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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.


La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 79-84, feb. 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430536

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Paracetamol (known as acetaminophen, or APAP) poisoning causes acute liver damage that can lead to organ failure and death. We sought to determine that APAP overdose can augment tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/ nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)/induced nitic oxide synthase (iNOS) axis-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats, and the anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compounds, quercetin (QUR) plus resveratrol (RES) can ameliorate these parameters. Therefore, we induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats using APAP overdose (2 g/kg, orally) and the protective group of rats were treated with 50 mg/kg QUR plus 30 mg/kg RES for one week before APAP ingestion. Animals were killed at day 8. APAP poisoning caused the induction of hepatic tissue levels of TNF-α, NF-kB, and iNOS, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by QUR+RES. QUR+RES, also inhibited liver injury biomarkers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Additionally, a link between liver injury and TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS axis mediated hepatotoxicity was observed. Thus, the presented data backing the conclusion that intoxication by paracetamol increases TNF-α / NF-kB / iNOS axis -mediated hepatotoxicity, and is protected by a combination of quercetin and resveratrol.


El envenenamiento por paracetamol (conocido como acetaminofeno o APAP) causa daño hepático agudo que puede provocar una insuficiencia orgánica y la muerte. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la sobredosis de APAP puede aumentar la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α)/factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB)/óxido nítico sintasa inducida (iNOS) en ratas, y si el polifenólico antiinflamatorio compuesto por quercetina (QUR) más resveratrol (RES) pueden mejorar estos parámetros. Por lo tanto, inducimos hepatotoxicidad aguda en ratas usando una sobredosis de APAP (2 g/kg, por vía oral). El grupo protector de ratas se trató con 50 mg/ kg de QUR más 30 mg/kg de RES durante una semana antes de la ingestión de APAP. Los animales se sacrificaron el día 8. El envenenamiento con APAP en el tejido hepático provocó la inducción de niveles de TNF-α, NF-kB e iNOS, que se redujeron significativamente (p<0,05) con QUR+RES. QUR+RES, también inhibió los biomarcadores de daño hepático, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y el aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Además, se observó una relación entre la lesión hepática y la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB/iNOS. Por lo tanto, los datos presentados respaldan la conclusión de que la intoxicación por paracetamol aumenta la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS, y está protegida por una combinación de quercetina y resveratrol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Acute Disease , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug Overdose
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e386223, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1527603

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was proven to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. However, its regulation mechanism is not clear yet. This paper explored the role of WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5) in the development of late-onset preeclampsia and its relationship with NF-κB. Methods: WDR5 expression was detected in normal placentas and placentas from late-onset preeclampsia patients. CCK-8 and colony formation assays were conducted to appraise the proliferative ability of trophoblast. Migration and invasion were observed by wound healing and transwell assays. The interaction between WDR5 and NF-κB inhibitor I-kappa-B-alpha (IkBa) was verified by Co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Immunofluorescence was used to analyze the activation of NF-κB. Finally, we tested the role of WDR5 using the mice late-onset preeclampsia model. Results: WDR5 was highly expressed in the placentas of late-onset preeclampsia patients. WDR5 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in trophoblast. WDR5 could interact with IkBa to activate NF-κB. Knockdown of NF-κB counteracted the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of WDR5 overexpression in trophoblast. In-vivo studies suggested that targeting WDR5 combated late-onset preeclampsia development. Conclusions: Our finding provides new insights into the role of WDR5 in late-onset preeclampsia development.


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia , Trophoblasts , NF-kappa B
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980992

