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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 561-564, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143959

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives The Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block (SGB) is an effective, low-risk treatment option for Postdural Puncture Headache (PDPH) refractory to conservative management. Case report This report presents four complex cases of patients with headache related to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Three of them were successfully treated with the application of local anesthetic topical drops through the nasal cavity. Conclusion The novel approach described in this report has minimal risks of discomfort or injury to the nasal mucosa. It is quick to apply and can be administered by the patient himself.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O Bloqueio do Gânglio Esfenopalatino (BGEP) é opção de tratamento efetivo associado a baixo risco para Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural (CPPD) refratária às medidas conservadoras. Relato de caso: Este relato apresenta quatro pacientes com alta complexidade que apresentaram cefaleia relacionada à baixa pressão do líquido cefaloraquidiano. Três pacientes foram tratados com sucesso pela instilação de gotas de anestésico local tópico na cavidade nasal. Conclusões: A nova abordagem descrita neste relato apresenta riscos mínimos de desconforto ou lesão à mucosa nasal. A aplicação é rápida e pode ser administrada pelo próprio paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Post-Dural Puncture Headache/therapy , Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Administration, Intranasal , Self Administration , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 434-442, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The extent of epithelial lesion in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis and its association with inflammatory changes in nasal lavage has not been clarified. Objective To verify the association between the inflammatory cells in the nasal lavage, epithelial lesion extent and basement membrane thickness, in the nasal mucosa of patients with rhinitis; to determine the cutoff point of the percentage of eosinophils in the nasal lavage associated with the atopic patients. Methods Patients with rhinitis and indication for septoplasty and (or) turbinectomy for turbinate hypertrophy were selected, and were submitted to allergy skin tests, nasal lavage with measurement of albumin and interleukin-8 levels, total and differential counting of cells, and mucosal histopathological analysis to determine the extent of epithelial lesion, and degree of basement membrane thickening. Results Fifty-six patients with a median age of 24.5 years and a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (n = 36) and non-allergic rhinitis (n = 20) were studied. In atopic subjects, allergy skin tests were positive for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in 35 (97.0%) and Lolium perenne in 18 (50.0%). Atopic subjects showed a higher clinical score index of rhinitis compared to non-atopic ones. The total count of cells, neutrophils, and levels of albumin and IL-8 were not different in the nasal lavage of atopic and non-atopic subjects. The cutoff point for eosinophil count in nasal fluid for the distinction between allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis was 4%. Some degree of epithelial lesion was more frequent in allergic rhinitis (94%) than in non-allergic rhinitis (65%) patients. In the presence of basement membrane thickness, as a marker of remodeling, there was no difference in the nasal lavage of patients with allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Conclusion In this series, 4% was the cutoff point for the number of eosinophils in the nasal lavage, for atopy differentiation. Upper airway remodeling accessed by basement membrane thickness showed similar inflammatory cell infiltrate in the nasal lavage, regardless of the presence of atopy.


Resumo Introdução A extensão da lesão epitelial na rinite alérgica e não alérgica e sua associação com alterações inflamatórias no lavado nasal ainda não estão esclarecidas. Objetivo Verificar a relação entre o processo inflamatório no lavado nasal, extensão da lesão epitelial e espessamento da membrana basal na mucosa nasal de pacientes com rinite; determinar o ponto de corte do percentual de eosinófilos no lavado nasal associado à presença de atopia. Método Foram selecionados pacientes com rinite e indicação de septoplastia e (ou) turbinectomia por hipertrofia de conchas nasais, os quais foram submetidos aos testes cutâneos alérgicos, lavado nasal com determinação das concentrações de albumina, interleucina-8 (IL-8), contagem total e diferencial de células, análise da extensão da lesão epitelial, e grau de espessamento da membrana basal por meio de histopatologia da mucosa. Resultado Foram estudados 56 pacientes, mediana de 24,5 anos com diagnóstico de rinite alérgica (n = 36) e rinite não alérgica (n = 20). Nos atópicos os testes cutâneos alérgicos foram positivos para D. pteronyssinus em 35 (97,0%) e L. perenne em 18 (50,0%). Atópicos apresentaram maior índice de escore clínico para rinite em comparação a não atópicos. A contagem total de células, neutrófilos e níveis de albumina e IL-8 não foi diferente entre o lavado nasal de atópicos e não atópicos. O ponto de corte da contagem de eosinófilos no fluido nasal para a distinção de rinite alérgica e rinite não alérgica foi de 4%. Algum grau de lesão epitelial foi mais frequente em pacientes com rinite alérgica (94%) do que em pacientes com rinite não alérgica (65%). Na presença de espessamento da membrana basal, como marcador de remodelamento, não houve diferença no lavado nasal entre pacientes com rinite alérgica e não alérgica. Conclusão Nesta casuística, 4% foi o ponto de corte do número de eosinófilos no lavado nasal, para diferenciação de atopia. Remodelamento da via aérea superior pelo espessamento da membrana basal revelou infiltrado semelhante de células inflamatórias no lavado nasal, independentemente da presença de atopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Rhinitis , Eosinophils , Nasal Lavage , Nasal Mucosa
3.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 35(2): 258-259, apr.-jun. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103844

