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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989052

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the combination of BRL 37344 and tadalafil (TDF) on the reduction of overactive bladder (OB) symptoms. Methods: Thirty mice were randomized into 5 groups (G) of 6 animals each. L-NAME was used to induce DO. G1: Control; G2: L-NAME; G3: L-NAME + TDF; G4: L-NAME + BRL 37344; G5: L-NAME + TDF + BRL 37344. After 30 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to cystometry to evaluate non-voiding contractions (NVC), threshold pressure (TP), baseline pressure (BP), frequency of micturition (FM) and threshold volume (TV). Differences between the groups were analyzed with ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. Results: NVC increased in G2 (4.33±2.58) in relation to G1 (1.50±0.55). NVC decreased in G3 (2.00±1.10), G4 (1.50±1.52) and G5 (2.00±1.26) compared to G2 (p<0.05). FM decreased in G3 (0.97±0.71), G4 (0.92±0.38) and G5 (1.05±0.44) compared to G2 (p<0.05). However, the combination of TDF and BRL37344 was not more effective at increasing NVC and improving FM than either drug alone. The five groups did not differ significantly with regard to TV. Conclusion: The combination of BRL 37344 and TDF produced no measurable additive effect on reduction of OB symptoms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/drug therapy , Urological Agents/administration & dosage , Tadalafil/administration & dosage , Urination/drug effects , Random Allocation , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954519

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. Material and methods: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. Results: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. Conclusions: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Ligation
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 436-442, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). Resultados: A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na síntese de NO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Resistance Training , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 356-366, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840829

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the lower urinary tract changes in mice treated with L-NAME, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), after 5 weeks of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), in order to evaluate the role of constitutive and non-constitutive NOS in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. Materials and Methods C57BL6 male mice were partially obstructed and randomly allocated into 6 groups: Sham, Sham + L-NAME, Sham + aminoguanidine, BOO, BOO + L-NAME and BOO + aminoguanidine. After 5 weeks, bladder weight was obtained and cystometry and tissue bath contractile studies were performed. Results BOO animals showed increase of non-voiding contractions (NVC) and bladder capacity, and also less contractile response to Carbachol and Electric Field Stimulation. Inhibition of NOS isoforms improved bladder capacity and compliance in BOO animals. L-NAME caused more NVC, prevented bladder weight gain and leaded to augmented contractile responses at muscarinic and electric stimulation. Aminoguanidine diminished NVC, but did not avoid bladder weight gain in BOO animals and did not improve contractile responses. Conclusion It can be hypothesized that chronic inhibition of three NOS isoforms in BOO animals leaded to worsening of bladder function, while selective inhibition of iNOS did not improve responses, what suggests that, in BOO animals, alterations are related to constitutive NOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/drug therapy , Guanidines/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Pressure , Time Factors , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5556, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839268

ABSTRACT

Muscular atrophy is a progressive degeneration characterized by muscular proteolysis, loss of mass and decrease in fiber area. Tendon rupture induces muscular atrophy due to an intrinsic functional connection. Local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) accelerates tendon histological recovery and induces functional improvement. Here we evaluate the effects of such local nitrergic inhibition on the pattern of soleus muscle regeneration after tenotomy. Adult male Wistar rats (240 to 280 g) were divided into four experimental groups: control (n=4), tenotomized (n=6), vehicle (n=6), and L-NAME (n=6). Muscular atrophy was induced by calcaneal tendon rupture in rats. Changes in muscle wet weight and total protein levels were determined by the Bradford method, and muscle fiber area and central core lesion (CCL) occurrence were evaluated by histochemical assays. Compared to tenotomized (69.3±22%) and vehicle groups (68.1%±17%), L-NAME treatment induced an increase in total protein level (108.3±21%) after 21 days post-injury. A reduction in fiber areas was observed in tenotomized (56.3±1.3%) and vehicle groups (53.9±3.9%). However, L-NAME treatment caused an increase in this parameter (69.3±1.6%). Such events were preceded by a remarkable reduction in the number of fibers with CCL in L-NAME-treated animals (12±2%), but not in tenotomized (21±2.5%) and vehicle groups (19.6±2.8%). Altogether, our data reveal that inhibition of tendon NOS contributed to the attenuation of atrophy and acceleration of muscle regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Regeneration/drug effects , Muscular Atrophy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Tenotomy
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4800, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766979

ABSTRACT

β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor-operated Ca2+ channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Parasympatholytics/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5304, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787383