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CXC-chemokine ligand-10 (CXCL10) expression and the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control, hypoxia, LPS, and hypoxia combined with LPS groups. The LPS group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg LPS, and the hypoxia group was placed in a hypobaric hypoxia chamber (simulated altitude of 6 000 m). The serum and hippocampal tissue samples were collected after 6 h of the treatment. The levels of CXCL10 in the serum and hippocampal tissue of mice were detected by ELISA. The microglia cell line BV2 and primary microglia were stimulated with hypoxia (1% O2) and/or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 6 h. The mRNA expression level of CXCL10 and its content in culture supernatant were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins, p65 and IκBα, were detected by Western blot. Moreover, after NF-κB signaling pathway being blocked with a small molecular compound, PDTC, CXCL10 mRNA expression level was detected in the BV2 cells. The results showed that in the LPS-induced mouse inflammatory model, hypoxia treatment could promote LPS-induced up-regulation of CXCL10 in both serum and hippocampus. Compared with the cells treated with LPS alone, the expression of CXCL10 mRNA and the content of CXCL10 in the culture supernatant of BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. The CXCL10 mRNA level of primary microglial cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS was significantly up-regulated. Compared with the cells treated with hypoxia or LPS alone, the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα in the BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. PDTC blocked the induction of CXCL10 gene expression by LPS in the BV2 cells. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes LPS-induced expression of CXCL10 in both animal and cell models, and NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chemokines, CXC/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Ligands , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981524

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Isodon terricolous-medicated serum on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation. LPS-induced HSCs were divided into a blank control group, an LPS model group, a colchicine-medicated serum group, an LPS + blank serum group, an I. terricolous-medicated serum group, a Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) blocker group, and a TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group. HSC proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure type Ⅰ collagen(COL Ⅰ), COL Ⅲ, transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1). Real-time PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of TLR4, IκBα, and NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) p65, gasdermin D(GSDMD), and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC) in HSCs. Western blot(WB) was used to detect the protein levels of TLR4, p-IκBα, NF-κB p65, NLRP3, ASC, and GSDMD in HSCs. The results showed that I. terricolous-medicated serum could inhibit the proliferation activity of HSCs and inhibit the secretion of COL Ⅰ, COL Ⅲ, α-SMA, TGF-β1, caspase-1, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in HSCs. Compared with the LPS model group, the I. terricolous-medicated serum group, the colchicine-medicated serum group, and the TLR4 blocker group showed down-regulated expression of p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and up-regulated expression of IκBα. Compared with the TLR4 blocker group, the TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group showed decreased expression of TLR4, p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and increased expression of IκBα. In conclusion, I. terricolous-medicated serum down-regulates HSC activation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Isodon , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Colchicine/pharmacology , Caspases
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981471

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of Xuebijing Injection in the treatment of sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) based on network pharmacology and in vitro experiment. The active components of Xuebijing Injection were screened and the targets were predicted by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). The targets of sepsis-associated ARDS were searched against GeneCards, DisGeNet, OMIM, and TTD. Weishengxin platform was used to map the targets of the main active components in Xuebijing Injection and the targets of sepsis-associated ARDS, and Venn diagram was established to identify the common targets. Cytoscape 3.9.1 was used to build the "drug-active components-common targets-disease" network. The common targets were imported into STRING for the building of the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, which was then imported into Cytoscape 3.9.1 for visualization. DAVID 6.8 was used for Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment of the common targets, and then Weishe-ngxin platform was used for visualization of the enrichment results. The top 20 KEGG signaling pathways were selected and imported into Cytoscape 3.9.1 to establish the KEGG network. Finally, molecular docking and in vitro cell experiment were performed to verify the prediction results. A total of 115 active components and 217 targets of Xuebijing Injection and 360 targets of sepsis-associated ARDS were obtained, among which 63 common targets were shared by Xuebijing Injection and the disease. The core targets included interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), IL-6, albumin(ALB), serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA). A total of 453 GO terms were annotated, including 361 terms of biological processes(BP), 33 terms of cellular components(CC), and 59 terms of molecular functions(MF). The terms mainly involved cellular response to lipopolysaccharide, negative regulation of apoptotic process, lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polyme-rase Ⅱ promoter, response to hypoxia, and inflammatory response. The KEGG enrichment revealed 85 pathways. After diseases and generalized pathways were eliminated, hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB), Toll-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways were screened out. Molecular docking showed that the main active components of Xuebijing Injection had good binding activity with the core targets. The in vitro experiment confirmed that Xuebijing Injection suppressed the HIF-1, TNF, NF-κB, Toll-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways, inhibited cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation, and down-regulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in cells. In conclusion, Xuebijing Injection can regulate apoptosis and response to inflammation and oxidative stress by acting on HIF-1, TNF, NF-κB, Toll-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways to treat sepsis-associated ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , NF-kappa B , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Sepsis/genetics , NLR Proteins
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981462