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da projeção da ponta nasal às vezes se torna necessário para a obtenção de uma boa proporção entre ela e o dorso. Inúmeras técnicas e táticas são descritas com essa finalidade utilizando enxertos cartilaginosos obtidos do septo nasal, concha auricular e cartilagem costal. Quando esse aumento deve ser discreto é proposto o uso dos excedentes de cartilagens alares laterais em forma de "pseudo-retalhos". Métodos: Em rinoplastias abertas primárias os excedentes das cartilagens alares, geralmente removidas, são utilizados como "pseudo-retalhos", dobrados sobre si mesmos, em forma de "suspensório de soldado francês", sobre o domus das cartilagens alares, tendo como acolchoamento de apoio os tecidos moles delas próprias, e o tecido mole interdomal, geralmente desprezado, que é liberado, e elevado para sobre os domus. Ele é mantido, descolado e deslocado para a ponta nasal, e fica contido pelos "pseudo-retalhos" das cartilagens alares ali suturados ou cobrindo o extremo do enxerto estrutural da columela. Foram operados com essa tática 36 pacientes. Resultados: 35 com bons resultados e um apresentou um abcesso de ponta nasal, provocado pela exposição endonasal de um fio de sutura não absorvível, que foi removido. Houve necessidade de uma segunda intervenção, utilizando novo enxerto auricular, ainda com resultado insatisfatório. O método é relativamente simples para quem opera narizes. Conclusão: A ponta nasal pode ser discretamente mais projetada utilizando os excessos de cartilagens alares, "pediculadas" no domus.


Introduction: An increased nasal tip projection is sometimes necessary to achieve an appropriate proportion between nasal tip and dorsum. Numerous techniques and tactics have been described for this purpose using cartilaginous grafts obtained from the nasal septum, auricular concha, and costal cartilage. When this increased projection must be discrete, the use of excess lateral alar cartilage in the form of "pseudo-flaps" is proposed. Methods: In primary open rhinoplasty, excess alar cartilage, which is generally removed, was used to produce "pseudo-flaps". The cartilages were folded over themselves in the form of a "French soldier's suspender" over the domes of the alar cartilage and supported by interdomal soft tissue padding raised over the domus. It was kept detached, and relocated to the nasal tip and was contained by "pseudoflaps" of the alar cartilages sutured there or covering the columella's structural graft. Thirty-six patients underwent surgery using this technique. Results: Thirty-five had good results and one had a nasal tip abscess, caused by endonasal exposure to a non-absorbable suture, which was removed. A second intervention was then performed using a new auricular graft, but the result was still unsatisfactory. The "pseudoflaps" method is relatively simple for those performing nasal surgery. Conclusion: The nasal tip can be projected discretely using the excess of alar cartilage "pedicled" in the domus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Paranasal Sinuses , Rhinoplasty , Case Reports , Nose , Retrospective Studies , Evaluation Study , Nasal Cartilages , Nasal Mucosa , Paranasal Sinuses/surgery , Rhinoplasty/adverse effects , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Nasal Cartilages/surgery , Nasal Mucosa/surgery
4.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 22(1): 61-70, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091506

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La elevación de piso de seno maxilar ha sido sumamente documentada en implantología como una técnica segura y predecible en el procedimiento de ganancia vertical ósea, en el maxilar posterior atrófico. Sin embargo, conjuntamente se han reportado complicaciones en este procedimiento, las cuales podrían poner en peligro los resultados de la regeneración, y por consiguiente la colocación del implante. El propósito de esta revisión de literatura es exponer y analizar diferentes complicaciones que pueden presentarse en la elevación de piso de seno maxilar.


ABSTRACT Maxillary sinus floor elevation has been extensively documented as a safe and predictable procedure for gaining vertical bone height in the atrophic posterior maxilla. Even though, complications have been reported, which can potentially jeopardize the outcome of the regeneration and implant therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to present, debate and analyze the different complications that can occur during a sinus floor elevation.


Subject(s)
Dental Implants/adverse effects , Sinus Floor Augmentation/adverse effects , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Maxillary Nerve/injuries , Nasal Mucosa/injuries
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 63-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The types of allergic rhinitis are roughly classified based on the causative antigens, disease types, predilection time, and symptom severity. Objective To examine the clinical typing and individualized treatment approach for allergic rhinitis and to determine the optimal treatment method for this disease using various drug combination therapies. Methods A total of 108 participants with allergic rhinitis were divided into three groups based on symptoms. Subsequently, each group was further categorized into four subgroups based on the medications received. The efficacy of the treatments was evaluated using the visual analog scale VAS scores of the total and individual nasal symptoms, decline index of the symptom score, histamine and leukotriene levels, and mRNA and protein expression levels of histamine 1 and cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptors. Results Loratadine + mometasone furoate and loratadine + mometasone furoate + montelukast significantly improved the sneezing symptom and reduced the histamine levels compared with the other combination therapies (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, montelukast + mometasone furoate and montelukast + mometasone furoate + loratadine considerably improved the nasal obstruction symptom and decreased the leukotriene D4 levels compared with the other combination therapies (p < 0.05). Conclusion Clinical symptom evaluation combined with experimental detection of histamine and leukotriene levels can be an objective and accurate method to clinically classify the allergic rhinitis types. Furthermore, individualized treatment based on allergic rhinitis classification can result in a good treatment efficacy.


