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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.


A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and their special calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin-1 (ANO1) play pivotal roles in regulating colonic transit. This study is designed to investigate the role of ICC and the ANO1 channel in colonic transit disorder in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated colitis mice. METHODS: Colonic transit experiment, colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), smooth muscle spontaneous contractile experiments, intracellular electrical recordings, western blotting analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied in this study. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expressions of c-KIT and ANO1 channels were significantly decreased in the colons of DSS-colitis mice. The colonic artificial fecal-pellet transit experiment in vitro was significantly delayed in DSS-colitis mice. The CMMCs and smooth muscle spontaneous contractions were significantly decreased by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), an ANO1 channel blocker, and NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase activity, in DSS-colitis mice compared with that of control mice. Intracellular electrical recordings showed that the amplitude of NPPB-induced hyperpolarization was more positive in DSS-colitis mice. The electric field stimulation-elicited nitric-dependent slow inhibitory junctional potentials were also more positive in DSS-colitis mice than those of control mice. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that colonic transit disorder is mediated via downregulation of the nitric oxide/ICC/ANO1 signalling pathway in DSS-colitis mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Chloride Channels , Colitis , Colon , Dextrans , Down-Regulation , In Vitro Techniques , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989052

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the combination of BRL 37344 and tadalafil (TDF) on the reduction of overactive bladder (OB) symptoms. Methods: Thirty mice were randomized into 5 groups (G) of 6 animals each. L-NAME was used to induce DO. G1: Control; G2: L-NAME; G3: L-NAME + TDF; G4: L-NAME + BRL 37344; G5: L-NAME + TDF + BRL 37344. After 30 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to cystometry to evaluate non-voiding contractions (NVC), threshold pressure (TP), baseline pressure (BP), frequency of micturition (FM) and threshold volume (TV). Differences between the groups were analyzed with ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. Results: NVC increased in G2 (4.33±2.58) in relation to G1 (1.50±0.55). NVC decreased in G3 (2.00±1.10), G4 (1.50±1.52) and G5 (2.00±1.26) compared to G2 (p<0.05). FM decreased in G3 (0.97±0.71), G4 (0.92±0.38) and G5 (1.05±0.44) compared to G2 (p<0.05). However, the combination of TDF and BRL37344 was not more effective at increasing NVC and improving FM than either drug alone. The five groups did not differ significantly with regard to TV. Conclusion: The combination of BRL 37344 and TDF produced no measurable additive effect on reduction of OB symptoms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/drug therapy , Urological Agents/administration & dosage , Tadalafil/administration & dosage , Urination/drug effects , Random Allocation , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687928

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether the methanol extract of Berberis amurensis Rupr. (BAR) augments penile erection using in vitro and in vivo experiments.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The ex vivo study used corpus cavernosum strips prepared from adult male New Zealand White rabbits. In in vivo studies for intracavernous pressure (ICP), blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and increase of peak ICP were continuously monitored during electrical stimulation of Sprague-Dawley rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE) in isolated endotheliumintact rabbit corus cavernosum, BAR relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one, a soluble guanylyl cclase inhibitor. BAR significantly relaxed penile smooth muscles dose-dependently in ex vivo, and this was inhibited by pretreatment with L-NAME H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one. BAR-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, P<0.01), a nonselective K channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, P<0.01), a voltage-dependent K channel blocker, and charybdotoxin (P<0.01), a large and intermediate conductance Ca sensitive-K channel blocker, respectively. BAR induced an increase in peak ICP, ICP/MAP ratio and area under the curve dose dependently.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BAR augments penile erection via the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate system and Ca sensitive-K (BK and IK) channels in the corpus cavernosum.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Berberis , Chemistry , Blood Pressure , Cyclic GMP , Metabolism , Epoprostenol , Pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Indomethacin , Pharmacology , Male , Models, Biological , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth , Physiology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Penile Erection , Phenylephrine , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Pressure , Rabbits
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728032