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease(CAD) caused by atherosclerosis(AS) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The pathogenesis of CAD is complex, and the subset and function of cardiac macrophages are important factors affecting the occurrence and development of AS and the prognosis of CAD. Recent studies have shown that some traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formulas and active ingredients can regulate macrophage subsets involved in the inflammation, injury, and repair process of CAD. This paper summarized the significant role of macrophages in AS and myocardial infarction. Based on the plasticity of macrophages, this paper elaborated that traditional Chinese medicine prevented and attenuated AS by regulating macrophage subsets, reducing the level of inflammatory factors, and promoting macrophage autophagy.Traditional Chinese medicine participated in the cardiac repair process after myocardial infarction by accelerating the recruitment of M2 macrophages, inhibiting the polarization of M1 macrophages mediated by glycolysis, inhibiting M1 macrophage-mediated cardiac nerve remodeling, and promoting M2 macrophage-mediated angiogenesis. In addition, in vitro studies on the regulation of macrophage subsets by the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine were also reviewed. It was pointed out that nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB), adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt), chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor type 2(CCL2/CCR2) were the key targets and pathways for the regulation of macrophages by TCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease , Inflammation/drug therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Macrophages , NF-kappa B
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981461

ABSTRACT

As one of the main diseases leading to end-stage renal disease, steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome(SRNS) can cause serious complications such as infection. Without effective control, this disease can further lead to the malignant development of the renal function, bringing serious social and economic burdens. As previously reported, the formation of SRNS is mostly related to the podocyte injury in the body, i.e., the injury of glomerular visceral epithelial cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway, nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway, mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)/adenosine monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1/Smads, and other signaling pathways are classical signaling pathways related to podocyte injury. By regulating the expression of signaling pathways, podocyte injury can be intervened to improve the adhesion between podocyte foot processes and glomerular basement membrane and promote the function of podocytes, thereby alleviating the clinical symptoms of SRNS. Through the literature review, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has unique advantages and an important role in intervening in podocyte injury. In the intervention in podocyte injury, TCM, by virtue of multi-target and multi-pathway role, can regulate and intervene in podocyte injury in many ways, alleviate the clinical symptoms of SRNS, and interfere with the progress of SRNS, reflecting the unique advantages of TCM. On the other hand, TCM can directly or indirectly inhibit podocyte injury by regulating the above signaling pathways, which can not only promote the effect of hormones and immunosuppressants and shorten the course of treatment, but also reduce the toxic and side effects caused by various hormones and immunosuppressants to exert the advantages of small side effects and low price of TCM. This article reviewed TCM in the treatment of SRNS by interfering with podocyte injury-related signaling pathways and is expected to provide a reference for the in-depth study of TCM in the treatment of SRNS, as well as a theoretical basis and a new direction for the clinical application of TCM to shorten the course of treatment of SRNS and delay the progression to end-stage renal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Podocytes , Nephrotic Syndrome/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Hormones
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981398

ABSTRACT

Healthy birth and child development are the prerequisite for improving the overall quality of the population. However, premature ovarian failure(POF) threatens the reproductive health of women. The incidence of this disease has been on the rise, and it tends to occur in the young. The causes are complex, involving genetics, autoimmune, infectious and iatrogenic factors, but most of the causes remain unclear. At the moment, hormone replacement therapy and assisted reproductive technology are the main clinical approaches. According to traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), kidney deficiency and blood stasis are one of the major causes of POF, and TCM with the effects of tonifying kidney and activating blood has a definite effect. Through clinical trials, TCM prescriptions for POF have excellent therapeutic effect as a result of multi-target regulation and slight toxicity. In particular, they have no obvious side effects. A large number of studies have shown that the kidney-tonifying and blood-activating TCM can regulate the neuroendocrine function of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, improve ovarian hemodynamics and microcirculation, reduce the apoptosis of granulosa cells, alleviate oxidative stress injury, and modulate immunologic balance. The mechanism is that it regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt), vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), transforming growth factor(TGF)-β/Smads, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2(Nrf2)/antioxidant response element(ARE), and nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) signaling pathways. This article summarized the pathological mechanisms of tonifying kidney and activating blood TCM in the prevention and treatment of POF and explored the biological basis of its multi-pathway and multi-target characteristics in the treatment of this disease. As a result, this study is expected to serve as a reference for the treatment of POF with the tonifying kidney and activating blood therapy.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Female , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , NF-kappa B , Kidney
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981329

