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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922118


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of arsenic trioxide (As@*METHODS@#Transplantation of LVG hamster hearts to Lewis rats was performed by anastomosis of vessels in the neck using end-to-end anastomosis with a non-suture cuff technique. Four groups of recipient rats (n=6 in each) were treated with normal saline (control), As@*RESULTS@#Expression of Nrf2-ARE-HO-1 signaling pathway was upregulated in heart xenografts in rats treated with As@*CONCLUSION@#Combination treatment with As

Animals , Arsenic Trioxide , Cricetinae , Heart Transplantation , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heterografts , Leflunomide , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred Lew , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921810


This study aimed to investigate the effect of methyl eugenol(ME) on hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced injury of human renal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells and its mechanism. The viability of HK-2 cells cultured with different concentrations of ME and exposed to H/R was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay. The effect of ME on the morphology of HK-2 cells was observed under an inverted microscope. The content of intracellular reactive oxygen species in different groups was detected after 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate(DCFH-DA) fluorescence staining. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored by JC-1 dye. The concentrations of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase oxidase 4(Nox4) were measured by Western blot, followed by the assay of Nrf2 concentration changes in cytoplasm and nucleus by confocal fluorescence staining. The results showed that when the concentration of ME was 0-40 μmol·L~(-1), the activity of HK-2 cells was not affected. Compared with the model group, ME enhanced the activity of HK-2 cells and the cell morphology was normal. As revealed by further experiments, ME inhibited the release of reactive oxygen species and the decline in mitochondrial membrane potential of HK-2 cells after H/R injury, promoted Nrf2/HO-1 expression and Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, and down-regulated the expression of Nox4, thereby significantly reducing apoptosis. This protective effect of ME could be reversed by the specific Nrf2 inhibitor ML385. These findings have preliminarily proved that ME effectively protected HK-2 cells against H/R injury, which might be related to its promotion of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and inhibition of Nox4. Such exploration on the possible mechanism of ME in the treatment of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury(IRI) and protection of organ function from the perspective of antioxidant stress has provided reference for related research on the treatment of acute kidney injury with traditional Chinese medicine.

Apoptosis , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Eugenol/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888079


The present study aimed to explore the effect of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) signaling pathway in intestinal protection by Sishen Pills against ulcerative colitis(UC). After the UC model was induced by 3% dextran sodium sulfate(DSS), experimental animals were randomly divided into control group, model group, salazosulfapyridine(SASP) group, and low-and high-dose Sishen Pills groups. Drug intervention(ig) was performed for seven consecutive days during modeling. On the 7 th day, the mice were euthanized. The body weight and colon length were recorded, and the histopathological changes of the colon were observed by HE staining. Serum interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC), malondialdehyde(MDA), and reactive oxygen species(ROS) were detected by ELISA. The protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NADPH quinine oxidoreductase-1(NQO-1) was determined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited reduced body weight, colon length, and T-AOC, increased IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, and ROS, and diminished protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 in the colon tissues. Compared with the model group, the SASP group and high-dose Sishen Pills group showed elevated body weight, colon length, and T-AOC, lowered IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, and ROS levels, and increased protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 in the colon tissues. As assessed by HE staining, Sishen Pills could improve the pathological changes of the colon. The findings suggested that Sishen Pills could protect the colon against UC induced by 3% DSS. The specific mechanism of action may be related to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects by the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Dextran Sulfate , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887991


This study aimed to investigate the effect and the possible mechanism of Shenlian( SL) extract on tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α)-induced ECV304 injury. After the establishment of TNF-α-induced ECV304 cells injure model,MTT assay was used to detect cell viability and the level of reactive oxygen species( ROS) was measured by flow cytometry. The contents of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malondialdehyde( MDA),nitric oxide( NO),endothelin-1( ET-1) and interleukin-1β( IL-1β) in the supernatant were detected by biochemical method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-lymphoma-2 gene( Bcl-2),Bcl-2 associated X protein( Bax),caspase-3,caspase-9 and nuclear factor E2 associated factor2( Nrf2)/Kelch like epichlorohydrin associated protein-1( Keap1) signaling pathway related proteins Nrf2,Keap1,quinone oxidoreductase( NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1( HO-1) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that 50 μg·L-1 TNF-α significantly damaged ECV304 cells,induced the impairment of cell viability( P<0. 01),the increase of ROS production,the decrease of SOD activity,and the increase of MDA,NO,ET-1 and IL-1β( P<0. 01),meanwhile,it caused the up-regulation of Keap1,caspase-9 and Bax protein expression,and down-regulation of NQO1 and Bcl-2 protein expression( P<0. 05) compared with the control group.Compared with the model group,SL extract reduced the damage of ECV304 cells induced by TNF-α,improved cell viability,reduced ROS production,increased SOD activity and decreased MDA,NO,ET-1,IL-1β content( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). In addition,SL extract also down-regulated the protein expression levels of Keap1,caspase-3,caspase-9 and Bax,and increased the protein expressions of Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and Bcl-2( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). The above results indicate that SL extract can provide protective effect on ECV304 cells injury induced by TNF-α,alleviate oxidative stress injury,inflammation and apoptosis,and its mechanism may be related to regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway.