ABSTRACT

A relationship between thyroid hormones and the cardiovascular system has been well established in the literature. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute application of 10-8–10-4 M triiodothyronine (T3) to isolated rat aortic rings. Thoracic aortic rings from 80 adult male Wistar rats were isolated and mounted in tissue chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer in order to analyze the influence of endothelial tissue, inhibitors and blockers on the vascular effect produced by T3. T3 induced a vasorelaxant response in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings at higher concentrations (10-4.5–10-4.0 M). This outcome was unaffected by 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide, 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 10-5 M indomethacin, or 10-5 M cycloheximide. Contrarily, vasorelaxant responses to T3 were significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by endothelium removal or the application of 10-6 M atropine, 10-5 M L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 10-7 M 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), 10-6 M (9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1′-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i](1,6)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester KT 5823, 10-2 M tetraethylammonium (TEA), or 10-7 M apamin plus 10-7 M charybdotoxin. The results suggest the involvement of endothelial mechanisms in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute in vitro application of T3 to rat aortic rings. Possible mechanisms include the stimulation of muscarinic receptors, activation of the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, and opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Glyburide/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/drug effects
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 160-167, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-758002

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.Objective:To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats.Methods:Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP).Results:Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H.Conclusion:One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.


ResumoFundamento:A hipertensão é um problema de saúde pública e faz aumentar a incidência das doenças cardiovasculares.Objetivo:Avaliar os efeitos de uma sessão de exercício resistido sobre os mecanismos contráteis e relaxantes do músculo liso vascular em artéria mesentérica de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME.Métodos:Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (C), Hipertenso (H) e Hipertenso Exercitado (HE). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de 20 mg/kg de NG-nitro L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) durante sete dias antes dos protocolos experimentais. O protocolo de exercício resistido consistiu em dez séries de dez repetições e intensidade de 40% de uma repetição máxima. A reatividade do músculo liso vascular foi avaliada através de curvas concentração-resposta para a fenilefrina (FEN), cloreto de potássio (KCl) e nitroprussiato de sódio (NPS).Resultados:Os ratos tratados com L-NAME apresentaram aumento (p < 0,001) da Pressão Arterial Sistólica (PAS), da Pressão Arterial Diastólica (PAD) e da Pressão Arterial Média (PAM) quando comparados ao período inicial da indução. Não foi observada diferença na sensibilidade da FEN entre os grupos H e HE. O exercício resistido agudo reduziu (p < 0,001) a resposta contrátil induzida pelo KCl nas concentrações de 40 e 60 mM do grupo HE quando comparado ao grupo H. Foi observado maior (p < 0,01) sensibilidade do músculo liso ao NPS no grupo HE quando comparado ao grupo H.Conclusão:Uma sessão de exercício resistido reduz as respostas contráteis induzidas pelo KCl, além de aumentar a sensibilidade do músculo liso ao NO em artéria mesentérica de ratos hipertensos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Body Weight , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/physiopathology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/analysis , Phenylephrine/analysis , Potassium Chloride/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 119-124, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741172

ABSTRACT

Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia) over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing) revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045), 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001) and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027). UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027) and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015). Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia. .


Doenças neurológicas são comuns em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), mas sua prevalência exata é desconhecida. Métodos Nós estudamos prospectivamente a presença de distúrbios neurológicos em 121 pacientes com DII [51 com doença de Crohn (DC) e 70 com colite ulcerativa (RCU)] e 50 controles (gastrite e dispepsia) ao longo de 3 anos. Resultados A avaliação neurológica padronizada (que incluiu testes eletrodiagnósticos) demonstrou que pacientes com DC foram 7,4 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver neuropatias de fibras grossas do que os controles (p = 0,045), 7,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,001) e 5,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver queixas autonômicas (p = 0,027). Pacientes com RCU foram 5 vezes mais propensos de desenvolver neuropatia de fibras grossas (p = 0,027) e 3,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,015). Conclusão Em resumo, este é o primeiro estudo prospectivo a estabelecer que os pacientes tanto com DC quanto de RCU são mais propensos a doenças neuromusculares do que os pacientes com gastrite e dispepsia. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Microcirculation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Femoral Artery/drug effects , Femoral Artery/embryology , Microcirculation/embryology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Sheep , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 155-158, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741182

ABSTRACT

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) is considered the Father of Modern Anatomy, and an authentic representative of the Renaissance. His studies, founded on dissection of human bodies, differed from Galeno, who based his work on dissection of animals, constituted a notable scientific advance. Putting together science and art, Vesalius associated himself to artists of the Renaissance, and valued the images of the human body in his superb work De Humani Corporis Fabrica.This paper aims to honor this extraordinary European Renaissance physician and anatomist, who used aesthetic appeal to bind text and illustration, science and art. His achievements are highlighted, with an especial attention on neuroanatomy. Aspects about his personal life and career are also focused.


Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) é considerado o Pai da Anatomia Moderna e um autêntico representante da Renascença. Seus estudos, baseados na dissecação de corpos humanos, diferiam dos de Galeno, que baseava seu trabalho em dissecação de animais, constituiu-se em um notável avanço científico. Reunindo ciência e arte, Vesalius associou-se a artistas da Renascença e valorizou as imagens do corpo humano em seu soberbo trabalho De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Este artigo visa honrar esse extraordinário médico e anatomista da Renascença europeia, que fez uso do apelo estético para coligar texto e ilustração, ciência e arte. Suas realizações são realçadas, com atenção especial na neuroanatomia. Também são colocados em foco aspectos da sua vida pessoal e de sua carreira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/enzymology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Microcirculation/drug effects , Microcirculation/physiology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(1): 25-32, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718104

ABSTRACT

Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats. .


Fundamento: Os efeitos do exercício resistido sobre os parâmetros cardiovasculares não são consistentes. Objetivos: Foram avaliados os efeitos do exercício resistido sobre as alterações na glicemia, reatividade vascular e pressão arterial de ratos diabéticos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (n = 8), diabético sedentário (n = 8) e diabético treinado (n = 8). O exercício resistido foi realizado no aparelho de agachamento para ratos e consistiu em três séries de dez repetições com uma intensidade de 50%, três vezes por semana, durante 8 semanas. As alterações na reatividade vascular foram avaliadas em anéis de artéria mesentérica superior. Resultados: Foi observada uma redução significativa da resposta máxima dos relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina no grupo diabético sedentário (78,1% ± 2) e um aumento do grupo diabético treinado (95 ± 3%), sem alterar a potência. Na presença de NG-nitro-L-arginina metil éster, os relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina foram significativamente reduzidos nos grupos controle e diabético treinado, mas não no grupo diabético sedentário. Além disso, foi observado um aumento significativo (p < 0,05) da pressão arterial média no grupo diabético sedentário de 104,9 ± 5 para 126,7 ± 5 mmHg, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Por outro lado, o grupo diabético treinado apresentou redução significativa (p < 0,05) nos níveis da pressão arterial média de 126,7 ± 5 mmHg para 105,1 ± 4 mmHg, quando comparado ao diabético sedentário. Conclusões: O exercício resistido foi capaz de restaurar a funcionalidade endotelial e impedir o aumento da pressão arterial em ratos com ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Blood Pressure/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/physiology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiopathology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
13.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 377-385
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138295

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of sesame [Sesamum indicum L] seed feeding was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin [STZ]-diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesame seed-mixed food at weight ratios of 3% and 6% for 7 weeks, one week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine [PE] and relaxation response to acetylcholine [ACh] and sodium nitroprusside [SNP] were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in sesame-treated diabetic rats [at a ratio of 6%] relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was also significantly higher in sesame-treated diabetic rats [at a ratio of 6%] as compared to diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N[G]-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME] significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde [MDA] and decreased superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity and sesame treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and restored activity of SOD. We thus conclude that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesame seed could in a dose- manner prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Endothelium , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 915-919
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138409

ABSTRACT

This study showed the effects of propolis on biochemical and hematological parameters in chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by N [omega] -Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]. Rats are given L-NAME for 15 days and the propolis for the last 5 days with L-NAME together. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase in the L-NAME group compared to control group have increased [P<0.05]. The levels of these parameters in L-NAME+propolis group compared to the L-NAME group have decreased [P<0.05]. L-NAME caused increase [P<0.05] in levels of glucose, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol. Erythrocyte number, total leukocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, neutrophil and monocyte decreased [P<0.05], platelets and lymphocyte increased [P<0.05] in L-NAME+propolis group compared to the L-NAME group. The study concluded that homeostasis is modulated in L-NAME administrated rats by adding propolis which causes increasing generation of vascular nitric oxide


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Blood Chemical Analysis , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cells/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
15.
Caracas; s.n; nov. 2012. ^c30 cmilus. (Ift4872012615885).
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1150992

