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1.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 85-89, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362092

ABSTRACT

Introduction Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a tumor originated from the epitheliumof the glandular excretory ducts and has highly variable biological potential. It is the most prevalent cancer of the salivary glands. The present report aims to describe a case of nasal mucoepidermoid carcinoma that developed after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) treatment of a recurrent pituitary macroadenoma. Case Report Male patient, 62 years old, presented with recurrent nasal epistaxis on the right, associated with intense pulsatile headache, visual analogical scale (VAS) 10/10, with improvement only with the use of opioids andmorphine. After undergoing oncological screening and study by imaging exams, the presence of an expansive seal lesion with suprasellar extension was seen, involving the medial wall of the cavernous segment of the right carotid artery and the anterior cerebral artery, as well as the presence of a new expansive lesion in the right nasal cavity, with ethmoid bone invasion superiorly and medial orbit wall invasion laterally, compressing the ipsilateral optic nerve canal. Discussion Sinonasal neoplasms represent a small portion of all malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, accounting for<5% of these neoplasms. The development of MEC involves risk factors such as occupational issues, history of trauma and surgery involving the nasal area, and radiation exposure, as in previous RT. Conclusion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasia and can be associated with RT treatment, as used in cases of recurrent pituitary macroadenoma. In general, surgical resection to obtain free margins of neoplastic tissue is the aimed treatment, seeking better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid/surgery , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Recurrence , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid/pathology , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Cavity/pathology
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021246, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153187

ABSTRACT

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is a rare type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which usually presents with extranodal involvement and affects the nasal/upper aerodigestive tract in the classical presentation. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old, previously healthy, male patient diagnosed with ENKTL-NT with the involvement of the lung parenchyma and heart. Unfortunately, due to the rapid disease progression, the diagnosis was performed only at the autopsy. The authors highlight the rare clinical presentation of this type of lymphoma, as well as the challenging anatomopathological diagnosis in necrotic samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/pathology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Autopsy , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Fatal Outcome , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Disease Progression , Heart , Lung/pathology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942509

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the preliminary experience in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) and to explore the effect of age, chemotherapy, modified Kadish stage and pathological grade on the prognosis of ENB. Methods: The clinical data of 87 ENB patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between June 2002 and November 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The modified Kadish stage was used to evaluate the extent of the lesions, and the Hyams grading system was used for pathological grading. The patients were followed up regularly to evaluate the recurrence and metastasis of the tumor. Cox proportional hazard model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. Prognostic factors with P<0.05 in univariate analysis were included in multivariate analysis. After controlling the confounding factors, the model coefficients were used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The median follow-up time of ENB patients was 29 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 39.3%. In univariate analysis, age, chemotherapy, modified Kadish stage and pathology grade were independent predictors of overall survival, while gender, radiotherapy and surgery were not prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis showed that modified Kadish stage and pathology grade were independent predictors of overall survival rate after excluding confounding factors. Conclusions: Age, chemotherapy, modified Kadish stage and pathological grade are taking important role in the overall survival rate of patients with ENB. Modified Kadish stage and pathological grade are independent predictors of overall survival rate.


Subject(s)
Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory/therapy , Humans , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Nose Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 209-217, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115837

ABSTRACT

El vestíbulo nasal corresponde a la primera porción de la fosa nasal, éste se encuentra delimitado lateralmente por los cartílagos alares y medialmente por el borde caudal del septum nasal y la columela. Las enfermedades infecciosas del vestíbulo nasal son patologías frecuentes en la práctica clínica; su diagnóstico se realiza en base a sospecha clínica y examen físico, requiriendo habitualmente solo manejo médico ambulatorio. Desde el punto de vista etiológico pueden ser virales, bacterianas y fúngicas. Las principales especies bacterianas involucradas corresponden a Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, S. epidermidis, S. hominis y S. haemolyticus, difteroides spp y S. aureus. Su manejo es esencialmente médico con casos excepcionales requiriendo manejo quirúrgico. En la actualidad existe escasa información epidemiológica al respecto, lo que dificultad la clasificación de los dichos cuadros clínicos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre cuadros infecciosos que afectan el vestíbulo nasal para lograr sistematizar y clarificar las distintas patologías y sus tratamientos.


The nasal vestibule corresponds to the first portion of the nasal passage, limited laterally by the lateral crus and medially by the caudal edge of the nasal septum and columella. Infectious diseases of the nasal vestibule are frequent in clinical practice, diagnosis is made based on clinical suspicion and physical examination, usually requiring only ambulatory medical management. In terms of etiology, they can be viral, bacterial and fungal. The main bacterial species involved correspond: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. haemolyticus, difteroides spp and S. aureus. Management is essentially medical and only exceptionally requires surgery. Currently, there is a lack of epidemiological information in this regard, which makes it difficult to classify these clinical conditions. A review of the literature on infectious conditions that affect the nasal vestibule was performed, to systematize and clarify the different pathologies and their management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/complications , Nose Diseases/etiology , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Papilloma/complications , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Rhinoscleroma/complications , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Risk Factors , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Staphylococcus hominis , Folliculitis/complications , Nasal Cavity/pathology
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(1): 55-60, 20200000. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370527

