, Nrf2 e PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC são limitados. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão dos fatores transcricionais NF-κB e Nrf2 e o PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC. Métodos: Trinta e cinco pacientes (17 homens, idade média de 62,4 ± 7,55 anos) com DAC e doze pacientes (5 homens, com idade média de 63,50 ± 11,46 anos) sem DAC foram incluídos. Células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMCs) foram isoladas e processadas para a expressão de mRNA do Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinona oxidoredutase 1 (NQO1) e mRNAs do PPARβ/δ por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qPCR). Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Não houve diferença nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 (1,35 ± 0,57), NF-κB (1,08 ± 0,50) ou na enzima antioxidante NQO1 (1,05 ± 0,88) no grupo DAC em comparação com o grupo sem DAC (1,16 ± 0,76, 0,95 ± 0,33, 0,81 ± 0,55, respectivamente). Entretanto, o PPARβ/δ apresentou maior expressão no grupo com DAC (1,17 ± 0,86 vs. 0,56 ± 0,34, p = 0,008). Conclusão: O principal achado do presente estudo foi o PPARβ/δ apresentar maior expressão nas PBMCs de pacientes com DAC comparados ao grupo controle, ao passo que não foram observadas diferenças nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 ou NF-κB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR delta/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Gene Expression Regulation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxidative Stress , Inflammation/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781256

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the role of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of cerebral cortex neurons in C57BL/6 mice.@*METHODS@#The cortical neurons of C57BL/6 mice were cultured and identified, and a cypermethrin-induced cell injury model was established by treating the cells with 0, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/L of cypermethrin for 48 h. CCK-8 assay was used to analyze the effects of cypermethrin on the cell viability, and the fluorescence probe DCFH-DA was used for detecting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS); flow cytometry was performed for determining the apoptosis rate of the cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream genes HO-1 and NQO1 were detected using qPCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to cypermethrin at different doses inhibited the viability of the cultured cortical neurons. With the increase of cypermethrin dose, the viability of the neurons decreased progressively, the intracellular ROS and the cell apoptosis rate increased, and the neuronal injury worsened. At the dose of 50 and 100 μmol/L, cypermethrin significantly down-regulated the expressions of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the cells ( < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cypermethrin exposure shows a dose-dependent neurotoxicity by inhibiting Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, down-regulating the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes HO-1, NQO1 mRNA and protein, and inducing oxidative damage and apoptosis in primary mouse cortical neurons, .


Subject(s)
Animals , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Cerebral Cortex , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Neurons , Pyrethrins , Signal Transduction
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777467

ABSTRACT

Curcumae Rhizoma is a Chinese medicinal herb that is contraindicated during pregnancy. Cold-congelation and blood-stasis are corresponding syndromes to Curcumae Rhizoma. Whether syndrome-based treatment is associated with developmental neurotoxicity of Curcumae Rhizoma remains to be unclear. To verify the theory of traditional Chinese medicine of "syndrome-based treatment during pregnancy", the present study induced the mice blood stasis model by immersing mice in ice water. Pregnant C57 BL/6 wild type(WT) mice and pregnant Nrf2 knock out(KO) mice were randomly divided into control groups and Rhizoma Curcumae exposure groups. The mice were exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae during day 5 to day 18 after pregnancy. The neurodevelopment was examined to evaluate the differences of developmental neurotoxicity between normal and blood-stasis pregnant mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae. caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in brain of the offspring were measured by colorimetric assays. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression in brain of the offspring were examined by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. According to the findings, C57 BL/6 mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae(10.0 g·kg~(-1)) had a longer positive occurring time of the surface righting reflex test of offspring and higher caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in brain of offspring, compared with the normal control group, but with no significant change in those of blood-stasis pregnant mice offspring. However, mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae(10.0 g·kg~(-1)) showed no change in Bcl-2 gene expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in brain of the offspring. Nrf2 gene knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a longer positive occurring time of the surface righting reflex test of offspring and higher caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in brain of offspring. In conclusion, developmental neurotoxicity of the blood-stasis pregnant mice exposed to Rhizoma Curcumae was weaker than that of the normal pregnant mice. Nrf2 activation involved in the phenomenon of Rhizoma Curcumae of "syndrome-based treatment during pregnancy", but the upstream signal pathway mechanism value shall be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Caspases , Genetics , Curcuma , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Maternal Exposure , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Genetics , Pregnancy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Genetics , Random Allocation , Rhizome , Chemistry , Signal Transduction
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 301-310, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777185