Apoptosis , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878906


Nrf2 is the key transcription factor mainly for regulating oxidative homeostasis and cytoprotective responses against oxidative stress. Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against endogenous or exogenous oxidative stress. With its activation, a wide range of stress-related genes is transactivated to restore the cellular homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the aberrant activation of Nrf2 is related to the malignant progression, chemotherapeutic drug resistance and poor prognosis. Nrf2 plays a crucial role in cancer malignancy and chemotherapeutic resistance by controlling the intracellular redox homeostasis through the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes. Nrf2 inhibitor containing many natural products has been deemed as a novel therapeutic strategy for human malignancies. This article reviews the progress of studies of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, and its biological impact in solid malignancies and molecular mechanisms for causing Nrf2 hyperactivation in cancer cells. In conclusion, we summarized the deve-lopment of Nrf2 inhibitors in recent years, in the expectation of providing reference for further drug development and clinical studies.

Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877549


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion on Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and to explore the protective mechanism of moxibustion on ovarian reserve function.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a moxibustion group and a hormone group, 10 rats in each group. The rats in the model group, moxibustion group and hormone group were treated with intragastric administration of tripterysium glycosides turbid liquid to prepare DOR model. The rats in the blank group were treated with intragastric administration of sodium chloride solution with the same volume, once a day for 14 days. The rats in the hormone group were treated with hormone sequential therapy for 14 days from the day of modeling; the rats in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion at bilateral "Shenshu" (BL 23) or "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Zhongwan" (CV 12) from the day of modeling, and the two groups acupoints were alternated every other day, 10 min each time, for 14 consecutive days. The estrus cycle was observed every day by vaginal exfoliated cell smear, and the estrus cycle disorder rate in each group was calculated. After the intervention, the HE staining was used to observe the histological morphology of ovaries; ELISA was used to detect the contents of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the rate of estrus cycle disorder in the model group was increased (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could reduce the rate of estrus cycle disorder, improve the level of serum sex hormones and antioxidant stress in DOR rats, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Animals , Female , Humans , Moxibustion , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Ovarian Reserve , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888500


Atherosclerosis is a common pathological change in cardiovascular disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell is the main source of plaque cell and extracellular matrix, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor regulating the function of vascular smooth muscle cell. In the process of atherosclerosis, Nrf2 signaling pathway has the following regulatory effects on vascular smooth muscle cell: regulating the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell to change to the direction conducive to the alleviation of disease progression; inhibiting the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell; mitigating the level of blood lipid; alleviating vascular smooth muscle cell calcification, aging and apoptosis process. This article reviews the specific mechanisms of Nrf2 regulating atherosclerosis, such as phenotypic transformation, proliferation and migration, lipid metabolism, calcification, aging and apoptosis in atherosclerosis, in order to provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of atherosclerosis development and finding therapeutic targets.

Atherosclerosis , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1): 1-11, 20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095406


Introdução: O fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) desempenha papel fundamental na expressão de genes mediados por elemento de resposta antioxidante (ERA); sendo assim, é uma via importante para proteger as células de substâncias carcinogênicas. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca da ação quimiopreventiva dos fitoquímicos por meio da regulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2. Método: O levantamento de artigos para a revisão integrativa da literatura sobre essa temática foi realizado nos periódicos indexados nas bases de dados: Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e SpringerLink, utilizando-se os descritores advindos do MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicais livres, estresse oxidativo, carcinogênese, quimioprevenção e Nrf2. Os critérios de seleção foram artigos publicados de 2000 a 2019, relacionados, ou que investiguem diretamente a atuação de fitoquímicos no fator de transcrição Nrf2, e a prevenção do desenvolvimento de câncer. Resultados: Foram selecionados 58 artigos que estavam relacionados com o objetivo da revisão. Os estudos revisados apontaram que fitoquímicos, tais como resveratrol, curcumina, isotiocianato, luteolina, entre outros, atuam na ativação da via Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, sendo eles dependentes ou independentes da proteína repressora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusão: Diante disso, conclui-se que a modulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2 é um mecanismo que se configura como um importante mediador no que concerne compostos nocivos ao organismo humano, e que a atuação dos fitoquímicos nessa via contribui para a redução do risco de câncer. No entanto, ainda não são completamente elucidados todos os mecanismos utilizados pelos fitoquímicos, sendo necessários ulteriores estudos na área