ABSTRACT

Objective: Morphological changes in sinuses are commonly observed through routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) scans. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of nasal and sinus pathology in the Jordanian patients undergoing head MRI or CT scans for a non-ENT cause. Materials and Methods: Prospective study was conducted at Alkarak hospital, Jordan. CT/MRI scan images of patients were reviewed over a period of 6-months. Data about ENT symptoms, history of allergic rhinitis, and abnormalities was also collected. Results: Of the 600 patients (445 MRI, 145 CT Scans), sinus pathology was observed in 170 patients (28.33%). The most common sinus abnormality was mucosal thickening (n=135, 79.41%), followed by complete opacification and cysts. A significant correlation was observed between sex, sinonasal symptoms, facial pain, and asthma in both sinus pathology and nasal pathology. Nasal obstruction (p=0.000) and allergic rhinitis (p=0.000) were significantly correlated with nasal pathology. Conclusion: A significant correlation between incidental sinonasal pathology and both facial pain and allergic rhinitis was observed. However, the incidental findings are overestimated due to lack of correlation to symptoms and underlying conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Facial Pain/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Nasal Cavity/pathology
6.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 39(2): 74-77, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102133

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso de una paciente con pérdida de peso, congestión nasal epistaxis, aumento de volumen en cuello con disfagia a sólidos y líquidos de 1 mes de evolución. La tomografía de cuello muestra una masa de tejidos blandos en la base de cuello con erosión del esfenoides con extensión a la fosa craneal media, con erosión del clivus, el esfenoides y la si­lla turca. El diagnostico histopatológico es un estesioneuroblastoma.


We present a case of a patient with weight loss, nasal congestion, epistaxis, increase neck volu­ me with dysphagia to solids and liquids of 1 month of evolution. The neck tomography shows a soft tissue mass at the base of the neck with erosion of the sphe­ noid with extension to the middle cranial fossa, with erosion of the clivus, the sphenoid and the sella turcica. The histopathological diagnosis is an esthesioneuroblastoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epistaxis/pathology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Skull Base Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ethmoid Bone/pathology , Meningioma/diagnostic imaging
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e64, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952162

ABSTRACT

Abstract This is a cross-sectional study that aimed to estimate maxillary sinus floor (MSF) pneumatization in single missing tooth of posterior maxilla, by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images were analyzed bilaterally and divided into 2 groups: edentulous site (EdS) - edentulous single region of upper second premolar, first or second molars; Tooth site (TS) - contralateral region homologous to the EdS region, with tooth present. Variables evaluated were: sinus height (SH), estimated sinus pneumatization (eSP: ∆ EdS - TS), healed ridge height (HR) and presence of localized sinus pneumatization (LSP) in molars teeth at TS. HR were categorized according to therapeutic option for posterior maxilla. 183 CBCT scans were included and it was observed that EdS presented a higher SH than the TS (p < 0.001) showing an eSP of 0.9 ± 2.93 mm. First molars presented the highest SH for both sides, although significant differences were detected when compared to second molars. First molars were mostly affected by LSP at TS (36 out of 43). Individuals with LSP at TS presented lower HR than the ones without LSP (p < 0.05). 54% of the cases presenting LSP obtained HR < 5 mm, which indicates sinus lift surgery. The present study showed that tooth loss in posterior maxilla favors sinus pneumatization and the identification of LSP at molar roots seems to indicate a greater necessity for sinus lift surgeries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Maxillary Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Alveolar Bone Loss/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Loss/complications , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Palate/pathology , Palate/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Maxillary Diseases/etiology , Maxillary Diseases/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Tooth Loss/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Alveolar Process/pathology , Alveolar Process/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Sinus/growth & development , Maxillary Sinus/pathology , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 677-682, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889333

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Nasal polyposis is often found in patients with cystic fibrosis. Objective: To assess the incidence of nasal polyposis, the response to medical treatment, recurrence and the need for surgical intervention in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis during a three-year follow-up. Methods: Clinical symptoms (pulmonary, pancreatic insufficiency, malnutrition, nasal obstruction), two positive sweat chloride tests, and genotype findings in 23 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed. All patients underwent nasal endoscopy every 12 months from January 2005 to December 2007, to assess the presence and grade of Nasal Polyps. Nasal polyposis, when present, were treated with topical corticosteroids for 6-12 months, with progress being evaluated within the 3 years of follow-up. Results: In the first evaluation, nasal polyposis was diagnosed in 30.43% of patients (3 bilateral and 4 unilateral), recurrent pneumonia in 82.6%, pancreatic insufficiency in 87%, and malnutrition in 74%. The presence of nasal polyposis was not associated with chloride values in the sweat, genotype, clinical signs of severity of cystic fibrosis, or nasal symptoms. In the three-year period of follow up, 13 patients (56.52%) had at least one event of polyposis, with the youngest being diagnosed at 32 months of age. Only one patient underwent surgery (polypectomy), and there was one diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Conclusion: The study showed a high incidence of nasal polyposis. Monitoring through routine endoscopy in patients with cystic fibrosis, even in the absence of nasal symptoms, is highly recommended. The therapy with topical corticosteroids achieved good results. Thus, an interaction between pediatricians and otolaryngologists is necessary.