ABSTRACT

Dipeptidyl peptidase4 (DPP4) inhibitors such as gemigliptin are anti-diabetic drugs elevating plasma concentration of incretins such as GLP-1. In addition to the DPP4 inhibition, gemigliptin might directly improve the functions of vessels under pathological conditions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation (ACh-EDR) of mesenteric arteries (MA) are altered by gemigliptin pretreatment in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) under hyperglycemia-like conditions (HG; 2 hr incubation with 50 mM glucose). ACh-EDR of WKY was reduced by the HG condition, which was significantly recovered by 1 µM gemigliptin while not by saxagliptin and sitagliptin up to 10 µM. The ACh-EDR of SHR MA was also improved by 1 µM gemigliptin while similar recovery was observed with higher concentration (10 µM) of saxagliptin and sitagliptin. The facilitation of ACh-EDR by gemigliptin in SHR was not observed under pretreatment with NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. In the endotheliumdenuded MA of SHR, sodium nitroprusside induced dose-dependent relaxation was not affected by gemigliptin. The ACh-EDR in WKY was decreased by treatment with 30 µM pyrogallol, a superoxide generator, which was not prevented by gemigliptin. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 analogue, could not enhance the ACh-EDR in SHR MA. The present results of ex vivo study suggest that gemigliptin enhances the NOS-mediated EDR of the HG-treated MA as well as the MA from SHR via GLP-1 receptor independent mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endothelium , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Incretins , Mesenteric Arteries , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitroprusside , Plasma , Pyrogallol , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Relaxation , Sitagliptin Phosphate , Superoxides , Vasodilation
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954519

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. Material and methods: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. Results: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. Conclusions: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Ligation
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6714, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889083

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of salvinorin A on the cerebral pial artery after forebrain ischemia and explore related mechanisms. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats received forebrain ischemia for 10 min. The dilation responses of the cerebral pial artery to hypercapnia and hypotension were assessed in rats before and 1 h after ischemia. The ischemia reperfusion (IR) control group received DMSO (1 µL/kg) immediately after ischemia. Two different doses of salvinorin A (10 and 20 µg/kg) were administered following the onset of reperfusion. The 5th, 6th, and 7th groups received salvinorin A (20 µg/kg) and LY294002 (10 µM), L-NAME (10 μM), or norbinaltorphimine (norBIN, 1 μM) after ischemia. The levels of cGMP in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were also measured. The phosphorylation of AKT (p-AKT) was measured in the cerebral cortex by western blot at 24 h post-ischemia. Cell necrosis and apoptosis were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and TUNEL staining, respectively. The motor function of the rats was evaluated at 1, 2, and 5 days post-ischemia. The dilation responses of the cerebral pial artery were significantly impaired after ischemia and were preserved by salvinorin A treatment. In addition, salvinorin A significantly increased the levels of cGMP and p-AKT, suppressed cell necrosis and apoptosis of the cerebral cortex and improved the motor function of the rats. These effects were abolished by LY294002, L-NAME, and norBIN. Salvinorin A preserved cerebral pial artery autoregulation in response to hypercapnia and hypotension via the PI3K/AKT/cGMP pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Diterpenes, Clerodane/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Chromones/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cyclic GMP/cerebrospinal fluid , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Diterpenes, Clerodane/antagonists & inhibitors , Disease Models, Animal , Naltrexone/administration & dosage , Naltrexone/analogs & derivatives
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6693, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889091

ABSTRACT

Testosterone synthesis within Leydig cells is a calcium-dependent process. Intracellular calcium levels are regulated by different processes including ATP-activated P2X purinergic receptors, T-type Ca2+ channels modulated by the luteinizing hormone, and intracellular calcium storages recruited by a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) is reported to have an inhibitory role in testosterone production. Based on these observations, we investigated the interaction between the purinergic and nitrergic systems in Leydig cells of adult mice. For this purpose, we recorded ATP-evoked currents in isolated Leydig cells using the whole cell patch clamp technique after treatment with L-NAME (300 μM and 1 mM), L-arginine (10, 100, 300, and 500 μM), ODQ (300 μM), and 8-Br-cGMP (100 μM). Our results show that NO produced by Leydig cells in basal conditions is insufficient to change the ATP-evoked currents and that extra NO provided by adding 300 μM L-arginine positively modulates the current through a mechanism involving the NO/cGMP signaling pathway. Thus, we report an interaction between the nitrergic and purinergic systems in Leydig cells and suggest that Ca2+ entry via the purinergic receptors can be regulated by NO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate/physiology , Receptors, Purinergic/metabolism , Leydig Cells/physiology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Arginine/administration & dosage , Arginine/metabolism , Thionucleotides/administration & dosage , Thionucleotides/metabolism , Action Potentials , Cells, Cultured , Cyclic GMP/administration & dosage , Cyclic GMP/analogs & derivatives , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727578