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of retinoid X receptor (RXR)-mediated oxidative stress pathway in rat pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury (PIRI) and the underlying mechanism. Seventy-seven male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (n = 11): control group, sham group, sham+9-cis-retinoid acid (9-cRA, RXR agonist) group, sham+HX531 (RXR inhibitor) group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, I/R+9-cRA group, and I/R+HX531 group. The unilateral lung I/R model was established by obstruction of left lung hilus for 30 min and reperfusion for 180 min in vivo. The rats in I/R+9-cRA and I/R+HX531 groups were given intraperitoneal injection of 9-cRA and HX531 before thoracotomy. After reperfusion, the left lung tissue was taken to evaluate the lung tissue injury, and the oxidative stress-related indexes of the lung tissue were detected by the corresponding kits. The lung tissue morphology and the ultrastructure of the alveolar epithelial cells were observed by HE staining and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The protein expression of RXR in lung tissue was observed by immunofluorescence labeling method, and the expression level of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) protein was detected by Western blot. The results showed that, compared with the sham group, the I/R group exhibited obviously injured lung tissue, decreased SOD activity, increased MDA content and MPO activity, and down-regulated expression level of Nrf2 protein. Compared with the I/R group, the I/R+9-cRA group showed alleviated lung tissue injury, increased activity of SOD, decreased MDA content and MPO activity, and up-regulated expression levels of RXR and Nrf2 protein. The above-mentioned improvement effects of 9-cRA were reversed by HX531 treatment. These results suggest that RXR activation can effectively protect the lung tissue against I/R injury, and the mechanism may involve the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway, the enhancement of antioxidant level and the reduction of oxidative stress response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung , Male , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Physiology , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Retinoid X Receptors , Physiology , Signal Transduction
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clarify whether lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) have protective effects on retina neuronal cells in diabetic rats and to identify the related mechanism involved in this process.@*METHODS@#Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n= 6): normal control group (NC), diabetes mellitus group (DM) and LBP-treatment group (DM+LBP). The diabetic rat model was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The rats in DM+LBP group were treated with LBP at the dose of 1 mg/kg by gavage, once a day for 12 weeks. After the treatment, the weight and blood glucose, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells and the protein expressions of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were detected.@*RESULTS@#The successful rate of diabetic model was 100%. Compared with NC group, the rats of DM group caused weight loss, elevated blood glucose, a marked increase of ROS generation and a significant decrease in the number of RGCs and amacrine cells (P<0.01), and these effects were diminished or abolished by LBP treatment. Meanwhile, LBP significantly increased the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the retinas of diabetic rats (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#LBP can improve retinal oxidative stress and exert beneficial neuroprotective effects in diabetic rats, and its mechanism may be associated with the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the intervention of curcumin and its analogue J7 on oxidative stress injury in testis of type 2 diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#Sixty male SD rats, 10 rats were chosen as normal control group (NC), the other 50 rats were assigned to experiment group. Experiment diabetic rats were induced by high-fat food and intraperitoneal injection of steptozotocin (STZ). After the model was established successfully, diabetic rats were divided into four groups randomly: diabetes mellitus group (DM, n=12), curcumin treatment group (CUR, n=10), high dose treatment group of J7 (J+, n=10), low dose treatment group of J7 (J-, n=10). The CUR group were intragastrically administered with curcumin 20 mg/kg daily, in addition, the J+ group and the J- group were intragastrically administered with J7 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg daily respectively. After 8 weeks, the fast blood glucose was detected biochemically. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by hydroxylamine method and thiobarbituric acid method respectively. The protein expressions of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (tNrf2), phosphorylation of Nrf2 (pNrf2), catalase (CAT), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were measured by Western blot. The mRNA expressions of CAT, NQO1, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Morphological structure of testis was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expressions of Nrf2 and CAT were also detected by immunohistochemical method.@*RESULTS@#The levels of fast blood glucose and MDA in DM group were increased significantly(P<0.05), while the body weight, the activity of SOD, the protein expressions of pNrf2/tNrf2, CAT, NQO1 and the mRNA expressions of CAT, NQO1, HO1 were decreased (P<0.05). Under light microscope, the DM group showed disrupted histological appearance. Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein expressions of Nrf2 around the nucleus and CAT were decreased. With the treatment of curcumin and J7, the MDA levels in the three treatment groups were decreased (P<0.05). The activity of SOD, the protein expressions of pNrf2/tNrf2, CAT, NQO1 and the mRNA expressions of NQO1, HO1 were increased (P<0.05). the levels of fast blood glucose were decreased in the J+ and J- group (P<0.05), and the mRNA expression of CAT was increased in the J+ group (P<0.05). The ratio of pNrf2/tNrf2 in the J+ group was significantly higher than that in CUR and J- group (P<0.05). The protein level of CAT in the J+ group was also significantly higher than that in J- group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in other indexes among the three treatment groups. Under light microscope, the morphology was obviously improved in the three treatment groups. Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein expressions of Nrf2 around the nucleus and CAT were increased in the three treatment groups. It was suggested that high dose J7 had better antioxidant stress ability in testis of diabetic rats.@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin and J7 could inhibit the oxidative stress damage of testicular tissue in diabetic rats, which might be related with the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Curcumin , Pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Testis , Pathology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776506