Resumo Introdução: A polipose nasal é frequentemente encontrada em pacientes portadores de fibrose cística. Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de polipose nasal, a resposta ao tratamento clínico, a recorrência e a necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística durante um seguimento de 3 anos. Método: Os sintomas clínicos (pulmonar, insuficiência pancreática, desnutrição, obstrução nasal), duas pesquisas de cloro no suor positivas e genótipo de 23 pacientes com fibrose cística foram descritos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à endoscopia nasal a cada 12 meses de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2007, para avaliação de presença e grau de polipose nasal. A polipose nasal, quando presente, foi tratada com corticosteroide tópico de 6 a 12 meses e avaliada a evolução nos 3 anos de seguimento. Resultados: Na primeira avaliação, a polipose nasal foi diagnosticada em 30,43% dos pacientes (três bilaterais e quatro unilaterais), pneumonia recorrente em 82,6%, insuficiência pancreática em 87% e a desnutrição em 74%. A presença de polipose nasal não se associou aos valores de cloro no suor, genótipo, sinais clínicos de gravidade da fibrose cística ou sintomas nasais. Nos três anos de seguimento, 13 pacientes (56,52%) apresentaram pelo menos um evento de polipose, o mais jovem foi diagnosticado aos 32 meses. Apenas um paciente foi submetido à cirurgia (polipectomia) e houve um diagnóstico de carcinoma da nasofaringe. Conclusão: O estudo mostrou alta incidência de polipose nasal. O acompanhamento por meio de exames endoscópicos de rotina em pacientes fibrocisticos, mesmo na ausência de sintomas nasais, é altamente recomendado. A terapia com corticoide tópico mostrou bons resultados. Assim, faz-se necessária a interação entre pediatras e otorrinolaringologistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Nasal Polyps/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Recurrence , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/pathology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging
9.
Medisan ; 21(5)mayo 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841704

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 84 años de edad, a quien se le realizó exéresis total del órgano nasal desde hacía 5 años aproximadamente en el Hospital Oncológico Conrado Benítez de Santiago de Cuba, a causa de un carcinoma epidermoide del apéndice nasal, por lo cual fue remitido al Centro de Rehabilitación Protésica Bucomaxilofacial de esta provincia para ser rehabilitado. Al examen físico extrabucal se observó ausencia total de la nariz, que simulaba una facies leonina, con bordes cicatrizados y bien definidos. La mayor preocupación del paciente era ocultar su defecto, de manera que se le realizó una prótesis nasal de silicona para mejorar su estética y funcionalidad


The case report of an 84 years patient is described, to whom a total removal of the nasal organ was carried out about 5 years ago-at Conrado Benítez Cancer Hospital in Santiago de Cuba - due to an epidermoid carcinoma of the nasal appendix, reason why he was referred to the Oralmaxillofacial Prosthetics Rehabilitation Center of this province to be rehabilitated. A total absence of the nose was observed in the extraoral physical examination that simulated a leonine facies, with well defined healed borders. The patient's biggest concern was to hide his defect, so a nasal silicone prosthesis was placed to improve his aesthetics and functionality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Nose Deformities, Acquired , Nose Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation/rehabilitation , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esthetics , Nasal Cavity/pathology
10.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 61(1): 64-67, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-849262

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Schwannoma é uma neoplasia benigna com origem nas células de Schwann presentes na bainha de nervos autossômicos periféricos. Localiza-se cranial ou extracranial. Na cabeça e pescoço constitui 30 a 45% dos casos extracraniais, sendo que 4% deles estão localizados no nariz e seios paranasais. Relato do caso: Paciente feminina, 37 anos, realizou tomografia de crânio após queda para investigar trauma cranioencefálico. Esta identificou velamento de seios paranasais à esquerda. O achado motivou a investigação da hiposmia e obstrução nasal à esquerda de longa data. À rinoscopia anterior, observou-se lesão expansiva polipoide ocupando a fossa nasal, não permitindo a passagem do nasofibroscópio. Tomografia computadorizada evidenciou lesão ocupando totalmente a fossa nasal esquerda, velamento do seio maxilar e células etmoidais anteriores e posteriores à esquerda. Realizou-se exérese endoscópica da lesão, que tinha provável origem no recesso esfenoetmoidal. A biópsia transoperatória com congelação observou lesão inflamatória. A confirmação do diagnóstico de Schwannoma foi feita pelo anatomopatológico e imuno-histoquímica, que evidenciou alta reatividade à proteína S-100. Discussão: As lesões intranasais unilaterais apresentam inúmeras possibilidades diagnósticas. Os sintomas são inespecíficos e os exames de imagem pouco esclarecedores. Neste relato, a tomografia sugeriu pólipo de Killian ou papiloma invertido pela unilateralidade da lesão. Porém, as características histopatológicas e a imunorreatividade à proteína S-100 auxiliaram na confirmação diagnóstica. Conclusão: O Schwannoma intranasal faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial das lesões intranasais. O exame histopatológico e a imunohistoquímica são de extrema importância para confirmação diagnóstica frente à inespecificidade dos sintomas e achados radiológicos (AU)