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the effect of terpinen-4-ol(T4O) on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) exposed to high glucose(HG) and reveal the mechanism via the Krüppel-like factor 4(KLF4)/nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB) signaling pathway. The VSMCs were first incubated with T4O for 2 h and then cultured with HG for 48 h to establish the model of inflammatory injury. The proliferation, cell cycle, and migration rate of VSMCs were examined by MTT method, flow cytometry, and wound healing assay, respectively. The content of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin(IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in the supernatant of VSMCs was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA), Cyclin D1, KLF4, NF-κB p-p65/NF-κB p65, IL-1β, and IL-18. The KLF4 expression in VSMCs was silenced by the siRNA technology, and then the effects of T4O on the cell cycle and protein expression of the HG-induced VSMCs were observed. The results showed that different doses of T4O inhibited the HG-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, increased the percentage of cells in G_1 phase, and decreased the percentage of cells in S phase, and down-regulated the protein levels of PCNA and Cyclin D1. In addition, T4O reduced the HG-induced secretion and release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and down-regulated the expression of KLF4, NF-κB p-p65/NF-κB p65, IL-1β, and IL-18. Compared with si-NC+HG, siKLF4+HG increased the percentage of cells in G_1 phase, decreased the percentage of cells in S phase, down-regulated the expression of PCNA, Cyclin D1, and KLF4, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Notably, the combination of silencing KLF4 with T4O treatment further promoted the changes in the above indicators. The results indicate that T4O may inhibit the HG-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by down-regulating the level of KLF4 and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/genetics , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Proliferation , Signal Transduction , Cytokines/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 122-131, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971161