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To apply hypoxia of different oxygen concentration on C2C12 cells to study the changes of Nrf2 antioxidant system under HO.@*METHODS@#The perfect simulative effect time and concentration of HO were chosen. Cell vitality was tested after C2C12 cells cultured in 0.1 mmol/L, 0.25 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L, 0.75 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L and 2 mmol/L HO for 1 or 2 h respectively. The C2C12 cells were divided into different oxygen concentration group: 21%O, 12%O, 8%O, 5%O respectively. And then cells were treated with HO for 1 h, and collected for determination. Immunofluorescence of Nrf2 and the protein expression of Nrf2 were detected. The expressions of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase(CAT), NADPH quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA and cellular ROS levels were tested by high quality fluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#0.5 mmol/L HO for 1 h was selected as the conditions of HOstimulation. Compared with 21% O group, the expressions of Nrf2 mRNA and protein, antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, CAT, HO-1, NQO-1, GPX-1 mRNA were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ROS level was lower (P<0.01) in 12%O group cells; only the expression of GPX-1 mRNA was increased (P<0.05) in 8%O group; the expressions of Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression, antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, NQO-1, GPX-1 mRNA were decreased significantly(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ROS level was higher (P<0.01) in 5%O group.@*CONCLUSION@#Hypoxia can affect the Nrf2 antioxidant system, and the different oxygen concentrations have different impact. In addition, 12% O for 12 h could promote the Nrf2 antioxidant system, and 5% extremely low oxygen may inhibit it.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Hydrogen Peroxide , Mice , Myoblasts , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a highly balanced process in which lysosomes remove aged and damaged organelles and cellular proteins. Autophagy is essential to maintain homeostasis in the kidneys. METHODS: Using human renal tubule cells HK-2, we assessed the impact of high glucose (HG) on autophagy. We also evaluated the capability of sulforaphane (SFN) to protect the HK-2 cells from HG-induced apoptosis by modulating autophagy. RESULTS: SFN modulated autophagy and decreased apoptosis in the HK-2 cells that were cultured in 250 mM glucose medium for two days. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, as expected, in the cells cultured in the 250 mM glucose medium. However, the SFN decreased the ROS levels in the HK-2 cells. The overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by SFN decreased the expression of LC3 and beclin-1. LC3 and beclin-1 were involved in the downregulation of caspase-3 that was observed in the HG-induced cells. CONCLUSION: The activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)–HO–1 inhibited ROS expression and subsequently attenuated autophagy and cell apoptosis after HG injury was decreased. HG injury led to the activation of autophagy and HO-1 in order to combat oxidative stress and protect against cell apoptosis. Therefore, HO-1 activation can prevent ROS development and oxidative stress during HG injury, which considerably decreases autophagy and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Caspase 3 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Down-Regulation , Glucose , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Homeostasis , Humans , Kidney , Lysosomes , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Organelles , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study demonstrates that estradiol downregulates inflammation and inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) development in azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AOM/DSS-treated male and female mice were sacrificed at weeks 2, 10, and 16, to assess estrogen effects on colitis and carcinogenesis. Macroscopic and histologic severity of colitis and Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were evaluated, to measure inflammatory mediators and cytokines. RESULTS: Compared with AOM/DSS-treated male mice (M-AOM/DSS group), AOM/DSS-treated male mice with estradiol administration (M-AOM/DSS+estr group) displayed at week 2 significantly decreased severity of colitis. At weeks 10 and 16, AOM/DSS-treated female mice (F-AOM/DSS group) and the M-AOM/DSS+estr group showed significantly lower tumor multiplicity compared with the M-AOM/DSS group. At week 2, F-AOM/DSS group had a lower level of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression and higher level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, compared to the M-AOM/DSS group. At week 2, expression levels of NF-κB and its related mediators decreased in the M-AOM/DSS+estr group, while levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-related anti-oxidant enzymes increased. In addition, estradiol significantly increased Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome expressions in AOM/DSS-treated male mice. In contrast, at weeks 10 and 16, Nrf2 and its-related anti-oxidant enzymes and NLRP3 inflammasome were highly expressed in M-AOM/DSS group and in F-AOM/DSS group, who developed cancer. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that estradiol inhibits the initiation of CRC by regulating Nrf2-related pathways. Moreover, these imply the dual role of Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome, including promotion of tumor progression upon tumor initiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cytokines , Estradiol , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Male , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sex Characteristics , Sodium
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763025