Introduction: Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm originating in the Schwann cells present in the sheath of peripheral autosomal nerves. It is located cranially or extracranially. In the head and neck it comprises 30 to 45% of extracranial cases, 4% of which located in the nose and paranasal sinuses. Case report: A 37-year-old female patient underwent skull tomography after a fall to investigate cranioencephalic trauma. This identified veiling of paranasal sinuses on the left. The finding motivated the investigation of long-standing hyposmia and nasal obstruction on the left. At anterior rhinoscopy, an expansive polypoid lesion occupying the nasal fossa was observed, not allowing the nasofibroscope to pass. Computed tomography revealed a lesion totally occupying the left nasal fossa, maxillary sinus veil, and anterior and posterior ethmoid cells on the left. Endoscopic excision of the lesion that was likely to originate in the sphenoethmoidal recess was performed. Intraoperative biopsy with freezing showed an inflammatory lesion. Confirmation of the Schwannoma diagnosis was made by pathology and immunohistochemistry that showed high reactivity to S-100 protein. Discussion: Unilateral intranasal lesions present numerous diagnostic possibilities. The symptoms are nonspecific and imaging exams are not very elucidating. In this report, CT scan suggested a Killian polyp or inverted papilloma due to the unilaterality of the lesion. However, the histopathological characteristics and immunoreactivity to the S-100 protein aided in the diagnostic confirmation. Conclusion: Intranasal Schwannoma is part of the differential diagnosis of intranasal lesions. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry are extremely important for diagnostic confirmation in the face of the non-specificity of symptoms and radiological findings (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Neurilemmoma/diagnosis , Nose Neoplasms/diagnosis , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Neurilemmoma/pathology , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/pathology , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/surgery , Paranasal Sinuses/pathology
11.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 49(2): 78-86, jul-dic. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-884956

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos metabólicos ocasionados por la insuficiencia renal y la diálisis para su tratamiento pueden conducir a la precipitación de sales de fosfato cálcico con la consecuente formación de tumores en diversas localizaciones. Estos pueden ser únicos o múltiples, pudiendo ocasionar obstrucción y compresión de distintas estructuras anatómicas con la consecuente alteración funcional. Si bien el manejo clínico de las alteraciones antes citadas es fundamental, la cirugía adquiere relevancia en estas situaciones. Se presenta un caso de Calcinosis Tumoral única ubicada en el tercio anterior del septum nasal, ocasionando obstrucción de la fosa nasal. La tomografía computada orientó el diagnóstico y la resección tumoral completa por vía nasal fue el tratamiento elegido. El informe de anatomía patológica confirma el diagnóstico de Calcinosis Tumoral. A los nueve meses de seguimiento en el postoperatorio no se evidencia recidiva.


Metabolic disorders caused by chronic renal failure and dialysis for its treatment can lead to the precipitation of calcium phosphate salts with the consequent formation of tumors in various locations. These can be single or multiple, and may cause obstruction and compression of different anatomical structures with consequent functional alteration. Although the clinical management of the above mentioned alterations is fundamental, the surgery acquires relevance in these situations. We present a case of unique tumoral calcinosis located in the anterior third of the nasal septum, causing obstruction of the nasal fossa. Computed tomography guided diagnosis and complete tumor resection by nasal route was the treatment chosen. The pathological anatomy report confirms the diagnosis of tumor calcinosis. At nine months post-operative follow-up there was no evidence of tumor recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Calcinosis/etiology , Nose Diseases/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Nasal Septum/pathology , Calcinosis/surgery , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Nasal Obstruction/surgery , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Nose Diseases/surgery , Nose Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Septum/surgery
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(10): 925-929, out. 2016. graf, ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842000