ABSTRACT

Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disorder that is characterised by severe hypertension and increased risks of foetal and maternal mortality. The aetiology of PE not completely understood; however, maternal nutrition and oxidative stress play important roles in the development of hypertension. The treatment options for PE are currently limited to anti-hypertensive drugs. Punicalagin, a polyphenol present in pomegranate juice, has a range of bioactive properties. The effects of supplementation with punicalagin on angiogenesis and oxidative stress in pregnant rats with induced hypertension were investigated. The pregnant rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n=12 per group). Hypertension was induced using an oral dose of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg/day) on days 14–19 of pregnancy. Punicalagin (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) was given orally on days 14–21 of pregnancy. Punicalagin treatment at the tested doses significantly reduced diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial blood pressure in L-NAME treated rats from day 14. Punicalagin also restored angiogenic balance by increasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. Punicalagin, significantly increased the placental nitric oxide levels as compared to PE group. The increased levels of oxidative stress in rats with PE were markedly decreased by treatment with punicalagin. Punicalagin at the tested doses markedly (p < 0.05) enhanced the placental antioxidant capacity in L-NAME-treated rats. The raised catalase activity observed following L-NAME induction was significantly (p < 0.05) and restored to normal activity levels in punicalagin treatment. Further, 100 mg dose of punicalagin exhibited higher protective effects as compared to lower doses of 25 and 50 mg. This study shows that supplementation with punicalagin decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress and restored angiogenic balance in pregnant rats with induced PE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antihypertensive Agents , Arterial Pressure , Blood Pressure , Catalase , Female , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Maternal Mortality , Models, Animal , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Lythraceae , Rats , Tyrosine , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Fengliao-Changweikang (FLCWK) in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: IBS-D model rats were induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS) combined with restraint stress (RS). In in vivo experiments, the model rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: NMS + RS, FLCWK (low dose, middle dose, and high dose), and pinaverium bromide. The normal control (no handling) rats were classified as the NH group. The therapeutic effect of FLCWK was evaluated by fecal characteristics, electromyographic response and abdominal withdrawal reflex scores. In in vitro experiments, the model rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: NMS + RS, FLCWK (middle dose), and no handling rats were used as the NH group. The differences in basic tension and ACh-induced tension of isolated colonic longitudinal smooth muscle strips (CLSMs) among the 3 groups were observed. In addition, different inhibitors (nifedipine, TMB-8, L-NAME, methylene blue, and 4-AP) were pretreated to explore the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: In in vivo experiments, fecal characteristics, electromyographic response, and abdominal withdrawal reflex scores significantly improved in the FLCWK group, compared with the NMS + RS group. In in vitro experiments, the basic tension and ACh-induced tension of CLSMs in IBS-D rats were significantly inhibited by FLCWK. After pre-treatment with different inhibitors, the ACh-induced tension of CLSMs in each group showed no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: FLCWK manifested curative effect in IBS-D rats by inhibiting colonic contraction. The underlying mechanisms may be related to regulatory pathway of nitric oxide/cGMP/Ca2+ and specific potassium channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Gastrointestinal Motility , Herbal Medicine , In Vitro Techniques , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Methylene Blue , Muscle, Smooth , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Potassium Channels , Rats , Reflex
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of present study is to estimate the effects of Melissa officinalis L. (MO) on visceral hypersensitivity (VH), defecation pattern and biochemical factors in 2 experimental models of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the possible role of nitric oxide. METHODS: Two individual models of IBS were induced in male Wistar-albino rats. In the acetic acid model, the animals were exposed to rectal distension and abdominal withdrawal reflex, and the defecation patterns were determined. In the restraint stress model, the levels of TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant powers were determined in the (removed) colon. Rats had been treated with MO, L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), aminoguanidine (AG), MO + AG, or MO + L-NAME in the mentioned experimental models. RESULTS: Hypersensitive response to rectal distension and more stool defecation in control rats have been observed in comparison to shams. MO-300 significantly reduced VH and defecation frequency in comparison to controls. VH and defecation pattern did not show significant change in AG + MO and L-NAME + MO groups compared to controls. Also, significant reduction in TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and an increase in antioxidant power in MO-300 group was recorded compared to controls. AG + MO and L-NAME + MO groups showed a reverse pattern compared to MO-300 group. CONCLUSIONS: MO can ameliorate IBS by modulating VH and defecation patterns. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties along with its effect on the nitrergic pathway seem to play important roles in its pharmacological activity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Colitis , Colon , Defecation , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Melissa , Models, Theoretical , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Peroxidase , Rats , Reflex , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
14.
Clinics ; 72(5): 310-316, May 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each) and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively). The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M) with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M) in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%). Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Superoxides/analysis , Swimming/physiology , Blotting, Western , Ethidium/analogs & derivatives , Exercise Test , Fluorescence , Hemodynamics , NAD/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis , Nitrites/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Superoxides/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/physiology
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 436-442, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). Resultados: A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na síntese de NO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Resistance Training , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 356-366, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840829