ABSTRACT

We attempted to examine anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of 4′-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol (GOMV), the first epigenetic inhibitor of histone phosphorylation at Ser10. While GOMV did not affect the viability of murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, it significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced generation of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and nitric oxide (NO) through transcriptional inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GOMV also scavenged free radicals in vitro, increased NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and activated antioxidant response element (ARE), thereby resulting in the induction of phase II cytoprotective enzymes in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Finally, GOMV significantly protected HaCaT cells against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative intracellular damages. Together, our results illustrate that GOMV possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Antioxidant Response Elements , Antioxidants , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Epigenomics , Free Radicals , Histones , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Keratinocytes , Macrophages , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were compared in galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatitic ICR mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male ICR mice (6 weeks old) were divided into 4 groups: normal control, GalN/LPS, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside groups. The latter two groups were administered luteolin or luteolin-7-O-glucoside (50 mg/kg BW) daily by gavage for 3 weeks after which hepatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of GalN and LPS (1 g/kg BW and 10 µg/kg BW, respectively). RESULTS: GalN/LPS produced acute hepatic injury by a sharp increase in serum AST, ALT, and TNF-α levels, increases that were ameliorated in the experimental groups. In addition, markedly increased expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its transcription factors, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1, were also significantly attenuated in the experimental groups. Compared to luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin more potently ameliorated the levels of inflammatory mediators. Phase II enzymes levels and NF-E2 p45-related factor (Nrf)-2 activation that were decreased by GalN/LPS were increased by luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside administration. In addition, compared to luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside acted as a more potent inducer of changes in phase II enzymes. Liver histopathology results were consistent with the mediator and enzyme results. CONCLUSION: Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside protect against GalN/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity through the regulation of inflammatory mediators and phase II enzymes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Galactosamine , Hepatitis , Humans , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Liver , Luteolin , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Transcription Factors
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