ABSTRACT

No período de janeiro de 2011 a dezembro de 2014 foram diagnosticados 9 surtos (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H e I) de Oestrus ovis em pequenos ruminantes no estado da Bahia. No surto A obteve-se 0,5% (1/200); B 2,2% (2/90); C 0,8% (1/120); D 2% (2/100); E 1% (1/100); F 3% (1/33); G 0,6% (1/150); H 2,5% (5/200); I com 11,4% (8/70) em ovinos e 5% (2/40) em caprinos. Os sinais clínicos associados ao parasitismo pelas larvas nos surtos foram respiração ruidosa, espirro seguido de secreção nasal catarral, inquietação, movimentação excessiva da cabeça e andar em círculo. Macroscopicamente havia nos seios e conchas nasais hiperemia, edema da mucosa e presença de larvas. Todas as larvas coletadas dos cornetos e conchas nasais variavam desde o primeiro ao terceiro estágio de desenvolvimento. Algumas larvas L3 coletadas nas necropsias foram incubadas e o imago obtido das pupas mediram aproximadamente 10mm de cor acinzentada e abdômen escurecido. Realizada análise descritiva das condições climáticas, ano e positividade de casos de oestrose, demonstrou que a ocorrência tem tendência de crescimento com os anos (p˂0,001) e que houve casos com menor média de temperatura mínima (p˂0,001), possibilitando o desenvolvimento da mosca de O. ovis, demonstrando que houve a introdução da mosca enTtre o rebanho de ovinos e caprinos do estado da Bahia, e que as condições climáticas são ideais para perpetuação da espécie.(AU)


From January 2011 to December 2014 were diagnosed 9 outbreaks of Oestrus ovis infection in small ruminants (Outbreaks A-I) in the State of Bahia. The incidence of oestrosis in sheep in outbreak A was 0.5% (1/200), in B 2.2% (2/90), in C 0.8% (1/120), in D 2% (2/100), in E 1% (1/100), in F 3% (1/33), in G 0.6% (1/150), in H 2.5% (5/200), and in I 11.42% (8/70), and 5% (2/40) in goats. Clinical signs associated with parasitism were wheezing, sneezing followed by catarrhal nasal secretion, some restlessness, excessive head movement and walking in circles. The breasts and turbinates were hyperemic, with mucosal edema and presence of O. ovis larvae. All larvae collected from the turbinates ranged from the first to the third stage of development. Some L3 larvae collected at necropsy were incubated and the gray colored Imago with dark abdomen obtained from the pupae measured about 10mm. A descriptive analysis of the climatic conditions was carried out; in the year of investigation the incidence of O. ovis infection has grown (p<0.001), and the lowest mean minimum temperature (p<0.001) caused the development the O. ovis fly, so that there was an introduction of an increased number of these flies into the sheep and goat flocks in state of Bahia with the ideal climatic conditions for their perpetuation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Larva/parasitology , Myiasis/veterinary , Nasal Obstruction/pathology , Nasal Obstruction/veterinary , Sheep , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Ruminants
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(7): 627-636, jul. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766209

ABSTRACT

As enfermidades que acometem a cavidade nasal de pequenos ruminantes podem causar prejuízos aos rebanhos de ovinos e caprinos na região central do Brasil. Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo dos laudos de necropsia do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade de Brasília (LPV-UnB) nos anos de 2003 a 2014 para verificar a ocorrência das doenças que acometeram a cavidade nasal de pequenos ruminantes. Foram analisados 463 protocolos de ovinos e 75 de caprinos totalizando 538 casos. Seis ovinos (6/463 1,29%) foram necropsiados com rinite granulomatosa micótica ou oomicótica e 22 animais do estudo (22/538; 4,08%) tiveram o diagnóstico de oestrose, sendo 86,36% ovinos e 13,64% caprinos. As rinites piogranulomatosas em ovinos ocorreram em áreas alagadas, com abundante material vegetal em decomposição. Os ovinos com pitiose rinofacial apresentaram como principais alterações aumento de volume na região nasal devido a extensas lesões granulomatosas associadas a necrose tecidual, caracterizadas por inúmeros macrófagos e polimorfonucleares circundando centros necróticos contendo o agente envolto por reação de Splendore-Hoeppli. Os ovinos com conidiobolomicose exibiram extensas áreas de necrose e inflamação piogranulomatosa, associadas à presença de hifas fúngicas na nasofaringe e também na região peribulbar e exoftalmia. A maioria dos animais com oestrose não apresentou alterações clínico-patológicas significativas, apesar de serem encontradas larvas principalmente nos seios e conchas nasais, traqueia e seio paranasal. A importância dessas enfermidades ainda é pouco conhecida na região, sendo de grande relevância que as condições clínico-patológicas e epidemiológicas sejam elucidadas para o diagnóstico, o controle e a prevenção, para evitar a expansão e prejuízos para os rebanhos...


Nasal cavity diseases that affect small ruminants can cause losses to sheep and goat herds in Central Brazil. A retrospective study of the University of Brasilia´s Veterinary Pathology Laboratory autopsy reports from 2003 to 2014 was conducted to verify the occurrence of small ruminants nasal cavity diseases. Six necropsied sheep (6/463 1.29%) showed mycotic or oomicotic granulomatous rhinitis and 22 animals (22/538, 4.08%) presented oestrosis diagnosis, affecting 86.36% of sheep and 13.64% of goats. The pyogranulomatous rhinitis in sheep occurred in flooded areas with abundant plant material decomposing. Rhinofacial pythiosis infection in animals showed as major changes swelling in the nasal region due to extensive granulomatous lesions associated with tissue necrosis, characterized by numerous macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells surrounding necrotic centers containing the agent surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction. Sheep with conidiobolomycosis showed extensive areas of necrosis and pyogranulomatous inflammation associated with fungal hyphae, localized in the nasopharynx and also in peribulbar region and exophthalmia. Most animals with oestrosis showed no significant clinical and pathological changes, even with the presence of larvae mainly in the sinuses and nasal turbinates, trachea and paranasal sinus. The importance of such diseases is still unknown in the region, and the knowledge of the clinical-pathological and epidemiological conditions is of great relevance for the diagnosis, control and prevention to avoid the expansion and losses to livestock...