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the lower urinary tract changes in mice treated with L-NAME, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), after 5 weeks of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), in order to evaluate the role of constitutive and non-constitutive NOS in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. Materials and Methods C57BL6 male mice were partially obstructed and randomly allocated into 6 groups: Sham, Sham + L-NAME, Sham + aminoguanidine, BOO, BOO + L-NAME and BOO + aminoguanidine. After 5 weeks, bladder weight was obtained and cystometry and tissue bath contractile studies were performed. Results BOO animals showed increase of non-voiding contractions (NVC) and bladder capacity, and also less contractile response to Carbachol and Electric Field Stimulation. Inhibition of NOS isoforms improved bladder capacity and compliance in BOO animals. L-NAME caused more NVC, prevented bladder weight gain and leaded to augmented contractile responses at muscarinic and electric stimulation. Aminoguanidine diminished NVC, but did not avoid bladder weight gain in BOO animals and did not improve contractile responses. Conclusion It can be hypothesized that chronic inhibition of three NOS isoforms in BOO animals leaded to worsening of bladder function, while selective inhibition of iNOS did not improve responses, what suggests that, in BOO animals, alterations are related to constitutive NOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/drug therapy , Guanidines/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Pressure , Time Factors , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(3): 228-236, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Physical exercise is an important tool for the improvement of endothelial function. Objective: To assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Ten minutes after exercise, the aorta was removed to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS1177) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and to generate concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and to phenylephrine (PHE). The PHE protocol was also performed with damaged endothelium and before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin administration. The maximal response (Emax) and the sensitivity (EC50) to these drugs were evaluated. Results: ACh-induced relaxation increased in the aortic rings of exercised (Ex) rats (Emax= -80 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05) when compared to those of controls (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6.8%). The Emax to PHE was decreased following exercise conditions (95 ± 7.9%, p < 0.05) when compared to control conditions (120 ± 4.2%). This response was abolished after L-NAME administration or endothelial damage. In the presence of indomethacin, the aortic rings' reactivity to PHE was decreased in both groups (EC50= Ex -5.9 ± 0.14 vs. Ct -6.6 ± 0.33 log µM, p < 0.05 / Emax = Ex 9.5 ± 2.9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6.2%, p < 0.05). Exercise did not alter the expression of eNOS and iNOS, but increased the level of p-eNOS. Conclusion: A single resistance exercise session improves endothelial function in hypertensive rats. This response seems to be mediated by increased NO production through eNOS activation.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico é uma importante ferramenta para o aprimoramento da função endotelial. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício dinâmico resistido agudo na função endotelial de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: Após 10 minutos de exercício, a aorta foi removida para avaliação da expressão de óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), óxido nítrico sintase endotelial fosforilada (p-eNOS1177) e óxido nítrico sintase endotelial induzível (iNOS), e para a construção de curvas concentração-resposta de acetilcolina (ACT) e fenilefrina (FEN). O protocolo FEN foi também realizado com lesão endotelial e antes e depois da administração de N-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) e indometacina. A resposta máxima (Emax) e a sensibilidade (EC50) a esses fármacos foram avaliadas. Resultados: Houve aumento do relaxamento induzido por ACT nos anéis aórticos dos ratos exercitados (Ex) (Emax = -80 ± 4,6%; p < 0,05) quando comparado àquele dos controles (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6,8%). A Emax à FEN diminuiu após exercício (95 ± 7,9%; p < 0,05) quando comparada àquela dos controles (120 ± 4,2%). Tal resposta foi abolida após administração de L-NAME ou lesão endotelial. Na presença de indometacina, a reatividade dos anéis aórticos à FEN diminuiu nos dois grupos (EC50= Ex -5,9 ± 0,14 vs. Ct -6,6 ± 0,33 log µM; p < 0,05/ Emax = Ex 9,5 ± 2,9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6,2%; p < 0,05). O exercício não alterou a expressão de eNOS e de iNOS, mas aumentou o nível de p-eNOS. Conclusão: Uma única sessão de exercício resistido melhora a função endotelial em ratos hipertensos. Essa resposta parece ser mediada por elevação da produção de NO através de ativação de eNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/chemistry , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation/physiology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/chemistry , Acetylcholine , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Blotting, Western , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Exercise Test , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5556, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839268