ABSTRACT

La preeclampsia es un síndrome exclusivo de la gestación humana y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad perinatal, cuyas manifestaciones incluyen: hipertensión arterial, proteinuria y edema. Un mecanismo postulado en la fisiopatología de la preeclampsia, es la reducción de la perfusión placentaria y el desarrollo del síndrome clínico materno ocasionado por la liberación de factores placentarios que afectan la regulación de la presión arterial y la función renal. Uno de los factores que ocasiona el trastorno endotelial son las especies reactivas de oxígeno, el incremento de elementos vasoactivos, así como la disminución de agentes vasorelajantes como el óxido nítrico. Todas estas alteraciones vasculares conducen no sólo a la hipertensión sino también a la disfunción renal. Debido a la importancia del papel del óxido nítrico y su desregulación en la preeclampsia, en el presente trabajo se caracterizó un modelo experimental de preeclampsia que resulta de la inhibición de la síntesis de óxido nítrico mediante la administración de L-NAME a ratas preñadas y no preñadas. En el mismo se evaluó el estatus oxidativo y, el papel del sistema renina angiotensina en la contribución de la disfunción renal. Los resultados demuestran el papel primordial del óxido nítrico y su desregulación en este modelo de preeclampsia experimental. En efecto, se demostró que el tratamiento durante siete días con L-NAME incrementó la presión arterial media, aumentó la sensibilidad vascular, inhibió la actividad de la sintasa del óxido nítrico renal y redujo el guanilil monofosfato cíclico urinario. La disfunción endotelial renal en este modelo experimental se manifiesto por proteinuria, incremento de la creatinina plasmática, disminución de la excreción urinaria de sodio, potasio y creatinina, así como, evidencia morfológica de endoteliosis glomerular. Al caracterizar el papel de las enzimas antioxidantes renales se encontró una reducción significativa de la actividad de las mismas, y un incremento de la peroxidación lipídica asociada a una elevada concentración de agentes pro-oxidantes. Nuestro modelo experimental constituye una buena aproximación a la preeclampsia humana y no un efecto inespecífico del L-NAME, ya que aún cuando la inhibición crónica de la síntesis de óxido nítrico en ratas no preñadas induce un incremento de la presión arterial media, proteinuria, reducción de la actividad de la sintasa del óxido nítrico renal y de la excreción urinaria de guanilil monofosfato cíclico similar a las ratas preñadas, los efectos sobre la proteinuria, las acciones morfológicas renales, la excreción urinaria de sodio, potasio y creatinina, y sobre el sistema renina angiotensina son específicos de la preeclampsia experimental en ratas. Así, se demostró que en las ratas preñadas tratadas con L-NAME la actividad de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina plasmática, los niveles de renina plasmática, y la aldosterona amniótica se encuentran marcadamente disminuidos, cuando se comparan con las ratas preñadas normotensas. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la preeclampsia experimental se caracteriza por la supresión de los componentes circulantes del sistema renina angiotensina, que podrían ser responsables del desbalance entre los sistemas vasoconstrictores y vasodilatadores observados en la preeclampsia, así como de algunos de los signos de la preeclampsia, similar a lo que ocurre en la mujer embarazada hipertensa. Por otra parte, al evaluar la contribución del estrés oxidativo en el daño renal en la preeclampsia experimental, se demostró una disminución de la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes renales. Asimismo, la disminución de la actividad de la glutatión peroxidasa plasmática y la tendencia a la reducción en la glutatión peroxidasa en el líquido amniótico, con el simultáneo incremento de los valores de las sustancias que reaccionan con el ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) plasmático, sugiriéndose que la desregulación generalizada y renal está asociada a una baja protección oxidativa durante la preeclampsia, que favorece a la insuficiencia renal. El incremento temprano del estrés oxidativo placentario juega un papel fundamental en la disfunción endotelial generalizada y el daño renal en la preeclampsia. Debido a ello, nos planteamos que el tratamiento temprano con antioxidantes o con desacoplantes de la NAD (P) H oxidasa podría interrumpir el proceso de este síndrome. Efectivamente, el tratamiento crónico con un compuesto que mimetiza a la superóxido dismutasa, el tempol, o el desacoplante del ensamblaje de la NAD(P)H oxidasa (apocinina), fueron capaces de reducir significativamente la hipertensión inducida por el L-NAME. Igualmente, ambos compuestos fueron capaces de prevenir la proteinuria y la reducción de la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes renales estudiadas. En conclusión, la preeclampsia experimental inducida por la inhibición crónica de la síntesis de óxido nítrico en ratas preñadas, reproduce los signos clásicos de la preeclampsia humana, y se acompaña de la desregulación del sistema renina angiotensina y de disfunción renal. Esto nos permite aseverar que este modelo experimental de preeclampsia constituye una buena aproximación a la preeclampsia humana. Se demuestra que el daño renal encontrado en este modelo experimental se asocia a una disminución de los mecanismos antioxidantes renales, que lleva a un incremento del estrés oxidativo, y a una reducción de la protección de la función renal. Estos resultados indican que la sobreproducción de especies reactivas de oxígeno tanto placentaria como renal, son causa fundamental de la disfunción endotelial generalizada y del daño renal. Finalmente, la inhibición del estrés oxidativo mediante el uso de agentes antioxidantes como el tempol o la apocinina, pudiese ser una de las posibles estrategias terapéuticas en el tratamiento de la hipertensión inducida por el embarazo humano y abre nuevos horizontes en el tratamiento de este síndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Oxidative Stress , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia/chemically induced , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/adverse effects , Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110117