Resumo Introdução A rinite alérgica é basicamente classificada de acordo com os antígenos causadores, tipos de doença, peridiocidade e gravidade dos sintomas. Objetivo Avaliar os tipos clínicos e a abordagem terapêutica individualizada para cada tipo de rinite alérgica e determinar o método de tratamento ideal utilizando várias terapias de combinação de fármacos. Método Um total de 108 participantes com rinite alérgica foram divididos em três grupos com base nos sintomas. Posteriormente, cada grupo foi subsequentemente categorizado em quatro subgrupos com base nos medicamentos recebidos. A eficácia dos tratamentos foi avaliada utilizando os escores da escala visual analógica EVA dos sintomas nasais totais e individualmente, índice de declínio do escore de sintomas, níveis de histamina e leucotrienos e níveis de expressão de mRNA e proteína dos receptores de histamina 1 e cisteinil-leucotrieno 1. Resultados As associações entre loratadina + furoato de mometasona, assim como a de loratadina + furoato de mometasona + montelucaste melhoraram significativamente o sintoma de espirros e reduziram os níveis de histamina em comparação às outras terapias combinadas (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, a associação montelucaste + furoato de mometasona, assim como a associação montelucaste + furoato de mometasone + loratadina melhoraram consideravelmente o sintoma de obstrução nasal e diminuíram os níveis de leucotrieno D4 em comparação com as outras combinações (p < 0,05). Conclusão A avaliação clínica dos sintomas combinada com a detecção experimental dos níveis de histamina e leucotrieno pode ser um método objetivo e preciso para classificar clinicamente os tipos de rinite alérgica. Além disso, o tratamento individualizado baseado na classificação da rinite alérgica pode resultar no aumento da eficácia do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Histamine/blood , Leukotriene D4/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , Rhinitis, Allergic/blood , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Sneezing , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Histamine H1/genetics , Nasal Obstruction/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Loratadine/therapeutic use , Receptors, Leukotriene/genetics , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use , Acetates/therapeutic use , Nasal Mucosa
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886658

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) related infections are increased in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA nasal colonization among individuals with diabetes mellitus. METHODOLOGY: This is a prospective cross-sectional study that included adult Filipino patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Nasal swab samples were analyzed for the presence of MRSA. RESULTS: MRSA nasal colonization has a prevalence rate of 6.8% which was associated with a history of antibiotic use. The isolates exhibited resistance to Benzypenicillin/Oxacillin (100%), Clindamycin (42.9%), Vancomycin, and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (14.3%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MRSA in this population is higher compared with other Asian countries. No diabetic-related risk factors were identified to be associated with MRSA nasal colonization. The presence of resistance to most commonly used antibiotics should prompt clinicians appropriately treat infections caused by this organism.


Subject(s)
Carrier State , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Nasal Mucosa , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The effect of air pollution-related particulate matter (PM) on epithelial barrier function and tight junction (TJ) expression in human nasal mucosa has not been studied to date. This study therefore aimed to assess the direct impact of PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on the barrier function and TJ molecular expression of human nasal epithelial cells. METHODS: Air-liquid interface cultures were established with epithelial cells derived from noninflammatory nasal mucosal tissue collected from patients undergoing paranasal sinus surgery. Confluent cultures were exposed to 50 or 100 µg/mL PM2.5 for up to 72 hours, and assessed for 1) epithelial barrier integrity as measured by transepithelial resistance (TER) and permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) 4 kDa; 2) expression of TJs using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining, and 3) proinflammatory cytokines by luminometric bead array or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Compared to control medium, 50 and/or 100 µg/mL PM2.5-treatment 1) significantly decreased TER and increased FITC permeability, which could not be restored by budesonide pretreatment; 2) significantly decreased the expression of claudin-1 messenger RNA, claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 protein; and 3) significantly increased production of the cytokines interleukin-8, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 may lead to loss of barrier function in human nasal epithelium through decreased expression of TJ proteins and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest an important mechanism of susceptibility to rhinitis and rhinosinusitis in highly PM2.5-polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Budesonide , Claudin-1 , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescein , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Mucosa , Occludin , Particulate Matter , Permeability , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinitis , RNA, Messenger , Tight Junctions
8.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 445-451, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047898