ABSTRACT

Muscular atrophy is a progressive degeneration characterized by muscular proteolysis, loss of mass and decrease in fiber area. Tendon rupture induces muscular atrophy due to an intrinsic functional connection. Local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) accelerates tendon histological recovery and induces functional improvement. Here we evaluate the effects of such local nitrergic inhibition on the pattern of soleus muscle regeneration after tenotomy. Adult male Wistar rats (240 to 280 g) were divided into four experimental groups: control (n=4), tenotomized (n=6), vehicle (n=6), and L-NAME (n=6). Muscular atrophy was induced by calcaneal tendon rupture in rats. Changes in muscle wet weight and total protein levels were determined by the Bradford method, and muscle fiber area and central core lesion (CCL) occurrence were evaluated by histochemical assays. Compared to tenotomized (69.3±22%) and vehicle groups (68.1%±17%), L-NAME treatment induced an increase in total protein level (108.3±21%) after 21 days post-injury. A reduction in fiber areas was observed in tenotomized (56.3±1.3%) and vehicle groups (53.9±3.9%). However, L-NAME treatment caused an increase in this parameter (69.3±1.6%). Such events were preceded by a remarkable reduction in the number of fibers with CCL in L-NAME-treated animals (12±2%), but not in tenotomized (21±2.5%) and vehicle groups (19.6±2.8%). Altogether, our data reveal that inhibition of tendon NOS contributed to the attenuation of atrophy and acceleration of muscle regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Regeneration/drug effects , Muscular Atrophy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Tenotomy
19.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 24(3): 186-195, 2017. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-994879