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway on the migration ability of HaCaT cells and full-thickness skin defects in mice. Methods: The experimental research method was adopted. According to the random number table (the same below), HaCaT cells were divided into the normal oxygen group and the hypoxia group cultured under hypoxia (with oxygen volume fraction of 1%, the same below) condition. After 24 hours of culture, the significantly differentially expressed genes between the 2 groups were screened using the microarray confidence analysis software SAM4.01. The significance of the number of each gene in the signaling pathway was analyzed through the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes to screen the significantly differentially signaling pathways (n=3). HaCaT cells were cultured for 0 (immediately), 3, 6, 12, and 24 h under hypoxia condition. The secretion level of TNF-α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the number of samples was 5. HaCaT cells were divided into normal oxygen group, hypoxia alone group, and hypoxia+inhibitor group cultured with FR180204 (an ERK inhibitor) and under hypoxia condition. The cells were cultured for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The migration ability of the cells was detected by scratch test (n=12). The expressions of phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-κB), phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), N-cadherin, and E-cadherin in HaCaT cells were detected by Western blotting under hypoxic condition for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h (n=3). Sixty-four BALB/c male mice aged 6 to 8 weeks were used to make a full-thickness skin defect wound model on the dorsum of the mice. The mice were divided into the blank control group and the inhibitor group treated with FR180204, with 32 mice in each group being treated accordingly. On post injury day (PID) 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15, the wound conditions of mice were observed and the healing rate was calculated (n=8). On PID 1, 3, 6, and 15, hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe neovascularization, inflammatory cell infiltration, and epidermal regeneration on wound, Masson staining was used to observe collagen deposition on wound, the expressions of p-NF-κB, p-p38, p-ERK12, N-cadherin, and E-cadherin in wound tissue were detected by Western blotting (n=6), the number of Ki67 positive cells and the absorbance value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected by immunohistochemistry (n=5), the protein expressions of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, and CCL20 in wound tissue were detected by ELISA (n=6). Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, factorial design analysis of variance, Tukey test, least significant difference test, and independent sample t test. Results: After 24 hours of culture, compared with normal oxygen group, 7 667 genes were up-regulated and 7 174 genes were down-regulated in cells in hypoxic group. Among the above differentially expressed genes, the TNF-α signaling pathway had significant change (P<0.05) with large number of genes. Under hypoxia condition, the expression of TNF-α at 24 h of cell culture was (11.1±2.1) pg/mL, which was significantly higher than (1.9±0.3) pg/mL at 0 h (P<0.05). Compared with normal oxygen group, the migration ability of cells in hypoxia alone group was significantly enhanced at 6, 12, and 24 h of cell culture (with t values of 2.27, 4.65, and 4.67, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with hypoxia alone group, the migration ability of cells in hypoxia+inhibitor group was significantly decreased at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h of cell culture (with t values of 2.43, 3.06, 4.62, and 8.14, respectively, P<0.05). Under hypoxia condition, the expressions of p-NF-κB, p-ERK1/2, and N-cadherin were increased significantly at 12 and 24 h of cell culture compared with 0 h of culture (P<0.05), the expression of p-p38 was significantly increased at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h of cell culture (P<0.05), the expression of E-cadherin was significantly decreased at 6, 12, and 24 h of cell culture (P<0.05), the expression of p-ERK1/2, p-NF-κB, and E-cadherin was time-dependent. Compared with blank control group, on PID 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15, the wound healing rate of mice in inhibitor group was significantly decreased (P<0.05); there were more inflammatory cell infiltration around the wound edge of mice in inhibitor group on PID 3, 6, and 15, especially on PID 15, a large number of tissue necrosis and discontinuous new epidermal layer were observed on the wound surface, and collagen synthesis and new blood vessels were reduced; the expression of p-NF-κB in the wound of mice in inhibitor group was significantly decreased on PID 3 and 6 (with t values of 3.26 and 4.26, respectively, P<0.05) but significantly increased on PID 15 (t=3.25, P<0.05), the expressions of p-p38 and N-cadherin were significantly decreased on PID 1, 3, and 6 (with t values of 4.89, 2.98, 3.98, 9.51, 11.69, and 4.10, respectively, P<0.05), the expression of p-ERK1/2 was significantly decreased on PID 1, 3, 6, and 15 (with t values of 26.69, 3.63, 5.12, and 5.14, respectively, P<0.05), the expression of E-cadherin was significantly decreased on PID 1 (t=20.67, P<0.05) but significantly increased on PID 6 (t=2.90, P<0.05); the number of Ki67 positive cells and absorbance value of VEGF of wound in inhibitor group were significantly decreased on PID 3, 6, and 15 (with t values of 4.20, 7.35, 3.34, 4.14, 3.20, and 3.73, respectively, P<0.05); the expression of IL-10 in the wound tissue of the inhibitor group was significantly decreased on PID 6 (t=2.92, P<0.05), the expression of IL-6 was significantly increased on PID 6 (t=2.73, P<0.05), the expression of IL-1β was significantly increased on PID 15 (t=3.46, P<0.05), and CCL20 expression levels were significantly decreased on PID 1 and 6 (with t values of 3.96 and 2.63, respectively, P<0.05) but significantly increased on PID 15 (t=3.68, P<0.05). Conclusions: The TNF-α/ERK pathway can promote the migration of HaCaT cells, and regulate the healing of full-thickness skin defect wounds in mice by affecting the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-10 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , HaCaT Cells , Interleukin-6 , Ki-67 Antigen , NF-kappa B , Hypoxia , Oxygen
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971068

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD), also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a systemic acute vasculitis belonging to autoimmune disease. Up to now, the specific pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear, and it may involve various factors such as immune response, inflammatory response, and vascular endothelial injury caused by the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In particular, children with KD and cardiac injury tend to have a poor prognosis, and researchers hope to explore the specific pathogenesis of cardiac injury in KD to provide new options for clinical diagnosis and treatment and reduce the incidence rate of this disorder. This article reviews the recent research on the role of the NF-κB signaling pathway in cardiac injury in children with KD, so as to provide a basis for future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , NF-kappa B , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Signal Transduction , Incidence
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970559