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da projeção da ponta nasal às vezes se torna necessário para a obtenção de uma boa proporção entre ela e o dorso. Inúmeras técnicas e táticas são descritas com essa finalidade utilizando enxertos cartilaginosos obtidos do septo nasal, concha auricular e cartilagem costal. Quando esse aumento deve ser discreto é proposto o uso dos excedentes de cartilagens alares laterais em forma de "pseudo-retalhos". Métodos: Em rinoplastias abertas primárias os excedentes das cartilagens alares, geralmente removidas, são utilizados como "pseudo-retalhos", dobrados sobre si mesmos, em forma de "suspensório de soldado francês", sobre o domus das cartilagens alares, tendo como acolchoamento de apoio os tecidos moles delas próprias, e o tecido mole interdomal, geralmente desprezado, que é liberado, e elevado para sobre os domus. Ele é mantido, descolado e deslocado para a ponta nasal, e fica contido pelos "pseudo-retalhos" das cartilagens alares ali suturados ou cobrindo o extremo do enxerto estrutural da columela. Foram operados com essa tática 36 pacientes. Resultados: 35 com bons resultados e um apresentou um abcesso de ponta nasal, provocado pela exposição endonasal de um fio de sutura não absorvível, que foi removido. Houve necessidade de uma segunda intervenção, utilizando novo enxerto auricular, ainda com resultado insatisfatório. O método é relativamente simples para quem opera narizes. Conclusão: A ponta nasal pode ser discretamente mais projetada utilizando os excessos de cartilagens alares, "pediculadas" no domus.


Introduction: An increased nasal tip projection is sometimes necessary to achieve an appropriate proportion between nasal tip and dorsum. Numerous techniques and tactics have been described for this purpose using cartilaginous grafts obtained from the nasal septum, auricular concha, and costal cartilage. When this increased projection must be discrete, the use of excess lateral alar cartilage in the form of "pseudo-flaps" is proposed. Methods: In primary open rhinoplasty, excess alar cartilage, which is generally removed, was used to produce "pseudo-flaps". The cartilages were folded over themselves in the form of a "French soldier's suspender" over the domes of the alar cartilage and supported by interdomal soft tissue padding raised over the domus. It was kept detached, and relocated to the nasal tip and was contained by "pseudoflaps" of the alar cartilages sutured there or covering the columella's structural graft. Thirty-six patients underwent surgery using this technique. Results: Thirty-five had good results and one had a nasal tip abscess, caused by endonasal exposure to a non-absorbable suture, which was removed. A second intervention was then performed using a new auricular graft, but the result was still unsatisfactory. The "pseudoflaps" method is relatively simple for those performing nasal surgery. Conclusion: The nasal tip can be projected discretely using the excess of alar cartilage "pedicled" in the domus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Rhinoplasty , Nose , Retrospective Studies , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Esthetics , Nasal Cartilages , Nasal Mucosa , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Nasal Cartilages/abnormalities , Nasal Cartilages/surgery , Nasal Mucosa/surgery
9.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(4): 414-420, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058716

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introduction La epistaxis es un motivo frecuente de consulta en otorrinolaringología pediátrica. Diversos factores se han asociado, existiendo tanto causas locales como sistémicas. Ciertos estudios en adultos, han sugerido la asociación de colonización nasal por Staphylococcus aureus con la recurrencia de la epistaxis. Este hallazgo en población pediátrica tendría un potencial rol dentro del tratamiento y sería un posible blanco para profilaxis. Objetivo Comparar la prevalencia de colonización nasal por S. aureus en pacientes pediátricos con epistaxis recurrente, en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco Trudeau, respecto a pacientes sin este antecedente. Material y método Estudio caso-control, definiendo caso como pacientes entre 2 y 15 años que consultaron por cuadros de epistaxis anterior recurrente. Se tomaron cultivos nasales a ambos grupos. Resultados Se incluyeron 46 pacientes con epistaxis y 45 controles. La prevalencia de S. aureus fue de 39% en los casos y 37% en los controles, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Al examen físico de la mucosa nasal, ninguna de las características estudiadas mostró una relación significativa con la presencia de S. aureus. Conclusión La colonización nasal de S. aureus de niños con y sin epistaxis recurrente no varía considerablemente. En este estudio, la presencia de S. aureus no se asoció estadísticamente a epistaxis recurrente.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Epistaxis is a frequent reason for consultation in pediatric otolaryngology. Several factors have been associated, both local and systemic. Some studies in adult population, have suggested the association of nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus with the recurrence of epistaxis. Finding this association in pediatric population could have a potential role in treatment and also as a possible target for prophylaxis. Aim: To compare the prevalence of nasal colonization by S. aureus between pediatric patients with recurrent epistaxis and controls with no previous recurrent epistaxis, in the Service of Otorhinolaryngology in Barros Luco Trudeau Hospital. Material and method: Case-control study, defining case as patients between 2 and 15 years who consulted for recurrent anterior epistaxis. Nasal cultures were taken from both groups. Results: 46 patients with epistaxis and 45 controls were included. The prevalence of S. aureus was 39% in the case group and 37% in the controls, without statistically significant differences. At the physical examination of the nasal mucosa, none of the characteristics studied showed a significant relationship with the presence of S. aureus. Conclusion: Nasal colonization of S. aureus in children with and without recurrent epistaxis does not vary considerably. In this study, the presence of S. aureus was not statistically associated with recurrent epistaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcus aureus , Epistaxis/etiology , Nose/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Case-Control Studies , Nasal Mucosa
10.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(4): 437-441, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058720