ABSTRACT

Cinnamyl alcohol (CAL) is known as an antipyretic, and a recent study showed its vasodilatory activity without explaining the mechanism. Here we demonstrate the vasodilatory effect and the mechanism of action of CAL in rat thoracic aorta. The change of tension in aortic strips treated with CAL was measured in an organ bath system. In addition, vascular strips or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for biochemical experiments such as Western blot and nitrite and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) measurements. CAL attenuated the vasoconstriction of phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM)-precontracted aortic strips in an endothelium-dependent manner. CAL-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10(-4) M), methylene blue (MB; 10(-5) M) and 1 H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolole-[4,3-a] quinoxalin-10one, (ODQ; 10(-6) or 10(-7) M) in the endothelium-intact aortic strips. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; 10(-8) or 10(-9) M) did not affect the vasodilatory effect of CAL. The phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and generation of nitric oxide (NO) were stimulated by CAL treatment in HUVECs and inhibited by treatment with L-NAME. In addition, cGMP and PKG1 activation in aortic strips treated with CAL were also significantly inhibited by L-NAME. Furthermore, CAL relaxed Rho-kinase activator calpeptin-precontracted aortic strips, and the vasodilatory effect of CAL was inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor glibenclamide (Gli; 10(-5) M) and the voltage-dependent K+ channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 2 x 10(-4) M). These results suggest that CAL induces vasorelaxation by activating K+ channels via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway and the inhibition of Rho-kinase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/drug effects , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/pharmacology , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Male , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/agonists , Propanols/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , rho-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(5): 438-444, May 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586505

ABSTRACT

The relaxant effect of the methyl ester of rosuvastatin was evaluated on aortic rings from male Wistar rats (250-300 g, 6 rats for each experimental group) with and without endothelium precontracted with 1.0 µM phenylephrine. The methyl ester presented a slightly greater potency than rosuvastatin in relaxing aortic rings, with log IC50 values of -6.88 and -6.07 M, respectively. Unlike rosuvastatin, the effect of its methyl ester was endothelium-independent. Pretreatment with 10 µM indomethacin did not inhibit, and pretreatment with 1 mM mevalonate only modestly inhibited the relaxant effect of the methyl ester. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 µM), the selective nitric oxide-2 (NO-2) inhibitor 1400 W (10 µM), tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 mM), and cycloheximide (10 µM) partially inhibited the relaxant effect of the methyl ester on endothelium-denuded aortic rings. However, the combination of TEA plus either L-NAME or cycloheximide completely inhibited the relaxant effect. Inducible NO synthase (NOS-2) was only present in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, as demonstrated by immunoblot with methyl ester-treated rings. In conclusion, whereas rosuvastatin was associated with a relaxant effect dependent on endothelium and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in rat aorta, the methyl ester of rosuvastatin exhibited an endothelium-independent and only slightly hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-dependent relaxant effect. Both NO produced by NOS-2 and K+ channels are involved in the relaxant effect of the methyl ester of rosuvastatin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Fluorobenzenes/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/enzymology , Cycloheximide/pharmacology , Fluorobenzenes/chemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Vasodilation/physiology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(5): 445-452, May 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586508