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction seriously endangers the health of people due to its high morbidity and high mortality. Reperfusion strategy is the preferred treatment strategy for acute myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion may lead to additional heart damage, namely myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury(MIRI). Therefore, how to reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in cardiovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has the multi-component, multi-channel, and multi-target advantages in the treatment of MIRI, which offers new ideas in this aspect. TCM containing flavonoids has a variety of biological activities and plays a significant role in the treatment of MIRI, which has great research and development application value. TCM containing flavonoids can regulate multiple signaling pathways of MIRI, such as phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcriptions(JAK/STAT) signaling pathway, adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element(Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway, nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) signaling pathway, silent information regulator 1(Sirt1) signaling pathway, and Notch signaling pathway. It reduces MIRI by inhibiting calcium overload, improving energy metabolism, regulating autophagy, and inhibiting ferroptosis and apoptosis. Therefore, a review has been made based on the regulation of relative signaling pathways against MIRI by TCM containing flavonoids, thus providing theoretical support and potential therapeutic strategies for TCM to alleviate MIRI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Flavonoids
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970548

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of Berberis atrocarpa Schneid. anthocyanin against Alzheimer's disease(AD) based on network pharmacology, molecular docking technology, and in vitro experiments. Databases were used to screen out the potential targets of the active components of B. atrocarpa and the targets related to AD. STRING database and Cytoscape 3.9.0 were adopted to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network and carry out topological analysis of the common targets. Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed on the target using the DAVID 6.8 database. Molecular docking was conducted to the active components and targets related to the nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB)/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) pathway. Finally, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce BV2 cells to establish the model of AD neuroinflammation for in vitro experimental validation. In this study, 426 potential targets of active components of B. atrocarpa and 329 drug-disease common targets were obtained, and 14 key targets were screened out by PPI network. A total of 623 items and 112 items were obtained by GO functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, respectively. Molecular docking results showed that NF-κB, NF-κB inhibitor(IκB), TLR4, and myeloid differentiation primary response 88(MyD88) had good binding abilities to the active components, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside had the strongest binding ability. Compared with the model group, the concentration of nitric oxide(NO) decreased at different doses of malvidin-3-O-glucoside without affecting the cell survival rate. Meanwhile, malvidin-3-O-glucoside down-regulated the protein expressions of NF-κB, IκB, TLR4, and MyD88. This study uses network pharmacology and experimental verification to preliminarily reveal that B. atrocarpa anthocyanin can inhibit LPS-induced neuroinflammation by regulating the NF-κB/TLR4 signaling pathway, thereby achieving the effect against AD, which provides a theoretical basis for the study of its pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B , Alzheimer Disease , Network Pharmacology , Anthocyanins , Berberis , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , I-kappa B Proteins
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970547

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to study the effect of Erjing Pills on the improvement of neuroinflammation of rats with Alzheimer's di-sease(AD) induced by the combination of D-galactose and Aβ_(25-35) and its mechanism. SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a model control group, a positive drug group(donepezil, 1 mg·kg~(-1)), an Erjing Pills high-dose group(9.0 g·kg~(-1)), and an Erjing Pills low-dose group(4.5 g·kg~(-1)), with 14 rats each group. To establish the rat model of AD, Erjing Pills were intragastrically administrated to rats for 5 weeks after 2 weeks of D-galactose injection. D-galactose was intraperitoneally injected into rats for 3 weeks, and then Aβ_(25-35) was injected into the bilateral hippocampus. The new object recognition test was used to evaluate the learning and memory ability of rats after 4 weeks of intragastric administration. Tissues were acquired 24 h after the last administration. The immunofluorescence method was used to detect the activation of microglia in the brain tissue of rats. The positive expressions of Aβ_(1-42) and phosphory protein Tau~(404)(p-Tau~(404)) in the CA1 area of the hippocampus were detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and interleukin-6(IL-6) in the brain tissue were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB)/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3(NLRP3) pathway-associated proteins in the brain tissue were determined by Western blot. The results showed that as compared with the sham group, the new object recognition index of rats in the model control group decreased significantly, the deposition of Aβ_(1-42) and p-Tau~(404) positive protein in the hippocampus increased significantly, and the levels of microglia activation increased significantly in the dentate gyrus. The levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the hippocampus of the model control group increased significantly, and the expression levels of TLR4, p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65, p-IκBα/IκBα, and NLRP3 proteins in the hippocampus increased significantly. Compared with the model control group, the Erjing Pill groups enhanced the new object recognition index of rats, decreased the deposition of Aβ_(1-42) and the expression of p-Tau~(404) positive protein in the hippocampus, inhibited the activation of microglia in the dentate gyrus, reduced the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the hippocampus, and down-regulated the expression levels of TLR4, p-NF-κB P65/NF-κB P65, p-IκBα/IκBα, and NLRP3 proteins in the hippocampus. In conclusion, Erjing Pills can improve the learning and memory ability of the rat model of AD presumably by improving the activation of microglia, reducing the expression levels of neuroinflammatory factors IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 neuroinflammation pathway, and decreasing hippocampal deposition of Aβ and expression of p-Tau, thereby restoring the hippocampal morphological structure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-kappa B , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Galactose , Interleukin-6 , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970515