Introduction: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a fundamental role in the expression of genes mediated by antioxidant response element (ARE), thus it is an important pathway to protect the cells from carcinogenic substances. Objective: To perform an integrative literature review on the quimiopreventive action of phytochemicals through regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Method: Search of papers for the integrative literature review about this theme conducted in journals indexed in the databases: Academic Google, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Springer Link, using the MeSH descriptors: phytochemicals, free radicals, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and Nrf2. The selection criteria were articles published from 2000 to 2019, related to or that directly investigate the role of phytochemicals in the transcription factor Nrf2, and the prevention of cancer development. Results: 58 articles were selected, all related to the objective of the review. The reviewed studies showed that phytochemicals, such as resveratrol, curcumin, isothiocyanate, luteolin, among others, act on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, using different mechanisms, which are dependent or independent of the repressor protein Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion is that the modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 is a mechanism that configures itself as an important mediator for harmful compounds to the human organism, and that the action of phytochemicals, in this pathway, contributes to the reduction of cancer risk. However, all the mechanisms used by phytochemicals, are not completely elucidated, and further studies are needed in the area

Introducción: El factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2) desenvuelve un papel fundamental en la expresión de los genes mediados por él elemento de respuesta antioxidante (ERA), por lo tanto, es una vía importante para proteger las células de las sustancias carcinógenas. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre la acción quimiopreventiva de los fitoquímicos mediante la regulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2. Método: El levantamiento de artículos para la revisión integral de la literatura sobre este tema se realizó en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos: Google Académico, PubMed, Scielo, ScienceDirect y SpringerLink, usando los descriptores MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicales libres, estrés oxidativo, carcinogénesis, quimioprevención y Nrf2. Los criterios de selección fueron artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2019, relacionados o que investigan directamente el papel de los fitoquímicos en el factor de transcripción Nrf2 y la prevención del desarrollo del câncer. Resultados: 58 artículos relacionados con el objetivo de la revisión fueron seleccionados. Los estudios revisados mostraron que los fitoquímicos, como el resveratrol, la curcumina, el isotiocito, la luteolina, entre otros, actúan sobre la activación de la vía Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, que son dependientes o independientes de la proteína represora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, se concluí que la modulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2 es un mecanismo que se configura como un importante mediador en relación con los compuestos nocivos para el cuerpo humano, y que la acción de los fitoquímicos en esta vía contribuye a reducir el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, todos los mecanismos utilizados por los fitoquímicos aún no se han dilucidado por completo, por lo que se necesitan más estudios en esta área

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Antioxidant Response Elements , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1121-1127, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055071


Abstract Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are present in coronary artery disease (CAD) and are linked to the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). To attenuate these complications, transcription factors like nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) can be activated to inhibit NF-κB. However, the available data on expression of NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARβ/δ in CAD patients are limited. Objective: To evaluate the expression of the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 and PPAR��/�� in CAD patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients (17 men, mean age 62.4 ? 7.55 years) with CAD and twelve patients (5 men, mean age 63.50 ? 11.46 years) without CAD were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and processed for mRNA expression of Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and PPARβ/δ mRNAs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 (1.35 ? 0.57), NF-κB (1.08 ? 0.50) or in the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 (1.05 ? 0.88) in the CAD group compared to the group without CAD (1.16 ? 0.76, 0.95 ? 0.33, 0.81 ? 0.55, respectively). However, PPARβ/δ was highest expressed in the CAD group (1.17 ? 0.86 vs. 0.56 ? 0.34, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The main finding of this study was the PPARβ/δ being more expressed in the PBMC of patients with CAD compared to the control group, whereas no differences were observed in Nrf2 or NF-κB mRNA expressions.