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El melanoma mucoso maligno es un tumor neuroectodérmico de menos del 5% de las neoplasias nasosinusales. Es un tumor de mal pronóstico clásicamente su promedio de supervivencia a cinco años es cercano al 28% y 17,5% a diez años, siendo aún peor cuando existe metástasis en cuello. Se presentan a continuación dos casos de melanoma mucoso en cavidad nasal y senos paranasales, el primero mujer 58 años con melanoma septal llevada a septotomía abierta más quimioterapia y radioterapia adyuvante, con recurrencia en cuello submaxilar derecho tratada con vaciamiento supraomohioideo actualmente sin recurrencia; el segundo hombre de 40 años con antecedente de resección melanoma septal quien presenta nuevo melanoma región etmoidal izquierda luego de su primera cirugía y es llevado a resección endoscópica transnasal sin tratamiento adyuvante por decisión del paciente.


ABSTRACT Sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a neuroectodermic tumor account less 5% of nasosinusal tumors. It has a poor prognosis with a five-year average survival near 28% and 17.5% to 10 years; if neck metastasis is even worst. Here we present two clinical cases. First one a woman 58 years old with septal melanoma who receives an open septectomy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with submaxillary recurrence treated with supraomohyoid neck dissection. The second case, a man 40 years old with previous septal melanoma surgery who has an ethmoid sinus recurrence and receives transnasal endoscopic surgery without adjuvant therapy by patient desire.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Melanoma/pathology , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/pathology , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/therapy , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/therapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Melanoma/therapy , Nasal Mucosa/surgery
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 746-752, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055505

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of saline irrigation for nasal washes is a well established procedure in the treatment of sinonasal inflammation and infection. In addition to saline solutions, Ringer's lactate is also an efficient option for nasal washes and humidification. Objective: To assess the comfort, humidification and tolerance regarding stinging sensation, provided by sodium chloride nasal gel at the concentrations of 4.5 mg/g and 6.0 mg/g through questionnaires answered by the patients. Methods: A total of 60 patients, 56 females, aged between 22 and 66 years old (mean age of 47) and 4 males, aged between 36 and 66 years (mean age of 49), were included in the study for a period of 17 days (±2 days) treatment. The patients were monitored by a general practitioner throughout the study period. They were instructed to apply each product in both nostrils twice a day during a 7-day period (±2 days). The patients were evaluated prior to the use of the first product at visit 0 (V0), after 7 days of treatment (±2 days) at visit 1 (V1), after 3 days of product discontinuation at visit 2 (V2) and after 7 days (±2 days) of treatment with the second product, in visit 3 (V3). Results: A significant difference (5% significance) was observed regarding comfort and stinging sensation between the two different concentrations; comfort was higher and stinging was lower with the 6.0 mg/g concentration gel. No difference in humidification was observed between the two treatments. Conclusion: Ringer's lactate at the concentration of 6.0 mg/g was superior to that at 4.5 mg/g for parameters comfort and stinging sensation. No statistical difference was observed between the two products regarding nasal humidification.


Resumo Introdução: O uso de soluções salinas para lavagem nasal está consagrado no tratamento de quadros inflamatórios e infecciosos nasossinusais. Além das soluções salinas, o ringer lactato é uma importante opção tanto para lavagem quanto para a hidratação nasal. Objetivo: Avaliar a tolerabilidade (ardência e conforto) e umidificação do produto gel nasal cloreto de sódio 4,5 mg/g em relação ao ringer lactato 6,0 mg/g, por meio de questionários respondidos pelos pacientes. Método: Foram incluídos 60 pacientes, 56 mulheres (22-66 anos; média: 47 anos) e quatro homens (36-66 anos; média: 49 anos) foram incluídos no estudo de 17 dias (± 2 dias) de tratamento. Os pacientes foram supervisionados por um clínico geral durante todo o período do estudo. Os pacientes usaram os produtos com uma borrifada em cada narina duas vezes ao dia, durante sete dias (± 2 dias). As formulações foram avaliadas antes do uso do primeiro produto na visita 0 (V0), após sete dias (± 2 dias) de tratamento na visita 1 (V1), após três dias de interrupção do primeiro tratamento na visita 2 (V2) e após sete dias (± 2 dias) de uso do segundo produto na visita 3 (V3). Resultados: Foi observada diferença significante para o conforto das vias nasais, (significância de 5%), na comparação entre os tratamentos nos atributos de conforto e ardência. O conforto das vias nasais foi superior e a ardência inferior para o gel nasal ringer lactato 6,0 mg/g em comparação ao gel cloreto de sódio 4,5 mg/g. Não foi observada diferença significante para a umidificação entre os tratamentos. Conclusão: O gel ringer lactato 6,0 mg/g foi superior ao produto gel cloreto de sódio 4,5 mg/g nos quesitos conforto e ardência. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre os tratamentos em relação à umidificação das vias nasais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Ringer's Lactate/administration & dosage , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Single-Blind Method , Nasal Lavage Fluid , Gels , Humidity , Nasal Mucosa/physiopathology
12.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 60(1): 49-53, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119832