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction glycosides on the inflammatory response of apolipoprotein E~(-/-)(ApoE~(-/-)) mice and RAW264.7 cells through nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) signaling pathway. In the in vivo experiment, ApoE~(-/-) mice were fed with high-fat diets for 12 weeks to induce the animal model of atherosclerosis, and 75 μg·mL~(-1) oxidized low-density lipoprotein(Ox-LDL) incubated RAW264.7 cells for 24 h to establish the atherosclerosis cell model. Automatic biochemical analyzer, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), Western blot, and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction(PCR) were used to determine the blood lipid levels, aortic intimal thickness, inflammatory factor content, NF-κB pathway-related proteins, and mRNA expression levels, and evaluate arterial atherosclerotic lesions and anti-atherosclerotic mechanisms of the drug. The model of atherosclerosis was successfully established in ApoE~(-/-) mice after 12 weeks of feeding with high-fat diets. In the model group, the plasma levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) were increased(P<0.01), the intima of the blood vessels was thickened, the levels of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were increased, and the protein and mRNA expressions of NF-κB and inhibitor of NF-κB(IκBα) were significantly increased as compared with the control group. Compared with the model group, the high-dose Buyang Huanwu Decoction glycoside group decreased the plasma levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, reduced the plaque area and thickness and the content of inflammatory factor TNF-α, and inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of NF-κB and IκBα, with the effect same as Buyang Huanwu Decoction. In the in vivo experiment, 75 μg·mL~(-1) Ox-LDL stimulated RAW264.7 cells for 24 h to successfully establish a foam cell model. As compared with the control group, the nuclear amount of NF-κB and the protein and mRNA expressions of IκBα in the model group increased. Compared with the model group, the middle-dose and high-dose Buyang Huanwu Decoction glycoside groups decreased the nuclear amount of NF-κB and the protein and mRNA expressions of IκBα. The above results show that the glycosides are the main effective substances of Buyang Huanwu Decoction against atherosclerosis, which inhibit the NF-κB pathway and reduce the inflammatory response, thus playing the role against atherosclerotic inflammation same as Buyang Huanwu Decoction.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Cholesterol, LDL , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6 , Apolipoproteins E/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 129-137, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969815