Resumo Fundamentos: O estresse oxidativo e a inflamação estão presentes na doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e estão ligados à ativação do fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NF-κB). Para atenuar essas complicações, fatores de transcrição como o fator nuclear eritroide 2-relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) e o receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma β/δ (PPARβ/δ) podem ser ativados para inibir o NF-κB. No entanto, os dados disponíveis sobre a expressão de NF-κB, Nrf2 e PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC são limitados. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão dos fatores transcricionais NF-κB e Nrf2 e o PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC. Métodos: Trinta e cinco pacientes (17 homens, idade média de 62,4 ± 7,55 anos) com DAC e doze pacientes (5 homens, com idade média de 63,50 ± 11,46 anos) sem DAC foram incluídos. Células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMCs) foram isoladas e processadas para a expressão de mRNA do Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinona oxidoredutase 1 (NQO1) e mRNAs do PPARβ/δ por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qPCR). Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Não houve diferença nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 (1,35 ± 0,57), NF-κB (1,08 ± 0,50) ou na enzima antioxidante NQO1 (1,05 ± 0,88) no grupo DAC em comparação com o grupo sem DAC (1,16 ± 0,76, 0,95 ± 0,33, 0,81 ± 0,55, respectivamente). Entretanto, o PPARβ/δ apresentou maior expressão no grupo com DAC (1,17 ± 0,86 vs. 0,56 ± 0,34, p = 0,008). Conclusão: O principal achado do presente estudo foi o PPARβ/δ apresentar maior expressão nas PBMCs de pacientes com DAC comparados ao grupo controle, ao passo que não foram observadas diferenças nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 ou NF-κB.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR delta/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Gene Expression Regulation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxidative Stress , Inflammation/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000003, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983683


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), a functional derivative from lycium barbarum, on septic kidney injury. Methods: The SD male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups. The concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NF-κB and ROS, in kidney cortex homogenates after 12 h treatments were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ROS test kit, respectively. Morphology observation of kidney tissue was conducted with HE staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, NF-κB, and Keap1 in kidney tissues were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: LPS treatment significantly increased the oxidative stress. After LBP treatment, the ROS content reduced significantly in a dose-depend manner. However, the levels of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 as molecular elements that respond to oxidative stress were further increased. Also, administration of LBP increased the levels of NF-κB and Keap1, and decreased the levels of Nrf2 in the Keap 1-Nrf2∕ARE signaling pathway. By administrating the brusatol, the inhibition of Nrf2 enhanced the expression of NF-κB, inhibits the antioxidant responses, and further reverse the protective effect of LBP on the LPS induced septic kidney injury. Conclusion: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can reduce inflammation and activate the antioxidant responses via regulating the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900208, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989057


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of icariside II on brain tissue oxidative stress and Nrf2/HO-1 expression in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Methods: One hundred SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, model, and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg icariside II groups, 20 rats in each group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model (ischemia for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h) was established in the later 4 groups. In later 3 groups, at reperfusion beginning, the rats were intragastrically administrated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg icariside II, respectively. After 24 h of reperfusion, the neurological severity score, cerebral water content and cerebral infarction volume, brain tissue oxidative stress indexes and Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were determined. Results: Compared with model group, in 20 mg/kg icariside II group the neurological severity score, cerebral water content and cerebral infarction volume, brain tissue ROS content and MDA level were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the brain tissue SOD, GSH-Px and catalase levels and Nrf2 and HO-1 protein levels were significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Icariside II can alleviate the CIRI in rats through reducing brain tissue oxidative stress and improving Nrf2/HO-1 expression.

Animals , Male , Rats , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neuroprotective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/drug effects
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 203-213, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-859833


O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença metabólica complexa. Sua etiologia é atribuída a uma combinação entre fatores genéticos, ambientais e de estilo de vida. Contudo, sabe-se que o estresse oxidativo desempenha papel crucial na patogênese do DM, acarretando em disfunção das células ß pancreáticas e resistência à insulina. Neste contexto, o fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) é considerado o regulador mestre da resposta antioxidante do organismo, sendo um mecanismo de importância crítica para a manutenção da homeostase e sobrevivência celular. Todavia, a função do Nrf2 não se limita somente à resposta antioxidante. Ao interagir com outras vias metabólicas, o Nrf2 possui importante papel na regulação do metabolismo, atuando no metabolismo dos lipídios, manutenção da glicemia, resposta inflamatória, entre outros. Entretanto, a exata relação do Nrf2 com outras vias metabólicas ainda não é totalmente conhecida. Contudo, sabe-se que o comprometimento da função do Nrf2 é evidente na fisiopatologia do DM bem como no desenvolvimento de suas complicações clínicas. A ativação do Nrf2 protege contra os danos mediados pelo DM, podendo ser adequada uma intervenção exógena para aumentar a sua atividade (AU)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disease. Its etiology is attributed to a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. However, it is known that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DM, leading to pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. In this context, the nuclear factor- erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is considered the main regulator of the body's antioxidant response, being a mechanism of critical importance in the maintenance of homeostasis and cell survival. However, the role of Nrf2 is not limited to the antioxidant response alone. When interacting with other metabolic pathways, Nrf2 plays an important role in regulating metabolism, acting on lipid metabolism, in the maintenance of glycemia, and in inflammatory response, among others. However, the exact relationship of Nrf2 with other metabolic pathways is not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, impairment of Nrf2 function is known to be evident in the pathophysiology of DM as well as in the development of its clinical complications. Activation of the Nrf2 protects against damage mediated by DM, and an exogenous intervention may be adequate to increase its activity (AU)