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad, las tasas que se conocen de colonización de piel y mucosa por el staphylococcus aureus están incrementando día a día. Se ha encontrado una fuerte correlación de la invasión de estos en otras partes del cuerpo (zona axilar, mucosa nasal, entre otras) con la aparición de celulitis y/o abscesos faciales. Se demostró que la flora nasal es muy diversa, encontrándose patógenos como streptococcus viridans, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus coagulasa negativa y Corynebacterium sp, pero sin posibilidad de definir con exactitud cuál es la constancia de los mismos pudiendo presentarse variaciones de esta. A su vez, esto se ve agravado por la falta de adherencia al tratamiento por parte de los pacientes y de otras condiciones como, el mismo contagio o predisposición del medio (sudoración, altas temperaturas, mala higiene, etc.), que facilitan la capacidad de dicho microorganismo de tornarse más resistente, incrementar su población y aumentar así la patogenicidad a través de la codificación de una exotoxina llamada Pantón Valentín (SAMR). Se demostrará entonces, la metodología que se llevó a cabo a través de un análisis descriptivo transversal de los casos tratados en el Hospital Mariano y Luciano de La Vega, con el fin de correlacionar causalidad y efecto (AU)


At present, the rates known for skin and mucosa colonization by Sthapylococcus aureus are increasing day by day. A strong correlation has been found of the invasion of these in other parts of the body (axillary area, nasal mucosa, among others, being the latter the most representative), with the appearance of cellulite and/or facial abscesses. It was shown that the nasal flora is very diverse, finding pathogens such as Streptococcus Viridans, Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium sp, but that has not been defined exactly the constancy of the same, can be presented variations of this. In turn, this is aggravated by the lack of adherence to treatment by patients and other conditions such as the same contagion or predisposition of the medium (sweating, high temperatures, poor hygiene, etc.), which facilitate the capacity of said Microorganism to become more resistant, increase its population and thus increase the pathogenicity through the codification of a exotoxin called Valentín Panty. To prove the methodology that was carried out through a transversal descriptive analysis of the cases treated at the Mariano Hospital and Luciano de La Vega in order to fulfil the objective of correlating causality and Effect (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/etiology , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Argentina , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Service, Hospital , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Cellulite
13.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(1): e449, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985593

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presencia de hongos en las vías respiratorias puede provocar en personas susceptibles diversas manifestaciones alérgicas. Objetivo: Determinar si las especies fúngicas aisladas de la mucosa nasal de pacientes alérgicos respiratorios pueden ser definidas como alergenos sensibilizantes a través de las pruebas cutáneas. Métodos: Estudio observacional, prospectivo y de corte transversal, donde el universo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de alergia respiratoria o inicio de asma bronquial variable descompensada, mayores de 2 años y menores de19,que se asistieron en las consultas de alergia en La Habana, desde enero 2016 a enero 2017. La muestra obtenida fue de 80 pacientes alérgicos respiratorios. Resultados: Del total de pacientes con clínica de asma, rinitis o ambas, se obtuvieron pruebas cutáneas por el test de Prick positivas a hongos en 52 de ellos (65 por ciento) con una polisensibilización en 24 para 46,1 por ciento. La reactividad cruzada de mayor relevancia se produjo con los alérgenos de Aspergillus, Penicillium y Alternaria. El cultivo resultó positivo en 54 muestras nasales (67 por ciento). El género de hongos predominante en los pacientes alérgicos fue el Aspergillus en 70,3 por ciento y dentro de este el Aspergillus fumigatus en 52,6 por ciento. Conclusiones: El estudio de la micobiota nasal es una prueba que debe interpretarse junto con las pruebas cutáneas para el diagnóstico de enfermedades alérgicas por hongos ambientales y tener en cuenta su importancia para el control epidemiológico en la exposición a hongos(AU)