ABSTRACT

Background: Passiflora quadrangularis L. is among the species used in Colombian folk medicine for hypertension, but until now it has not been studied in experimental models. Objectives: To assess the capacity of P. quadrangularis L. EtOH extract to prevent the hypertension and vascular remodelling induced by nitric oxide (NO) deficit in Wistar rats. Methods: The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p (intraperitoneal), every 48h) was administered for seven weeks to the following groups of rats: P. quadrangularis L.75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/d, p.o. (oral route); enalapril as reference agent, 10 mg/kg/d, p.o. and vehicle as control (mixture of propylene glycol 10%, glycerine 10% and polysorbate 2%). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured twice a week. After sacrifice, the aortic rings were isolated, contraction was triggered with phenylephrine (PE 10-6 M) and then the relaxant response achieved with cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh, 10-10 ­ 10-5 M) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-10 ­ 10-5 M) was assessed. Histopathologic measures of thickness/lumen ratio from both the left ventricle and aorta walls, as well as phytochemical screening, were also performed. Results: As for enalapril, all doses of P. quadrangularis L. prevented the hypertension induced by L-NAME (122±1.2 versus 155±1.3 mmHg at seventh week). P. quadrangularis L. significantly increased the relaxant effect induced by ACh in isolated aorta and decreased the thickness/lumen ratio of aorta wall specimens. Conclusions: P. quadrangularis L. prevents experimental hypertension induced in rats with nitric oxide deficits improving the endothelium vasodilatation response and protecting against vascular remodelling.


Antecedentes: Passiflora quadrangularis L. es una de las especies utilizadas en medicina tradicional en Colombia para la hipertensión pero hasta el momento no se ha evaluado en modelos experimentales. Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad del extracto etanólico de P. quadrangularis L. para prevenir la hipertensión y el remodelado vascular inducidos por déficit de óxido nítrico (NO) en ratas Wistar. Métodos: El inhibidor de la óxido nítrico (NO) sintasa L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p, cada 48 h) se administró durante siete semanas a los siguientes grupos de tratamiento: P. quadrangularis L. 75, 150 y 300 mg/kg/d, p.o; Enalapril como agente de referencia, 10 mg/kg/d, p.o., y vehículo como control (mezcla de propilenglicol 10%, glicerina 10% y polisorbato 2%). Se midió la presión arterial (BP) y la frecuencia cardiaca (HR) dos veces por semana. Después del sacrificio, se aislaron los anillos aórticos, se desencadenó la contracción con fenilefrina (PE 10-6 M) y la respuesta relajante con concentraciones acumulativas de acetilcolina (ACh, 10-10 ­ 10-5 M) o nitroprusiato de sodio (SNP, 10-10 ­ 10-5 M). También se realizaron estudios histopatológicos de la relación entre el espesor y el lumen tanto en el ventrículo izquierdo como en las paredes de la aorta, así como un cribado fitoquímico. Resultados: Enalapril y todas las dosis de P. quadrangularis L. evitaron la hipertensión inducida por L-NAME (122 ± 1,2 frente a 155 ± 1,3 mm Hg a la séptima semana). P. quadrangularis L. aumentó significativamente el efecto relajante inducido por ACh en la aorta aislada y disminuyó la relación entre el espesor y la luz de los especímenes en la pared de la aorta. Conclusiones: P. quadrangularis L. previene la hipertensión experimental inducida por déficit de óxido nítrico en ratas, mejorando la respuesta del endotelio y protegiendo frente al remodelado vascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Passiflora , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Hypertension
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222833

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effect of scoparone from Artemisia capillaris on rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM) and to elucidate the mechanism of action of scoparone for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PCCSM that had been precontracted with phenylephrine was treated with 3 Artemisia herbs (A. princeps, A. capillaris, and A. iwayomogi) and 3 fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL). Four components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from A. capillaris were also evaluated. The PCCSM was preincubated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cyclic nucleotides in the perfusate were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The interactions of scoparone with udenafil and rolipram were also evaluated. RESULTS: A. capillaris extract relaxed PCCSM in a concentration-dependent manner. Scoparone had the highest relaxant effect on PCCSM among the 4 components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. The application of scoparone on PCCSM pretreated with L-NAME and ODQ led to significantly less relaxation. Scoparone also increased the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, scoparone enhanced udenafil- and rolipram-induced relaxation of the PCCSM. CONCLUSIONS: Scoparone relaxed the PCCSM mainly by activating the nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway, and it may be a new promising treatment for ED patients who do not completely respond to udenafil.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Coumarins , Erectile Dysfunction , Guanosine Monophosphate , Guanosine , Humans , Male , Muscle, Smooth , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Nucleotides, Cyclic , Penile Erection , Phenylephrine , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors , Radioimmunoassay , Relaxation , Rolipram , Scopoletin
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