ABSTRACT

Gadolinium (Gd) blocks intra- and extracellular ATP hydrolysis. We determined whether Gd affects vascular reactivity to contractile responses to phenylephrine (PHE) by blocking aortic ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase). Wistar rats of both sexes (260-300 g, 23 females, 7 males) were used. Experiments were performed before and after incubation of aortic rings with 3 µM Gd. Concentration-response curves to PHE (0.1 nM to 0.1 mM) were obtained in the presence and absence of endothelium, after incubation with 100 µM L-NAME, 10 µM losartan, or 10 µM enalaprilat. Gd significantly increased the maximum response (control: 72.3 ± 3.5; Gd: 101.3 ± 6.4 percent) and sensitivity (control: 6.6 ± 0.1; Gd: 10.5 ± 2.8 percent) to PHE. To investigate the blockade of E-NTDase activity by Gd, we added 1 mM ATP to the bath. ATP reduced smooth muscle tension and Gd increased its relaxing effect (control: -33.5 ± 4.1; Gd: -47.4 ± 4.1 percent). Endothelial damage abolished the effect of Gd on the contractile responses to PHE (control: 132.6 ± 8.6; Gd: 122.4 ± 7.1 percent). L-NAME + Gd in the presence of endothelium reduced PHE contractile responses (control/L-NAME: 151.1 ± 28.8; L-NAME + Gd: 67.9 ± 19 percent AUC). ATP hydrolysis was reduced after Gd administration, which led to ATP accumulation in the nutrient solution and reduced ADP concentration, while adenosine levels remained the same. Incubation with Gd plus losartan and enalaprilat eliminated the pressor effects of Gd. Gd increased vascular reactivity to PHE regardless of the reduction of E-NTPDase activity and adenosine production. Moreover, the increased reactivity to PHE promoted by Gd was endothelium-dependent, reducing NO bioavailability and involving an increased stimulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II AT1 receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Gadolinium/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enalaprilat/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Losartan/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108025

ABSTRACT

Effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on in vitro survival, growth, steroidogenesis, and apoptosis of buffalo preantral follicles (PFs) was investigated. PFs (200~250 microm) were isolated by micro-dissection and cultured in 0 (control), 10(-3), 10(-5), 10(-7), and 10(-9) M SNP. To examine the reversible effect of SNP, PFs were cultured with 10(-5) M SNP + 1 mM Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 1.0 microg hemoglobin (Hb). The results showed that greater concentrations of SNP (10(-3), 10(-5), 10(-7) M) inhibited (p < 0.05) FSH-induced survival, growth, antrum formation, estradiol production, and oocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, a lower dose of SNP (10(-9) M) significantly stimulated (p < 0.05) the survival, growth, antrum formation, follicular oocyte maturation, and stimulated progesterone secretion compared to the control. A combination of SNP + L-NAME promoted the inhibitor effect of SNP while a SNP + Hb combination reversed this effect. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the culture medium increased (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner according to SNP concentration in the culture medium. At higher concentrations, SNP had a cytotoxic effect leading to follicular oocyte apoptosis whereas lower concentrations have stimulatory effects. In conclusion, NO exerts a dual effect on its development of buffalo PFs depending on the concentration in the culture medium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Buffaloes/physiology , Estradiol/biosynthesis , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitrates/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology , Nitrites/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Oocytes/cytology , Ovarian Follicle/cytology , Progesterone/biosynthesis
20.
Clinics ; 66(4): 673-679, 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The role of ovarian hormones and nitric oxide in learning and memory has been widely investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the ability of estradiol to improve learning in OVX rats using the Morris water maze. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into five groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX), (2) ovariectomized-estradiol (OVX-Est), (3) ovariectomized-L-NAME 10 (OVX-LN 10), (4) ovariectomized-L-NAME 50 (OVX-LN 50) and (5) ovariectomized-estradiol-L-NAME 50 (OVX-Est-LN 50). The animals in the OVX-Est group were treated with a weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; i.m.). The OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups were treated with daily injections of 10 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME (i.p.), respectively. The animals in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group received a weekly injection of estradiol valerate and a daily injection of 50 mg/kg L-NAME. After 8 weeks, all animals were tested in the Morris water maze. RESULTS: The animals in the OVX-Est group had a significantly lower latency in the maze than the OVX group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in latency between the OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups in comparison with the OVX group. The latency in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group was significantly higher than that in the OVX-Est group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results show that L-NAME treatment attenuated estradiol-mediated enhancement of spatial learning and memory in OVX rats, but it had no significant effect in OVX rats without estrogen, suggesting an interaction of nitric oxide and estradiol in these specific brain functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nandrolone/analogs & derivatives , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Nandrolone/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reaction Time/drug effects , Spatial Behavior/drug effects
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