Introduction: The presence of fungi in the respiratory tract can cause different allergic manifestations in sensitive persons. Objective: To determine if fungi species isolated from the nasal mucosa of respiratory allergic patients can be defined as allergen-sensitive by means of skin tests. Methods: Observational, prospective and cross-sectional study, where the overall sample consisted of all patients with a diagnosis of respiratory allergy or onset of decompensated variable bronchial asthma, over 2 years old and under 19 years old who attended to Allergy consultations in Havana, from January 2016 to January 2017. The sample obtained was 80 respiratory allergic patients. Results: Of the total number of patients with symptoms of clinical asthma, rhinitis or both, Prick´s skin tests were obtained by fungal positive test in 52 of them (65 percent) with a polysensitization in 24 (46.1 percent). The most relevant cross reactivity occurred with the allergens of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Alternaria. The culture was positive in 54 nasal samples (67 percent). The predominant fungal genus in allergic patients was Aspergillus in 70.3 percent and within this Aspergillus fumigatus in 52.6 percent. Conclusions: The study of nasal mycobiota is a test that should be interpreted together with skin tests for the diagnosis of allergic diseases due to environmental fungi and it must be taken into account its importance for epidemiological control in fungal exposure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Intravital Microscopy/methods , Mycobiome/immunology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of intranasal immunization with CTA1-DD as mucosal adjuvant combined with H3N2 split vaccine.@*METHODS@#Mice were immunized intranasally with PBS (negative control), or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) alone, or CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse) alone, or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) plus CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse). Positive control mice were immunized intramuscularly with H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) and alum adjuvant. All the mice were immunized twice, two weeks apart. Then sera and mucosal lavages were collected. The specific HI titers, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG subtypes were examined by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-4 were test by ELISpot. In addition, two weeks after the last immunization, surivival after H3N2 virus lethal challenge was measured.@*RESULTS@#H3N2 split vaccine formulated with CTA1-DD could elicit higher IgM, IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers in sera. Furthermore, using CTA1-DD as adjuvant significantly improved mucosal secretory IgA titers in bronchoalveolar lavages and vaginal lavages. Meanwhile this mucosal adjuvant could enhance Th-1-type responses and induce protective hemagglutination inhibition titers. Notably, the addition of CTA1-DD to split vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal infection by the H3N2 virus.@*CONCLUSION@#CTA1-DD could promote mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which supports the further development of CTA1-DD as a mucosal adjuvant for mucosal vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Cholera Toxin , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa , Allergy and Immunology , Random Allocation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763338

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils have traditionally been acknowledged as the first immune cells that are recruited to inflamed tissues during acute inflammation. By contrast, their importance in the context of chronic inflammation has been studied in less depth. Neutrophils can be recruited and are largely present in the nasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) both in Asians and in Caucasians. Increased infiltration of neutrophils in patients with CRS has been linked to poor corticosteroid response and disease prognosis. Meanwhile, tissue neutrophils may possess specific phenotypic features distinguishing them from resting blood counterparts and are endowed with particular functions, such as cytokines and chemokines production, thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of CRS. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CRS, with a focus on the roles of neutrophils. We discuss recruitment, function, and regulation of neutrophils in CRS and outline the potential therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Chemokines , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation , Nasal Mucosa , Nasal Polyps , Neutrophils , Prognosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The extract of Hizikia fusiformis is known to exhibit anticancer, antiatopic and antioxidant activities. We aimed to investigate the extract of H. fusiformis on allergic rhinitis inflammation in a mouse model. METHODS: The 4-week-old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into four groups: group A, control group (n=9); group B, allergic rhinitis group (n=10); group C (n=10) received 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period; group D (n=10) received 600 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during general sensitization period and 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period. Allergic inflammation was made with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum then challenged intranasally with OVA. H. fusiformis was intraperitoneally administered 3 hours before the OVA administration. Allergic symptom score and the levels of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, OVA-specific IgE antibodies, levels of cytokines in the nasal mucosa and in spleen cell culture supernatant, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 were assessed. The percentage of regulatory T cell was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eosinophilic infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were also evaluated. RESULTS: H. fusiformis administered groups C and D showed significant inhibitory effects on nasal symptoms, IL-13 mRNA expression and eosinophil infiltration/goblet cell hyperplasia in the nasal tissue; OVA-specific IgE production in serum (P<0.05). In group D, H. fusiformis treatment downregulated IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokine expression in splenocyte culture as well as significantly decreased IgG2a, IgG1 levels in serum compared with group B (P<0.05). However, the expressions of IL-5, interferon-γ and forkhead box P3 mRNA did not change in groups C and D. CONCLUSION: H. fusiformis could induce antiallergic inflammation by suppressing the T-helper type 2 cytokine production (IL-13) locally and systemically, OVA-specific IgE formation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and eosinophilic infiltration in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Thus, H. fusiformis could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in treating allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Mice , Nasal Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Spleen , Th2 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 147-151, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010208

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It has been hypothesized that increasing the interstitial hydrostatic pressure within the sinonasal mucosa of patients with nasal polyposis (NP) might decrease the size of nasal polyps. Objective: To evaluate the effects of positive airway pressure, delivered by a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, in patients with NP and in control subjects. Methods: Twelve patients with NP and 27 healthy subjects were exposed to CPAP (20 cm H2O) for 2 hours. Visual analog scale (VAS), Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale, acoustic rhinometry (AR), peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and nasal endoscopy (NE-Meltzer polyp grading system) were performed before and after the intervention, for all patients. Results: The control group showed a significant worsening in nasal obstruction symptoms, as measured by VAS and NOSE (p < 0.01), and a significant decrease in nasal patency, as measured by the PNIF and AR (p < 0.01). For the NP group, VAS, NOSE, and AR did not differ significantly (p = 0.72, p = 0.73, and p = 0.17, respectively), but PNIF values worsened (p = 0.04) after exposure to CPAP. There was a statistically significant reduction in the nasal polyps' size (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Positive pressure worsened the nasal obstruction symptoms and decreased objective parameters of nasal patency in control subjects. In patients with NP, exposure to CPAP reduced the nasal polyps' size, and the nasal patency, asmeasured by PNIF. However, it had no significant effects in AR and in nasal obstruction symptoms (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Nasal Polyps , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Nasal Obstruction/diagnosis , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rhinometry, Acoustic , Endoscopy , Extracellular Matrix , Visual Analog Scale , Nasal Mucosa/physiopathology
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 71-75, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990007