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of ubiquitin mutation at position 331 of tumor necrosis factor receptor related factor 6 (TRAF6) on the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer cells and its mechanism. Methods: lentivirus wild type (pCDH-3×FLAG-TRAF6) and mutation (pCDH-3×FLAG-TRAF6-331mut) of TRAF6 gene expression plasmid with green fluorescent protein tag were used to infect colorectal cancer cells SW480 and HCT116, respectively. The infection was observed by fluorescence microscope, and the expressions of TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut in cells was detected by western blot. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and plate cloning test were used to detect the proliferation ability of colorectal cancer cells in TRAF6 group and TRAF6-331mut group, cell scratch test to detect cell migration, Transwell chamber test to detect cell migration and invasion, immunoprecipitation to detect the ubiquitination of TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut with ubiquitinof lysine binding sites K48 and K63. Western blot was used to detect the effects of TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut over expression on the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activating protein-1(AP-1) signal pathway. Results: The successful infection of colorectal cancer cells was observed under fluorescence microscope. Western blot detection showed that TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut were successfully expressed in colorectal cancer cells. The results of CCK-8 assay showed that on the fourth day, the absorbance values of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group were 1.89±0.39 and 1.88±0.24 respectively, which were lower than those in TRAF6 group (2.09±0.12 and 2.17±0.45, P=0.036 and P=0.011, respectively). The results of plate colony formation assay showed that the number of clones of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group was 120±14 and 85±14 respectively, which was lower than those in TRAF6 group (190±21 and 125±13, P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). The results of cell scratch test showed that after 48 hours, the percentage of wound healing distance of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group was (31±12)% and (33±14)%, respectively, which was lower than those in TRAF6 group [(43±13)% and (43±7)%, P=0.005 and 0.009, respectively]. The results of Transwell migration assay showed that the migration numbers of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group were significantly lower than those in TRAF6 group (P<0.001 and P<0.002, respectively). The results of Transwell invasion assay showed that the number of membrane penetration of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group was significantly lower than those in TRAF6 group (P=0.008 and P=0.009, respectively). The results of immunoprecipitation detection showed that the ubiquitin protein of K48 chain pulled by TRAF6-331mut was lower than that of wild type TRAF6 in 293T cells co-transfected with K48 (0.57±0.19), and the ubiquitin protein of K63 chain pulled down by TRAF6-331mut in 293T cells co-transfected with K63 was lower than that of wild type TRAF6 (0.89±0.08, P<0.001). Western blot assay showed that the protein expression levels of NF-κB, p-NF-κB and p-AP-1 in TRAF6-331mut-HCT116 cells were 0.63±0.08, 0.42±0.08 and 0.60±0.07 respectively, which were lower than those in TRAF6-HCT116 cells (P=0.002, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The expression level of AP-1 protein in TRAF6-HCT116 cells was 0.89±0.06, compared with that in TRAF6-HCT116 cells. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The protein expression levels of NF-κB, p-NF-κB and p-AP-1 in TRAF6-331mut-SW480 cells were 0.50±0.06, 0.51±0.04, 0.48±0.02, respectively, which were lower than those in TRAF6-SW480 cells (all P<0.001). There was no significant difference in AP-1 protein expression between TRAF6-331mut-SW480 cells and TRAF6-SW480 cells. Conclusion: The ubiquitin site mutation of TRAF6 gene at 331 may prevent the binding of TRAF6 and ubiquitin lysine sites K48 and K63, and then affect the expressions of proteins related to downstream NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 signal pathways, and inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Lysine/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982723

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. One important aspect of ALS pathogenesis is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant-mediated mitochondrial toxicity, leading to apoptosis in neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the neural protective synergistic effects of ginsenosides Rg1 (G-Rg1) and conditioned medium (CM) on a mutational SOD1 cell model, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the contents of nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly increased in CM after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were exposed to neuron differentiation reagents for seven days. CM or G-Rg1 decreased the apoptotic rate of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells to a certain extent, but their combination brought about the least apoptosis, compared with CM or G-Rg1 alone. Further research showed that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in all the treatment groups. Proteins associated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, such as Bax, caspase 9 (Cas-9), and cytochrome c (Cyt c), were downregulated. Furthermore, CM or G-Rg1 also inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα. CM/G-Rg1 or their combination also reduced the apoptotic rate induced by betulinic acid (BetA), an agonist of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the combination of CM and G-Rg1 effectively reduced the apoptosis of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells through suppressing the NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway (Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the abstract).


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons/metabolism , Apoptosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982713

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a prevalent and severe clinical condition characterized by inflammatory damage to the lung endothelial and epithelial barriers, resulting in high incidence and mortality rates. Currently, there is a lack of safe and effective drugs for the treatment of ALI. In a previous clinical study, we observed that Jinyinqingre oral liquid (JYQR), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation prepared by the Taihe Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine, exhibited notable efficacy in treating inflammation-related hepatitis and cholecystitis in clinical settings. However, the potential role of JYQR in ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unexplored. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of JYQR in ALI using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and an in vitro RAW264.7 cell model. JYQR yielded substantial improvements in LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissues. Additionally, JYQR administration led to a noteworthy reduction in total protein levels within the BALF, a decrease in MPAP, and attenuation of pleural thickness. These findings collectively highlight the remarkable efficacy of JYQR in mitigating the deleterious effects of LPS-induced ALI. Mechanistic investigations revealed that JYQR pretreatment significantly inhibited NF-κB activation and downregulated the expressions of the downstream proteins, namely NLRP3 and GSDMD, as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in mice and RAW2647 cells. Consequently, JYQR alleviated LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD pathway. JYQR exerts a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice, and its mechanism of action involves the downregulation of the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD inflammatory pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/therapeutic use
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