Subject(s)
Animals , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Rhinitis/physiopathology , Rhinitis/veterinary , Sheep , Conidiobolus/pathogenicity , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Pythiosis/pathology , Pythium/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
14.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 43-49, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term tomographic changes in the upper airway dimensions and quality of life of mouth breathers after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). METHODS: A total of 25 mouth breathers with maxillary atresia and a mean age of 10.5 years old were assessed by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and a standardized quality of life questionnaire answered by patients' parents/legal guardians before and immediately after rapid maxillary expansion. RESULTS: Rapid maxillary expansion resulted in similar and significant expansion in the width of anterior (2.8 mm, p < 0.001) and posterior nasal floor (2.8 mm, p < 0.001). Although nasopharynx and nasal cavities airway volumes significantly increased (+1646.1 mm3, p < 0.001), oropharynx volume increase was not statistically significant (+1450.6 mm3, p = 0.066). The results of the quality of life questionnaire indicated that soon after rapid maxillary expansion, patients' respiratory symptoms significantly decreased in relation to their initial respiratory conditions. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that RME produces significant dimensional increase in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Additionally, it also positively impacts the quality of life of mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar, por meio de tomografias, as mudanças em curto prazo nas vias aéreas superiores e na qualidade de vida em pacientes respiradores bucais, após expansão rápida da maxila (ERM). MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 25 pacientes respiradores bucais com atresia maxilar, com idade média de 10,5 anos, por meio de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) e questionário padronizado de qualidade de vida submetido aos pais/responsáveis, antes e imediatamente após a ERM. RESULTADOS: a ERM promoveu uma expansão, de forma semelhante e significativa, tanto na largura do soalho nasal anterior (2,8mm, p < 0,001) quanto na largura do soalho nasal posterior (2,8mm, p < 0,001). No volume aéreo da nasofaringe e fossas nasais, houve aumento significativo (+1646,1mm3 p < 0,001); entretanto, no volume aéreo da orofaringe, houve aumento não significativo (+1450,6 mm3 p = 0,066). Os resultados do questionário de qualidade de vida indicaram melhora significativa na qualidade de vida dos pacientes após a ERM, em comparação ao questionário inicial. CONCLUSÕES: a ERM promoveu aumento dimensional significativo nas fossas nasais e na nasofaringe, bem como melhorou significativamente a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pharynx/pathology , Quality of Life , Palatal Expansion Technique/psychology , Mouth Breathing/therapy , Organ Size , Oropharynx/pathology , Oropharynx/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Snoring/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Nasal Obstruction/psychology , Nasal Obstruction/therapy , Nasal Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Maxilla/abnormalities , Mouth Breathing/psychology , Mouth Breathing/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging
15.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(1): 201-219, Jan-Mar/2015.
Article in English | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-741506

ABSTRACT

In the early twentieth century, Argentina began legislating occupational safety. Law no.9.688 legislated accidents in the workplace (1915) and granted legal jurisdiction to work-related problems. The approval of this legislation was in dialogue with proposals being produced in other regions. The links established between local figures and colleagues elsewhere are useful for examining the circulation, reception and legitimation of knowledge on a regional scale. The objective of this article is to examine the transnational references in local discussions about occupational accidents in Peru and Chile during the first half of the twentieth century.


A partir del siglo XX, se inició en la Argentina la legislación protectora del trabajo. La ley n.9.688 legisló sobre accidentes de trabajo (1915) y otorgó jurisdicción legal a los problemas relativos al trabajo. La sanción de este corpus estuvo en diálogo con las propuestas que se producían en otras latitudes. Los vínculos que se establecieron entre los referentes locales y sus colegas son de utilidad para abordar el estudio de circulación, recepción y legitimación de los saberes dentro de una escala regional. Así pues, el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar las referencias transnacionales en las discusiones locales sobre los accidentes laborales en Perú y Chile durante la primera mitad del siglo XX.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Nasal Cavity , Nose Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Carcinoma/chemistry , Carcinoma/genetics , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/therapy , Gene Fusion , Gene Rearrangement , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Nasal Cavity/chemistry , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/chemistry , Nose Neoplasms/genetics , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/therapy , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Predictive Value of Tests , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(6): 377-381, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726378

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Pituitary macroadenomas are rare intracranial tumors. In a few cases, they may present aggressive behavior and invade the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity, causing unusual symptoms. In this paper, we report an atypical case of pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasal mass. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 44-year-old woman who had had amenorrhea and galactorrhea for ten months, with associated nasal obstruction, macroglossia and acromegaly. Both growth hormone and prolactin levels were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass originating from the lower surface of the pituitary gland, associated with sella turcica erosion and tumor extension through the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a chromophobe pituitary adenoma with densely packed rounded epithelial cells, with some atypias and rare mitotic figures. There was no evidence of metastases. CONCLUSION: Macroadenoma invading the nasal cavity is a rare condition and few similar cases have been reported in the literature. This study contributes towards showing that tumor extension to the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx needs to be considered and investigated in order to make an early diagnosis when atypical symptoms like nasal obstruction are present. .


CONTEXTO: Macroadenomas hipofisários são tumores intracraniais raros. Em alguns casos, podem apresentar comportamento agressivo e invadir o seio esfenoidal e a cavidade nasal, causando sintomas não usuais. Neste relato de caso, descrevemos um caso atípico de adenoma hipofisário manifestando-se como uma massa nasal. RELATO DE CASO: A paciente de 44 anos, do sexo feminino, apresentava amenorreia e galactorreia por 10 meses associando-se a obstrução nasal, macroglossia e acromegalia. Os níveis do hormônio de crescimento e de prolactina apresentaram-se aumentados. Ressonância magnética mostrou uma grande massa originada da superfície inferior da glândula hipofisária associada com erosão da sela túrcica e extensão do tumor através do seio esfenoidal e cavidade nasal. Análise histopatológica demonstrou adenoma hipofisário cromófobo com células epiteliais arrendondadas densamente agrupadas com algumas atipias e escassas figuras de mitose. Não houve evidências de metástase. CONCLUSÃO: O macroadenoma invasivo para a cavidade nasal é uma condição rara e há poucos relatos similares descritos na literatura. Este trabalho contribui para mostrar que, na presença de sintomas atípicos como a obstrução nasal, a extensão para o seio esfenoidal e para a nasofaringe deve ser considerada e investigada para um diagnóstico precoce. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Adenoma/pathology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Sphenoid Sinus/pathology , Adenoma/surgery , Diagnosis, Differential , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/surgery , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Sphenoid Sinus/surgery
17.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(3): 438-441, jul.-sep. 2014. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-741

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Tradicionalmente, a fissura palatina é corrigida em duas camadas - uma camada mucosa nasal e camada muco-periosteal oral. Este estudo avaliou os resultados do fechamento em camada única de fissura palatina comparado ao fechamento tradicional em camada dupla. MÉTODOS: Trata se de revisão de prontuários de 101 casos de correção de fissura palatina realizados entre 1981 e 2012 em uma clínica assistencial/hospital terciário localizado no centro de Wisconsin. Os casos utilizaram fechamento em camada única e foram acompanhados em Clínica de Lábio Leporino por 12 meses. Foram incluídas fissura labial e palatina também como fissura palatina isolada. RESULTADOS: Todos os casos apresentaram cicatrização satisfatória exceto dois casos que necessitaram de correção posterior de pequena fistula. CONCLUSÃO: O fechamento em camada única de fissura palatina é tão efetivo quanto o fechamento tradicional em camada dupla, além disso apresenta mínimas complicações.


INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, cleft of the hard palate is repaired in two layers, with a nasal mucosal layer and an oral mucoperiosteal layer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of one layer closure of hard palate cleft compared to the traditional two layers closure. METHODS: The charts of 101 consecutive cases of repair of hard palate cleft performed by the authors from 1981 to 2012 at a tertiary care clinic/hospital in central Wisconsin were reviewed. The cases utilized the single layer closure and were followed in the Cleft Palate Clinic on a yearly basis. Cases included unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate as well as isolated cleft palate. RESULTS: All cases healed satisfactorily except for two cases that later required small fistulae repair. CONCLUSION: Single layer closure of the hard palate cleft is as effective as traditional two-layer closure, with minimal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Comparative Study , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Review , Oral Surgical Procedures , Evaluation Study , Palate, Hard , Mouth , Nasal Cavity , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/surgery , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Palate, Hard/surgery , Mouth/surgery , Mouth/pathology , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Nasal Cavity/pathology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(5): 313-319, 05/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Evaluate and compare two different experimental techniques of maxillary sinus ostium occlusion using N-butyl cyanoacrylate in developing chronic histological findings without the inoculation of pathogenic bacteria among rabbits. METHODS: In a randomized study, sixteen New Zealand rabbits were assigned for occlusion of the right maxillary sinus through a transmaxillary approach or through the roof of the nasal cavity. The contralateral sinus served as a control. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed for blinded histopathological analysis of the maxillary sinus mucosa. RESULTS: Histopathological changes consistent with CRS were found in eight (100%) of the maxillary sinuses approached transmaxillary and three of those through the roof of the nasal cavity (37.5%), p 0.008 and 0.250, respectively, comparing with the control side. Chronic mucosal changes were significantly better induced using the transmaxillary approach (p 0.026). CONCLUSION: It is possible to induce a model of chronic sinusitis among rabbits with transmaxillary sinus occlusion without bacterial inoculation. This model can be replicated for future cellular studies. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Disease Models, Animal , Maxillary Sinus/pathology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Rhinitis/pathology , Sinusitis/pathology , Biopsy , Chronic Disease , Enbucrilate , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Rhinitis/etiology , Sinusitis/etiology , Time Factors
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 74(2): 139-144, 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726164

ABSTRACT

El condrosarcoma del tabique nasal es una neoplasia poco frecuente. Cuando esto ocurre, el diagnóstico precoz es difícil porque los pacientes generalmente presentan síntomas rinosinusales inespecíficos y en forma tardía. Se presenta un caso clínico de una mujer de 37 años de edad que se presentó con una historia de exoftalmo sin síntomas rinosinusales agregados. El estudio imagenológico mostró una masa de aspecto neoplásico en el tabique nasal con extensión al seno maxilar, celdillas etmoidales, cavidad orbitaria y hacia posterior a la fosa pterigopalatina. Se consideró un tumor naso-orbitario por lo que se complementó estudio con nasofibroscopía flexible que mostró una masa nasal de aspecto liso, brillante, rosada que ocupaba piso, tabique y pared lateral de fosa nasal izquierda que no era separable del tabique nasal. Se realizó biopsia que mostró una histopatología sugestiva de condrosarcoma. Se realizó cirugía por abordaje endoscópico y con apoyo neuroquirúrgico por vía transcraneal. La presentación clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de este caso, así como una revisión de la literatura son discutidos.


Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is a rare malignancy. When this occurs, early diagnosis is difficult since patients usually present non specific symptoms rhinosinusal and late. There is a clinic case of a 37-year-old women who presented with a history of exophthalmos without added symptoms rhinosinusal. The image study showed a neoplasic mass appearance in the nasal septum with extension to the maxillary sinus, ethmoid cells, orbital cavity and post to the pterygopalatine fossa. We have considered a naso-orbital tumor which was complemented nasofibroscopy flexible nasal showed a pink mass of smooth, shiny, occupied floor, septum and lateral wall of left nasal cavity that was not separable from the nasal septum was considered. We have performed a biopsy wich shows a suggestive chondrosarcoma. Surgery was performed by endoscopic approach and via transcranial neurosurgical support. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this case and a review of the literature are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Chondrosarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Chondrosarcoma/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Orbital Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Chondrosarcoma/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(5): 620-624, Sep-Oct/2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688613

ABSTRACT

Devido à importância do estudo das causas de dificuldade de aprendizado, delineou-se estudo caso controle, para avaliar o volume das cavidades nasais, tonsilas faríngeas e tonsilas palatinas em crianças com e sem dificuldade de aprendizado. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 48 crianças, 24 oriundas do Centro de Avaliação e Estimulação Precoce (CADEP), no qual o critério é a repetência escolar de no mínimo dois anos consecutivos, e 24 escolares com aprendizado dentro dos padrões de normalidade, que constituíram o grupo controle. As crianças foram submetidas a exame otorrinolaringológico (anamnese, exame físico) e exames específicos (rinometria acústica, Rx de cavum). RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os escolares com deficiência de aprendizado possuem prevalência maior de hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea, p < 0,001, e palatina, p < 0,001. A média do volume das cavidades nasais não mostrou associação estatisticamente significativa com dificuldade de aprendizado (p = 0,75). CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste estudo, conclui-se que crianças com hipertrofia adenotonsilar possuem mais dificuldade no aprendizado quando comparadas com crianças sem hipertrofia. Palavras-chave: obstrução nasal; respiração bucal; tonsila faríngea; transtornos de aprendizagem. .


Given the importance of studying the causes of learning disorders, we designed this case-control study to assess the nasal cavity volume, pharyngeal and palatine tonsils in children with and without learning disabilities. METHOD: A total of forty-eight children were enrolled in the study: twenty-four coming from the Center for Evaluation and Early Stimulation (CADEP), in which the criterion is the school failure of at least two consecutive years; and twenty-four students with normal learning - which made up the control group. The children were submitted to ENT examination (history, physical examination) and specific tests (acoustic rhinometry, cavum radiography). RESULTS: The results showed that students with learning disabilities have a higher prevalence of pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy: p < 0.001, and palatine tonsil hypertrophy: p < 0.001. The average volume of the nasal cavities showed no statistically significant association with learning difficulties (p = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Based on this study, we concluded that children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy have more learning difficulties when compared to children without such hypertrophy. .


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Adenoids/pathology , Learning Disabilities/etiology , Mouth Breathing/etiology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Hypertrophy/complications , Hypertrophy/pathology , Rhinometry, Acoustic , Severity of Illness Index
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