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La necesidad de unificar criterios respecto a los nombres de las estructuras anatómicas ha sido una permanente preocupación de los anatomistas del mundo, de tal manera que a partir de 1895 se inicia un proceso de estandarización y normalización de la terminología anatómica mundial. Se publica la Nomina Anatomica tratando de nominar las estructuras con un solo nombre en latín y se suprime los epónimos y homónimos. En la actualidad la Terminologia Anatomica sustituye a la Nomina Anatomica, con las mismas características, pero con la adición del término en el idioma de cada país. Sin embargo, persisten algunos errores desde la elaboración de la Nomina Anatomica y que se mantienen en Terminologia Anatomica, derivados tanto de la estructura gramatical latina, principalmente en el número y género, así como de la descripción de algunas estructuras anatómicas. Este es el caso de los ramos del nervio nasociliar, específicamente del ramo etmoidal anterior y del ramo infratroclear. Para el efecto se realizó una revisión de la descripción del nervio nasociliar y sus ramos terminales, se compararon entre sí y con los nombres que aparecen en la Terminologia Anatomica, para verificar que tanto la descripción como la construcción gramatical latina sean correctas. Se encontraron errores en la estructuración gramatical y jerárquica del ramo nasal interno, así como la supresión de los ramos palpebrales superior e inferior del nervio infratroclear, por lo que proponemos el cambio del término codificado con A14.2.01.031 a Ramus nasalis internus y la adición de los nombres Ramus palpebralis superior y Ramus palpebralis inferior.


SUMMARY: The need to unify criteria regarding the names of anatomical structures has been a permanent concern of anatomists worldwide. Therefore, and beginning in 1895 a standardization and normalization process of world anatomical terminology was initiated. The Nomina Anatomica is published in an attempt to name the structures with a single name in Latin and the eponyms and homonyms are deleted. Today the Terminologia Anatomica replaces the Nomina Anatomica, with the same characteristics, but with the addition of the term in the language of each country. Nevertheless, some errors persist from the Nomina Anatomica that remain in Terminologia Anatomica, derived from both the Latin grammatical structure, mainly in the number and gender, as well as the description of some anatomical structures. This is the case of the nasociliary nerve branches, specifically the anterior ethmoidal branch and the infratroclear branch. For this purpose, a review of the description of the nasociliary nerve and its terminal branches was made, they were compared between each other, and with the names that appear in the Terminologia Anatomica, to verify that both the description and the Latin grammatical construction are correct. Errors were found in the grammatical and hierarchical structure of the internal nasal branch, as well as the suppression of the upper and lower palpebral branches of the infratrochlear nerve. Therefore, we propose the change of the coded term with A14.2.01.031 to "Ramus nasalis internus" and the addition of the names "Ramus palpebralis superior" and "Ramus palpebralis inferior".


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasal Mucosa/innervation , Terminology as Topic , Semantics , Trochlear Nerve/anatomy & histology , Ethmoid Bone/innervation
20.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 229-240, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015598

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The importance ofmucociliary clearance (MCC) for the respiratory system homeostasis is clear. Therefore, evaluating this defense mechanism is fundamental in scientific research and in the clinical practice of pulmonology and of associated areas. However, MCC evaluation has not been so usual due to the complexity ofmethods that use radiolabeled particles. Nevertheless, as an interesting alternative, there is the saccharin transit time (STT) test. This method is reproducible, simple to perform, noninvasive, does notdemand high costs, and has been widely used in studies of nasalMCC. Although the STT test is widely used, there is still lack of a detailed description of its realization. Objective: The present literature review aims to provide basic information related to the STT test andto present the findings of the previous studies that usedthismethod, discussing variations in its execution, possible influences on the obtained results and limitations of the method, as well as to relate our experience with the use of STT in researches. Data Synthesis: There are several factors that can alter the results obtained from STT tests, which would raise difficulties with proper interpretation and with the discussion of the results among different studies. Conclusions: Saccharin transit time is awidely usedmethod for the evaluation of nasal MCC, and therefore, the standardization related to the previous and concurrent to test orientations, and also its execution, become essential to improve its accuracy, and allow comparisons among different studies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Saccharin/pharmacology , Mucociliary Clearance , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System , Homeostasis , Nasal Mucosa/physiology
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