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78393


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress results in protein oxidation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is responsible for the enzymatic reversal of inactivated peroxiredoxin (Prx). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant responsive elements and upregulates the expression of Srx and Prx during oxidative stress. We aimed to elucidate the biological functions and potential roles of Srx in lung cancer. METHODS: To study the roles of Srx and Prx III in lung cancer, we compared the protein levels of Nrf2, Prxs, thioredoxin, and Srx in 40 surgically resected human lung cancer tissues using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. Transforming growth factor-beta1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and camptothecin treatment were used to examine Prx III inactivation in Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cells and A549 lung cancer cells. RESULTS: Prx I and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in lung cancer tissues. A significant increase in the oxidized form of a cysteine sulfhydryl at the catalytic site of Prxs was found in carcinogenic lung tissue compared to normal lung tissue. Densitometric analyses of immunoblot data revealed significant Srx expression, which was higher in squamous cell carcinoma tissue (60%, 12/20) than in adenocarcinoma (20%, 4/20). Also, Nrf2 was present in the nuclear compartment of cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Srx and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in human squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting that these proteins may play a protective role against oxidative injury and compensate for the high rate of mitochondrial metabolism in lung cancer.

Adenocarcinoma/enzymology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Camptothecin/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/enzymology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms/enzymology , Mink , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors/genetics , Peroxiredoxin III/metabolism , Peroxiredoxins/metabolism , Prognosis , RNA Interference , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Transfection , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Up-Regulation
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135493


The activation process of granulocytes is accompanied by the intense production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS is cytotoxic, damages macromolecules and can lead to the occurrence of lipid peroxidation. Cellular defense against the toxicity of ROS is enhancement of detoxifying enzymes activation. Regulation of many detoxifying enzymes is mediated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) that is located in the promoter region of related genes. In eukaryotes, there are only few transcription factors known to be activated by ROS. One of them is NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Normally, Nrf2 is present in the cytoplasm as an inactive Keap1-Nrf2 complex. However, after direct attack by ROS, Nrf2 is released from Keap1 repression and translocated into nucleus where it binds with ARE sequence to initiate gene expression. ROS may also influence nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) intracellular signaling repressing the Nrf2-ARE pathway at transcriptional level. Since ROS are crucial in granulocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis the induction of NF-κB signaling pathway may be an important mechanism in suppressing the tumor growth.

Granulocytes/metabolism , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/blood , Respiratory Burst , Signal Transduction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201428


In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), induction of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers vascular protection against cellular proliferation mainly via its up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) that is involved in negative regulation of cellular proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether the phytochemical curcumin and its metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin could induce HO-1 expression and growth inhibition in rat VSMCs and, if so, whether their antiproliferative effect could be mediated via HO-1 expression. At non-toxic concentrations, curcumin possessing two Michael-reaction acceptors induced HO-1 expression by activating antioxidant response element (ARE) through translocation of the nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) into the nucleus and also inhibited VSMC growth triggered by 5% FBS in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, tetrahydrocurcumin lacking Michael-reaction acceptor showed no effect on HO-1 expression, ARE activation and VSMC growth inhibition. The antiproliferative effect of curcumin in VSMCs was accompanied by the increased expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1). Inhibition of VSMC growth and expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) by curcumin were partially, but not completely, abolished when the cells were co- incubated with the HO inhibitor tin protoporphyrin. In human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), curcumin also inhibited growth triggered by TNF-alpha and increased p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression via HO-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that curcumin has an ability to induce HO-1 expression, presumably through Nrf2-dependent ARE activation, in rat VSMCs and HASMCs, and provide evidence that the antiproliferative effect of curcumin is considerably linked to its ability to induce HO-1 expression.

Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Animals , Aorta/cytology , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Curcumin/analogs & derivatives , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/biosynthesis , Gene Expression Regulation , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/biosynthesis , Heme Oxygenase-1/biosynthesis , Humans , Metalloporphyrins/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Protoporphyrins/pharmacology , Rats , Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid , Response Elements , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology