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1.
Med. lab ; 27(1): 51-64, 2023. ilus, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414243

ABSTRACT

El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) fue el primer virus asociado a neoplasias en humanos. Infecta el 95 % de la población mundial, y aunque usualmente es asintomático, puede causar mononucleosis infecciosa y se relaciona con más de 200.000 casos de neoplasias al año. De igual forma, se asocia con esclerosis múltiple y otras enfermedades autoinmunes. A pesar de ser catalogado como un virus oncogénico, solo un pequeño porcentaje de los individuos infectados desarrollan neoplasias asociadas a VEB. Su persistencia involucra la capacidad de alternar entre una serie de programas de latencia, y de reactivarse cuando tiene la necesidad de colonizar nuevas células B de memoria, con el fin de sostener una infección de por vida y poder transmitirse a nuevos hospederos. En esta revisión se presentan las generalidades del VEB, además de su asociación con varios tipos de neoplasias, como son el carcinoma nasofaríngeo, el carcinoma gástrico, el linfoma de Hodgkin y el linfoma de Burkitt, y la esclerosis múltiple. Adicionalmente, se describen los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de las diferentes entidades, algunos de ellos no completamente dilucidados


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first virus associated with human cancer. It infects 95% of the world's population, and although it is usually asymptomatic, it causes infectious mononucleosis. It is related to more than 200,000 cases of cancer per year, and is also associated with multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Despite being classified as an oncogenic virus, only a small percentage of infected individuals develop EBV-associated cancer. Its persistence involves the ability to alternate between a series of latency programs, and the ability to reactivate itself when it needs to colonize new memory B cells, in order to sustain a lifelong infection and be able to transmit to new hosts. In this review, the general characteristics of EBV are presented, in addition to its association with various types of cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma, and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, the pathophysiological mechanisms of the different entities are described, some of them not completely elucidated yet


Subject(s)
Humans , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/physiopathology , Stomach Neoplasms/virology , Hodgkin Disease/physiopathology , Hodgkin Disease/virology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/virology , Burkitt Lymphoma/physiopathology , Burkitt Lymphoma/virology , Carcinogenesis , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/physiopathology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/virology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/virology
2.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 133-140, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970683

ABSTRACT

To investigate the γ pass rate limit of plan verification equipment for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan verification and its sensitivity on the opening and closing errors of multi-leaf collimator (MLC), 50 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma VMAT plan with clockwise and counterclockwise full arcs were randomly selected. Eight kinds of MLC opening and closing errors were introduced in 10 cases of them, and 80 plans with errors were generated. Firstly, the plan verification was conducted in the form of field-by-field measurement and true composite measurement. The γ analysis with the criteria of 3% dose difference, distance to agreement of 2 mm, 10% dose threshold, and absolute dose global normalized conditions were performed for these fields. Then gradient analysis was used to investigate the sensitivity of field-by-field measurement and true composite measurement on MLC opening and closing errors, and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to investigate the optimal threshold of γ pass rate for identifying errors. Tolerance limits and action limits for γ pass rates were calculated using statistical process control (SPC) method for another 40 cases. The error identification ability using the tolerance limit calculated by SPC method and the universal tolerance limit (95%) were compared with using the optimal threshold of ROC. The results show that for the true composite measurement, the clockwise arc and the counterclockwise arc, the descent gradients of the γ passing rate with per millimeter MLC opening error are 10.61%, 7.62% and 6.66%, respectively, and the descent gradients with per millimeter MLC closing error are 9.75%, 7.36% and 6.37%, respectively. The optimal thresholds obtained by the ROC method are 99.35%, 97.95% and 98.25%, respectively, and the tolerance limits obtained by the SPC method are 98.98%, 97.74% and 98.62%, respectively. The tolerance limit calculated by SPC method is close to the optimal threshold of ROC, both of which could identify all errors of ±2 mm, while the universal tolerance limit can only partially identify them, indicating that the universal tolerance limit is not sensitive on some large errors. Therefore, considering the factors such as ease of use and accuracy, it is suggested to use the true composite measurement in clinical practice, and to formulate tolerance limits and action limits suitable for the actual process of the institution based on the SPC method. In conclusion, it is expected that the results of this study can provide some references for institutions to optimize the radiotherapy plan verification process, set appropriate pass rate limit, and promote the standardization of plan verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Immune Tolerance , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , ROC Curve , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy
3.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 483-486, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982772

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the convolutional neural network(CNN) in diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma using endoscopic narrowband imaging. Methods:A total of 834 cases with nasopharyngeal lesions were collected from the People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region between 2014 and 2016. We trained the DenseNet201 model to classify the endoscopic images, evaluated its performance using the test dataset, and compared the results with those of two independent endoscopic experts. Results:The area under the ROC curve of the CNN in diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma was 0.98. The sensitivity and specificity of the CNN were 91.90% and 94.69%, respectively. The sensitivity of the two expert-based assessment was 92.08% and 91.06%, respectively, and the specificity was 95.58% and 92.79%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the diagnostic accuracy of CNN and the expert-based assessment (P=0.282, P=0.085). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the accuracy in discriminating early-stage and late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma(P=0.382). The CNN model could rapidly distinguish nasopharyngeal carcinoma from benign lesions, with an image recognition time of 0.1 s/piece. Conclusion:The CNN model can quickly distinguish nasopharyngeal carcinoma from benign nasopharyngeal lesions, which can aid endoscopists in diagnosing nasopharyngeal lesions and reduce the rate of nasopharyngeal biopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Narrow Band Imaging , China , Neural Networks, Computer , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
4.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 275-289, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982567

ABSTRACT

The abnormal activation of HER family kinase activity is closely related to the development of human malignancies. In this study, we used HER kinases as targets for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explored the anti-tumor effects of the novel pan-HER inhibitor HM781-36B, alone or in combination with cisplatin. We found that HER family proteins were positively expressed in tumor tissues of some NPC patients, and the high levels of those proteins were significantly related to poor prognosis. HM781-36B inhibited NPC in vitro and in vivo. HM781-36B exerted synergistic effects with cisplatin on inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis of NPC cells. In NPC xenograft models in nude mice, HM781-36B and cisplatin synergistically inhibited tumor growth. Downregulating the activity of HER family proteins and their downstream signaling pathways and regulating tumor microenvironment may explain the synergistic anti-tumor effects of HM781-36B and cisplatin. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for HER family proteins as prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for NPC. The pan-HER inhibitor HM781-36B alone or in combination with cisplatin represents promising therapeutic effects for the treatment of NPC patients, which provides a new idea for the comprehensive treatment of NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/drug therapy , Mice, Nude , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 132-142, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971627

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor that mainly occurs in East and Southeast Asia. Although patients benefit from the main NPC treatments (e.g., radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy), persistent and recurrent diseases still occur in some NPC patients. Therefore, investigating the pathogenesis of NPC is of great clinical significance. In the present study, replication factor c subunit 4 (RFC4) is a key potential target involved in NPC progression via bioinformatics analysis. Furthermore, the expression and mechanism of RFC4 in NPC were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that RFC4 was more elevated in NPC tumor tissues than in normal tissues. RFC4 knockdown induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, HOXA10 was confirmed as a downstream target of RFC4, and the overexpression of HOXA10 attenuated the silencing of RFC4-induced cell proliferation, colony formation inhibition, and cell cycle arrest. For the first time, this study reveals that RFC4 is required for NPC cell proliferation and may play a pivotal role in NPC tumorigenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Replication Protein C/metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 271-279, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen the risk factors for death in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using artificial intelligence (AI) technology and establish a risk prediction model.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of NPC patients obtained from SEER database (1973-2015). The patients were randomly divided into model building and verification group at a 7∶3 ratio. Based on the data in the model building group, R software was used to identify the risk factors for death in NPC patients using 4 AI algorithms, namely eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Decision Tree (DT), Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and random forest (RF), and a risk prediction model was constructed based on the risk factor identified. The C-Index, decision curve analysis (DCA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calibration curve (CC) were used for internal validation of the model; the data in the validation group and clinical data of 96 NPC patients (collected from First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College) were used for internal and external validation of the model.@*RESULTS@#The clinical data of a total of 2116 NPC patients were included (1484 in model building group and 632 in verification group). Risk factor screening showed that age, race, gender, stage M, stage T, and stage N were all risk factors of death in NPC patients. The risk prediction model for NPC-related death constructed based on these factors had a C-index of 0.76 for internal evaluation, an AUC of 0.74 and a net benefit rate of DCA of 9%-93%. The C-index of the model in internal verification was 0.740 with an AUC of 0.749 and a net benefit rate of DCA of 3%-89%, suggesting a high consistency of the two calibration curves. In external verification, the C-index of this model was 0.943 with a net benefit rate of DCA of 3%-97% and an AUC of 0.851, and the predicted value was consistent with the actual value.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Gender, age, race and TNM stage are risk factors of death of NPC patients, and the risk prediction model based on these factors can accurately predict the risks of death in NPC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Artificial Intelligence , Algorithms , Software
7.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 250-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971441

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the first-day suspension method for improving the success rate of construction of nasopharyngeal carcinoma-patient derived organoids (NPC-PDO). Methods: The tumor samples of 14 nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) patients, i.e.,13 males and 1 female, with a mean age of 43.0±12.0 years old, were collected from the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from January 2022 to July 2022. The tumor samples of 3 patients were digested into single cell suspension and divided into 2 groups, for comparing the efficacy of NPC-PDO construction by the direct inoculation method and the first-day suspension method. The remaining 11 patients were randomized to receive either the direct inoculation method or the first-day suspension method for NPC-PDO construction. The diameter and the number of spheres of NPC-PDO constructed by the two methods were compared by optical microscope; the 3D cell viability detection kit was used to compare the cell viability; the survival rates were compared by trypan blue staining; the success rates of the two construction methods were compared; the number of cases which could be successfully passaged for more than 5 generations and were consistent with the original tissue by pathological examination was counted; and the dynamic changes of cells in suspension overnight were observed by live cell workstation. The independent sample t-test was applied to compare the measurement data of the two groups, and the chi-square test was used to compare the classification data. Results: Compared with the direct inoculation, the diameter and the number of spheres of NPC-PDO constructed by the first-day suspension method were increased, with a higher cell activity, and the success rate of construction was obviously improved (80.0% vs 16.7%, χ2=4.41, P<0.05). In the suspension state, some of the cells aggregated and increased their ability to proliferate. Conclusion: The first-day suspension method can improve the success rate of NPC-PDO construction, especially for those whose original tumor sample size is small.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , China , Microscopy , Organoids , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms
8.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 21-27, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971402

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe a technique of endoscopic transoral approach nasopharyngectomy for petroclival and jugular foramen nasopharyngeal carcinoma, based on anatomic studies and surgeries. Methods: Three dry human skulls and five fresh human cadaver heads were used for anatomic study of a endoscopic transoral approach to expose petroclival and jugular foramen. The anatomical landmarks and the extent of exposure were recorded. Six clinical cases who were treated in Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University from June 2020 to April 2022 were used to illustrate the technique and feasibility of this approach and to assess its indications and advantages, including 3 males and 3 females, aged 42 to 69 years old. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: On the basis of the preservation of the internal pterygoid muscle and the external pterygoid muscle, this approach could fully expose the parapharyngeal, petrosal and paraclival segment internal carotid arteries, and safely deal with the lesions of jugular foramen and petroclival region. The 6 patients in our study tolerated the procedure well. Postoperative enhanced MRI showed complete resection of the tumor and no postoperative masticatory dysfunction. Conclusion: Endoscopic transoral approach is a safe, minimally invasive and effective surgical treatment for petroclival and jugular foramen recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Jugular Foramina , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Endoscopy/methods , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 185-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971677

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the third most common malignancy with a high recurrence and metastasis rate in South China. Natural compounds extracted from traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been developed and utilized for the treatment of a variety of cancers with modest properties and slight side effects. Maackiain (MA) is a type of flavonoid that was first isolated from leguminous plants, and it has been reported to relieve various nervous system disorders and exert anti-allergic as well as anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that MA inhibited proliferation, arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 and CNE2 cells in vitro and in vivo. The expression of the related proteins associated with these processes were consistent with the above effects. Moreover, transcriptome sequencing and subsequent Western blot experiments revealed that inhibition of the MAPK/Ras pathway may be responsible to the anti-tumor effect of MA on NPC cells. Therefore, the effects of MA and an activator of this pathway, tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), alone or combination, were investigated. The results showed TBHQ neutralized the inhibitory effects of MA. These data suggest that MA exerts its anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the MAPK/Ras signaling pathway and it has the potential to become a treatment for patients with NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Signal Transduction , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 212-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374718

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has the highest metastatic potential of all head and neck cancers. The survival time of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma has improved significantly in the last decades due to the use of combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as advances in radiotherapy techniques. However, appropriately 30% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma suffer a poor prognosis, mainly due to distant metastasis. Objective: The study aimed to identify the survival and prognostic factors in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients treated for synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma or metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma for 14years (2003-2016). Overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test for the whole population and both groups of patients. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox model; p-values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: One hundred and twelve patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included (51 patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and 61 patients with metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma). In the whole population, the median overall survival was 10 months (1-156 months). In the multivariate analysis, female gender, poor performance status (WHO > 1) and metachronous metastasis were independent prognostic factors. In the metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, the median overall survival was 13 months (1-156 months). In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were non-oligometastatic disease, severe (G3-G4) chemotherapy toxicity and the lack of nasopharyngeal and metastatic site irradiation. In the metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, the median overall survival was 7 months (1-41 months). In multivariate analysis, the poor performance status (WHO > 1) was an independent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognostic factor. Conclusion: Oligometastatic patients with synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma had better survival. The locoregional treatment of primitive nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved survival in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma who responded to induction chemotherapy. Local irradiation of metastatic sites improved survival of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy toxicity altered survival among patients with synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma nasofaríngeo tem o maior potencial metastático de todos os tipos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. O tempo de sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo melhorou significativamente nas últimas décadas devido ao uso combinado de quimioterapia e radioterapia e os avanços nas técnicas de radioterapia. No entanto, aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo têm um prognóstico ruim, principalmente devido a metástases a distância. Objetivo: Identificar a sobrevida e os fatores prognósticos no carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático. Método: Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes tratados por carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico ou carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico por 14 anos (2003-2016). A sobrevida global foi analisada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e comparada pelo teste de log-rank para toda a população e ambos os grupos de pacientes. A análise multivariada foi feita com o modelo de Cox; valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como significância estatística. Resultados: Foram incluídos 112 pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático (51 com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico e 61 com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico). Em toda a população, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 10 meses (1-156 meses). Na análise multivariada, sexo feminino, baixo status de desempenho (OMS > 1) e metástase metacrônica foram fatores prognósticos independentes. Nos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 13 meses (1-156 meses). Na análise multivariada, os fatores prognósticos independentes foram doença não oli-gometastática, toxicidade grave à quimioterapia (G3 - G4) e falta de irradiação nasofaríngea e do sítio metastático. Nos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 7 meses (1-41 meses). Na análise multivariada, o baixo status de desempenho (OMS > 1) foi um fator prognóstico independente. Conclusão: Pacientes oligometastáticos com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico tiveram melhor sobrevida. O tratamento locorregional do carcinoma nasofaríngeo primário melhorou a sobrevida em pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico que responderam à quimioterapia de indução. A irradiação local dos locais metastáticos melhorou a sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático. A toxicidade de quimioterapia de grau 3 ou 4 alterou a sobrevida entre pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 446-449, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the indications, safety, feasibility, and surgical technique for patients with head and neck cancers undergoing transoral robotic retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) dissection. Methods: The current study enrolled 12 consecutive head and neck cancer patients (seven males and four females) who underwent transoral robotic RPLN dissection with the da Vinci surgical robotic system at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from May 2019 to July 2020. Seven patients were diagnosed as nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RPLN metastasis after initial treatments, 4 patients were diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with RPLN metastasis after initial treatments, and one patient was diagnosed as oropharyngeal carcinoma with RPLN metastasis before initial treatments. The operation procedure and duration time, intraoperative blood loss volume and complications, nasogastric feeding tube dependence, tracheostomy dependence, postoperative complications, and hospitalization time were recorded and analyzed. Results: All patients were successfully treated by transoral robotic dissection of the metastatic RPLNs, none of which was converted to open surgery. RPLNs were completely resected in 10 patients, and partly resected in 2 patients (both were nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients). The mean number of RPLN dissected was 1.7. The operation duration time and intraoperative blood loss volume were (191.3±101.1) min and (150.0±86.6) ml, respectively. There was no severe intraoperative complication such as massive haemorrhage or adjacent organ injury during surgery. Nasogastric tube use was required in all patients with (17.1±10.6) days of dependence, while tracheotomy was performed in 8 patients with (11.6±10.7) days of dependence. The postoperative hospitalization stay was (8.5±5.7) days. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 patients, including 2 of retropharyngeal incision and 2 of dysphagia. During a follow-up of (6.5±5.1) months, disease-free progression was observed in all patients, 10 patients were disease-free survival and other 2 patients were survival with tumor burden. Conclusions: The transoral robotic RPLN dissection is safety and feasible. Compared with the traditional open surgical approach, it is less traumatic and safer, has fewer complications and good clinical application potentiality. The indications for transoral robotic RPLN dissection include thyroid carcinoma, oropharyngeal carcinoma, and some selected nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other head and neck cancers. Metastatic RPLNs from some nasopharyngeal carcinoma with incomplete capsule, unclear border and adhesion to the surrounding vessels are not suitable for transoral robotic RPLN dissection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blood Loss, Surgical , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Neck Dissection/methods , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 685-697, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignant tumor with unique geographical and ethnic distribution characteristics. NPC is mostly found in south China and Southeast Asia, and its treatment mainly depends on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, NPC is usually found in the late stage, and local recurrence and distant metastasis are common, leading to poor prognosis. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is up-regulated in various tumors and it is involved in tumor proliferation, migration, invasion, and other processes, which are associated with poor prognosis of tumors. This study aims to detect the expression of AXL in NPC cell lines and tissues, and to investigate its biological function of AXL and the underlying molecular mechanisms in regulation of NPC.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of AXL in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues and NPC tissues were analyzed by GSE68799, GSE12452, and GSE53819 data sets based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to analyze the relationship between AXL and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). The indicators of prognosis included overall survival (OS), disease-free interval (DFI), disease-specific survival (DSS), and progression-free interval (PFI). Western blotting assay was used to detect the AXL protein expression levels in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line and NPC cell lines. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect AXL expression levels in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues and NPC tissues. Cell lines with stable AXL knockdown were established by infecting 5-8F and Fadu cells with lentivirus interference vector, and cell lines with stable AXL overexpression were established by infecting C666-1 and HK-1 cells with lentivirus expression vector. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the efficiency of knockdown and overexpression in stable cell lines. The effects of AXL knockdown or overexpression on proliferation, migration, and invasion of NPC cells were detected by CCK-8, plate colony formation, and Transwell assays, and the effect of AXL knockdown on tumor growth in nude mice was detected by subcutaneous tumor formation assay. The sequence of AXL upstream 2.0 kb promoter region was obtained by UCSC online database. The PROMO online database was used to predict AXL transcription factors with 0% fault tolerance, and the JASPAR online database was used to predict the binding sites of ETS1 to AXL. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the effect of ETS1 on AXL protein and mRNA expression. The AXL upstream 2.0 kb promoter region was divided into 8 fragments, each of which was 250 bp in length. Primers were designed for 8 fragments. The binding of ETS1 to AXL promoter region was detected by chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) assay to determine the direct regulatory relationship between ETS1 and AXL. Rescue assay was used to determine whether ETS1 affected the proliferation, migration, and invasion of NPC cells through AXL.@*RESULTS@#Bioinformatics analysis showed that AXL was highly expressed in NPC tissues (P<0.05), and AXL expression was positively correlated with OS, DFI, DSS, and PFI in HNSC patients. Western blotting and immunohistochemical results showed that AXL was highly expressed in NPC cell lines and tissues compared with the normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line and tissues. Real-time PCR and Western blotting results showed that knockdown and overexpression efficiency in the stable cell lines met the requirements of subsequent experiments. The results of CCK-8, plate colony formation, Transwell assays and subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice showed that down-regulation of AXL significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of NPC cells and tumor growth (all P<0.05), and the up-regulation of AXL significantly promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of NPC cells (all P<0.05).As predicted by PROMO and JASPAR online databases, ETS1 was a transcription factor of AXL and had multiple binding sites in the AXL promoter region. Real-time PCR and Western blotting results showed that knockdown or overexpression of ETS1 down-regulated or up-regulated AXL protein and mRNA expression levels. ChIP assay result showed that ETS1 bound to AXL promoter region and directly regulate AXL expression. Rescue assay showed that AXL rescued the effects of ETS1 on proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AXL is highly expressed in NPC cell lines and tissues, which can promote the malignant progression of NPC, and its expression is regulated by transcription factor ETS1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Mice, Nude , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Sincalide/metabolism , Transcription Factors/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 552-558, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936255

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety, efficacy, locally control and survival results of transoral Da Vinci robotic surgery for salvage treatment of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: This retrospective study included 33 patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stage rT1-2, partial rT3) underwent transoral Da Vinci robotic surgery between October 2017 and January 2020. There were 20 males and 11 females, with an average age of (47.9±10.5) years. The lesions were localized in nasopharyngeal cavity in 14 cases, with extending to parapharyngeal space in 6 cases and the floor of sphenoid sinus in 13 cases. Transnasal endoscopy was used to assist surgery if necessary. SPSS 25.0 statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Transoral robotic nasopharyngectomy was successfully performed in all cases without conversion to open surgery, of which 13 cases were combined with transnasal endoscopic surgery. The average operation time was (126.2±30.0) min, ranging from 90 to 180 min. The postoperative pathological margin was R0 (31 cases) and R1 (2 cases), with no tumor residue. Complications of surgery mainly included symptoms of headache, nasal dryness and velopharyngeal insufficiency without nasopharyngeal hemorrhage. Follow-up time was from 3 to 54 months. One case had tumor recurrence 11 months after operation, 1 case had ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis 27 months after operation, 2 cases had distant metastasis and 1 case died of nasopharyngeal hemorrhage 3 months after operation. The 1-year, 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 97.0%, 96.0% and 92.9%, respectively and the local recurrence free rates were 97.0%, 95.7% and 91.7%, respectively. Conclusion: Transoral robotic nasopharyngectomy is safe and feasible for local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma in selected patients, with higher local control rate and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/surgery , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 165-173, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Genetic mutation is one of the important causes for tumor genesis and development, but genetic mutation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has rarely been reported. This study explored the role of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in the efficacy and prognosis in patients with NPC.@*METHODS@#A total of 31 patients with advanced NPC, who came from the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine of Central South University/Hunan Provincial Cancer Hospital, were enrolled. All of the exons of 288 genes, introns of 38 genes and promoters or fusion breakpoint regions from the nasopharyngeal biopsy tissues before treatment were detected by the gene sequencing platform Illumina NextSeq CN500. The coding regions of 728 genes were carried out a high-depth sequencing of target region capture, and the 4 variant types of tumor genes (including point mutations, insertion deletions of small fragments, copy number variations, and currently known fusion genes) were detected. All of 31 patients received platinum-based induction chemotherapy combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and were followed up for a long time.@*RESULTS@#The 3-year regional failure-free survival (RFFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with PI3K-Akt pathway mutation were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients (χ2=6.647, P<0.05). The 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with mTOR pathway mutations were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients, and there was significant difference (χ2=5.570, P<0.05). The rate of complete response (CR) in patients with unmutated AMPK pathway was significantly higher than that in patients with mutation at 3 months after treatment (P<0.05), and the 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with AMPK pathway mutation were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients (χ2=4.553, P<0.05). PI3K-Akt/mTOR/AMPK signaling pathway mutations and pre-treatment EB virus DNA copy numbers were independent prognostic factors for 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with NPC (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The NPC patients with PI3K-Akt/mTOR/AMPK signaling pathway mutation have poor prognosis, and the detection of PI3K-Akt, mTOR, AMPK driver genes and signaling pathways by next-generation sequencing is expected to provide new idea for basic research and targeted therapy of NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , DNA Copy Number Variations , Mutation , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 736-745, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942512

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the impacts of miR-18a overexpression or depression on the radiosensitivities of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE1 and CNE2 and underlying mechanisms. Methods: CNE1 and CNE2 were transfected with miR-18a mimics, inhibitor and the corresponding control vectors. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expressions in CNE1 and CNE2. CNE1 and CNE2 with stably expressing miR-18a and miR-18a siRNA were constructed. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect the impacts of the miR-18a overexpression or depression combined with irradiation on the cell growth. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Colony formation assay was used to evaluate the raodiosensitivities of cells. Acridine orange (AO) staining and western blot were used respectively to test the autophagy and the expressions of related proteins. Independent samples t test was used to compare the mean value between groups by using SPSS 16.0. Results: ATM mRNA was decreased significantly in CNE1 and CNE2 cells transfected with 100 or 200 nmol/L miR-18a mimics for 48 hours (CNE1: RQ=0.174±0.139 and 0.003±0.001, t=9.939 and 19 470.783;CNE2: RQ=0.024±0.008 and 0.019±0.012, t=270.230 and 137.746, respectively, all P<0.001). ATM proteins were also decreased after transfected with 100 or 200 nmol/L miR-18a mimics for 72 hours. While in the cells transfected with 100 and 200 nmol/L miR-18a inhibitor for 48 hours, the expressions of ATM mRNA were upregulated significantly (CNE1: RQ=9.419±2.495 and 2.500±1.063, t=-4.427 and -41.241; CNE2: RQ=7.210±0.171 and 115.875±15.805, t=-62.789 and -12.589, all P<0.05), and the expressions of ATM proteins increased after transfected for 72 hours. The growth of cells with miR-18a overexpression plus 4 Gy irradiation were obviously inhibited compared to that of cells with the 4Gy irradiation alone; while the growth of miR-18a-inhibited cells increased compared to that of cells with 4 Gy irradiation alone (all P<0.05). CNE1 transfected with 100 nmol/L miR-18a mimics plus 4 Gy irradiation showed the higher apoptosis rate than the cells with 4 Gy irradiation alone ((22.9±2.1)% vs. (16.3±1.0)%, t=-4.870, P<0.01). Compared to the cells with 4 Gy irradiation alone, miR-18a-overexpressed cells plus 4 Gy irradiation decreased their percentages in G1 phases ((20.2±3.0)% vs. (29.8±4.4)%, t=3.119) and G2/M phases ((21.5±0.9)% vs. (33.4±3.1)%, t=6.410, P<0.05 for both), and increased their percentages in S phases ((56.7±4.9)% vs. (36.8±6.4)%, t=-4.246, P<0.05), and these cells possessed less colony number after exposure to different doses of irradiation, more autophagy-lysosome number, and more expressions of LC3 proteins (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the expressions of p62 expressions between different groups of cells. Conclusion: Overexpression of miR-18a can enhance the radiosensitivities of NPC cells by targeting ATM to abrogate G1/S, G2/M arrest and to induce autophagy and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/genetics , Radiation Tolerance
17.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 26-32, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942382

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the diagnosis and surgical treatment of patients with soft tissue necrosis of cranial base after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The clinical data of 7 NPC patients with soft tissue necrosis but not bone necrosis after radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.They were treated in Xiangya Hospital from 2015 to 2019. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. The major clinical symptoms of the 7 patients were headache in 7 cases, hearing loss in 7 cases, long-term nasal malodor in 5 cases and epistaxis in 2 cases. All patients underwent high-resolution CT, MR and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before operation. All cases were treated with extended transnasal endoscopic approach under general anesthesia for resection of necrotic tissue. Five cases had their affected cartilaginous segments of the eustachian tubes partially or completely resected, 7 cases were treated with myringotomy and tube insertion, and 1 case was treated with pansinusectomy. Anti-inflammatory treatment were carried out during the perioperative period. The recovery of patients was observed and recorded through regular follow-up (from 6 months to 3 years) after the operation. Results: Nasopharynx soft tissue lesions can be seen in seven patients with bone cortex integrity by CT, and small bubble shadow can be seen at junction area between skull base soft tissue lesions and skull base bone surface.MR and MRA examination showed extensive inflammatory changes of nasopharynx. Parapharyngeal irregular necrotic cavity was found in 6 cases without central enhancement, demonstrating edema of surrounding soft tissue. The necrotic tissue of all 7 patients was surgically removed. Postoperative pathological examinations confirmed that all of them were necrotic soft and cartilaginous tissue, without tumor recurrence. The symptoms of all patients were significantly alleviated after operation. Headache was cured in 5 cases and relieved in 2 cases. Nasal malodor was cured in 4 cases and alleviated in 1 case. During the follow-up period, 5 patients survived, and 2 patients who had their eustachian tube reserved died. One of them died of nasopharyngeal hemorrhage caused by recurrent nasopharyngeal necrosis 3 months after the operation. Another case died of severe intracranial infection 6 months after operation. Conclusions: The diagnosis of skull base soft tissue necrosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma needs comprehensive analysis of radiotherapy history, clinical manifestations and imaging examination. High resolution CT, MR and MRA of skull base are very important for diagnosis. Early active removal of large-scale necrotic lesions under endoscope and partial or total resection of eustachian tube cartilage according to the involvement of eustachian tube cartilage is effective means of controling skull base soft tissue necrosis after radiotherapy. The effective means of necrosis can improve the quality of life of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Necrosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2066-2072, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The mortality rate among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has improved significantly with the advent of chemoradiotherapy strategies. However, distant metastasis remains problematic. Tumor-specific reactivity in cancer patients has been detected exclusively in CD39+ T cells, particularly in CD39+CD103+ T cells. Circulating cancer-specific T cells are important for protecting against metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of circulating CD39+CD8+ T cells for metastasis in patients with NPC.@*METHODS@#We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal study of 55 patients with newly diagnosed NPC of stage III-IVa. All patients were initially treated with standard combined chemoradiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained from 24 patients before and at 1 month and 6 months after treatment. T cell expression of CD39 and CD103, together with the markers of T cell exhaustion programmed death-1 (PD-1)/T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and markers of cell differentiation CD27/CC-chemokine receptor 7/CD45RA, was examined by flow cytometry. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test analysis was used to analyze the differences between two groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for analysis of progression-free survival (PFS).@*RESULTS@#The expression of circulating CD39+CD8+ and CD39+CD103+ CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in patients without distant metastasis (CD39+CD8+: 6.52% [1.24%, 12.58%] vs. 2.41% [0.58%, 5.31%], Z=-2.073, P=0.038 and CD39+CD103+CD8+: 0.72% [0.26%, 2.05%] vs. 0.26% [0.12%, 0.64%], Z=-2.313, P = 0.021). Most CD39+ T cells did not express PD-1 or Tim-3. Patients with high expression of CD39+CD103+CD8+ T cells had better PFS than patients with low expression (log rank value = 4.854, P = 0.028). CD39+CD8+ T cells were significantly elevated at 1-month post-treatment (10.02% [0.98%, 17.42%] vs. 5.91% [0.61%, 10.23%], Z = -2.943, P = 0.003). The percentage of advanced differentiated CD8+ T cells also increased at 1-month post-treatment compared with pre-treatment (33.10% [21.60%, 43.05%] vs. 21.00% [11.65%, 43.00%], Z = -2.155, P = 0.031). There was a significant correlation between elevated CD39+CD8+ T cells and increased effector memory T cells (intermediate stage: r = 0.469, P = 0.031; advanced stage: r = 0.508, P = 0.019).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CD39+CD8+ circulating T cells have preserved effector function, contributing to an improved prognosis and a reduced risk of metastasis among NPC patients. These cells may thus be a useful predictive marker for a better prognosis in patients with NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Chemoradiotherapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis
19.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 579-588, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388770

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El cáncer de nasofaringe es una patología poco común que tiene gran impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Con el advenimiento de nuevos esquemas de tratamiento se ha logrado mejorar el pronóstico con un menor índice de morbilidad. Esta revisión describe la perspectiva actual del cáncer de nasofaringe, basado en la literatura reciente y la disponibilidad de recursos para su tratamiento en una institución médica de Medellín, Colombia. Materiales y Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica que incluyó artículos desde 1986 hasta 2018 en diferentes bases de datos como MEDLINE, EBSCO y LILACS. Se incluyó literatura escrita en inglés o español, utilizando como términos MESH neoplasias de nasofaringe, diagnóstico y terapéutica. Resultados: La evaluación diagnóstica oportuna del cáncer de nasofaringe es de vital importancia al proporcionar una estrategia de tratamiento efectiva con menor morbimortalidad. Según la experiencia institucional de los autores, en las etapas clínicas tempranas, se sugiere la radioterapia radical como modalidad única y en etapas intermedias-avanzadas los tratamientos combinados con quimioterapia-radioterapia concomitante o secuencial dependiendo de cada paciente y quimioterapia única en pacientes metastásicos a distancia. Conclusiones: Acorde con el análisis de la literatura y evidencia existente, las estrategias utilizadas son adaptadas a los alcances de la institución como ente de alto nivel en el sector salud. La cirugía representa un papel relevante en la enfermedad recurrente resecable ya sea con técnica endoscópica o abierta. Es importante recordar que la morbilidad postoperatoria no es inocua, y en ocasiones sobrepasa el beneficio obtenido.


Introduction: Nasopharyngeal cáncer is a rare disease that has a huge impact on the quality of life. Survival rates are steadily improving due to new treatments with a lower morbidity index. This review describes the current perspective of nasopharyngeal cancer, based on recent literature and the availability of resources for treatment in the different specialties of an institution in Medellin, Colombia. Materials and Method: A literature review was carried out, including articles from 1986 to 2017 in different databases such as MEDLINE, EBSCO and LILACS. Written literature in English or Spanish was included, using MESH terms as Nasopharyngeal, diagnostic and therapeutic neoplasms. Results: Nasopharyngeal cancer timely diagnostic is of vital importance. According to the institutional experience, in early clinical stage radiotherapy is suggested as a single modality. Intermediate stages treatments options are concurrent chemo radiotherapy or sequential radiotherapy according to each patient case. In distant metastatic stage single chemotherapy is used. Conclusions: According to existing evidence strategies used are adapted to the scope of the institution as a high-level entity in health sector. Surgery represents a relevant role in recurrent resecable disease with either endoscopic or open technique. It is important to remember that postoperative morbidity is not harmless, and sometimes exceeds the benefit obtained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/therapy
20.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 676-686, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142591

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Three-weekly cisplatin dose is accepted for standard treatment for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, different chemotherapy schedules are presented in the literature. Objective: We intend to compare toxicity and outcomes of high dose 3-weekly cisplatin versus low dose weekly-cisplatin and cumulative dose of cisplatin in the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: 98 patients were included in the study, between 2010 and 2018. Cumulative doses of cisplatin (≥200 mg/m2 and <200 mg/m2) and different chemotherapy schedules (weekly and 3-weekly) were compared in terms of toxicity and survival. Besides prognostic factors including age, gender, T category, N category and radiotherapy technique were evaluated in uni-multivariate analysis. Results: Median follow-up time 41.5 months (range: 2-93 months). Five year overall survival, local relapse-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were; 68.9% vs. 90.3% (p = 0.11); 66.2% vs. 81.6% (p = 0.15); 87.3% vs. 95.7% (p = 0.18); 80.1% vs. 76.1% (p = 0.74) for the group treated weekly and 3 weekly, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. Five year overall survival, local relapse-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were; 78.2% vs. 49.2% (p = 0.003); 75.8% vs. 47.9% (p = 0.055); 91% vs. 87.1% (p = 0.46); 80% vs. 72.2% (p = 0.46) for the group treated ≥200 mg/m2 and <200 mg/m2 cumulative dose cisplatin. There was statistically significant difference between groups for overall survival and there was close to being statistically significant difference between groups for local relapse-free survival. Age, gender, T category, N category, chemotherapy schedules were not associated with prognosis in the uni-variety analysis. Radiotherapy technique and cumulative dose of cisplatin was associated with prognosis in uni-variate analysis (HR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.071-0.628; p = 0.005 and HR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.125-0.686; p = 0.003, respectively). Only cumulative dose of cisplatin was found as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.146-0.912; p = 0.03). When toxicities were evaluated, such as hematological toxicity, dermatitis, mucositis, nausea and vomiting, there were no statistically significant differences between cumulative dose of cisplatin groups (<200 mg/m2 and ≥200 mg/m2) and chemotherapy schedules (3-weekly and weekly). But malnutrition was statistically significant higher in patients treated with 3-weekly cisplatin compared with patients treated with weekly cisplatin (p = 0.001). Conclusion: A cisplatin dose with ≥200 mg/m2 is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Chemotherapy schedules weekly and 3-weekly have similar outcomes and adverse effects. If patients achieve ≥200 mg/m2 dose of cumulative cisplatin, weekly chemotherapy schedules may be used safely and effectively in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.


Resumo Introdução: Três doses semanais de cisplatina com quimiorradioterapia concomitante são aceitas como o tratamento-padrão para carcinoma nasofaríngeo. No entanto, diferentes esquemas quimioterápicos são recomendados na literatura científica. Objetivo: Comparar a toxicidade e os resultados de 3 doses altas semanais de cisplatina versus dose baixa semanal de cisplatina em pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo e verificar a dose cumulativa de cisplatina. Método: Foram incluídos 98 pacientes, entre 2010 e 2018. As doses cumulativas de cisplatina (≥ 200 mg/m2 e < 200 mg/m2) e diferentes esquemas de quimioterapia (semanal e a cada 3 semanas) foram comparadas em termos de toxicidade e sobrevida. Além disso, fatores prognósticos, inclusive idade, sexo, categoria T, categoria N e técnica de radioterapia, foram avaliados na análise uni-multivariada. Resultados: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 41,5 meses (intervalo: 2-93 meses). Sobrevida global de cinco anos, sobrevida livre de recidiva local, sobrevida livre de recidiva regional e sobrevida livre de metástases a distância foram: 68,9% vs. 90,3% (p = 0,11); 66,2% vs. 81,6% (p = 0,15); 87,3% vs. 95,7% (p = 0,18); e 80,1% vs. 76,1% (p = 0,74) para os grupos tratados semanalmente e 3 x/semana, respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos. Taxas de sobrevida global, sobrevida livre de recidiva local, sobrevida livre de recidiva regional e sobrevida livre de metástases a distância em cinco anos foram; 78,2% vs. 49,2% (p = 0,003); 75,8% vs. 47,9% (p = 0,055); 91% vs. 87,1% (p = 0,46); 80% vs. 72,2% (p = 0,46) para o grupo tratado com ≥ 200 mg/m2 e < 200 mg/m2 de dose cumulativa de cisplatina. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos para sobrevida global e houve uma diferença quase estatisticamente significante entre os grupos para sobrevida livre de recidiva local. Idade, sexo, categoria T, categoria N e esquemas de quimioterapia não foram associados ao prognóstico na análise univariada. A técnica de radioterapia e dose cumulativa de cisplatina foram associadas ao prognóstico na análise univariada (HR = 0,21; IC 95%: 0,071 ± 0,628; p = 0,005 e HR = 0,29; IC 95%: 0,125 ± 0,686; p = 0,003, respectivamente). Apenas a dose cumulativa de cisplatina foi considerada um fator prognóstico independente na análise multivariada (HR = 0,36; IC 95%: 0,146 ± 0,912; p = 0,03). Quando as toxicidades foram avaliadas, como toxicidade hematológica, dermatite, mucosite, náusea e vômito, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre a dose cumulativa dos grupos cisplatina (< 200 mg/m2 e ≥ 200 mg/m2) e esquemas de quimioterapia (semanal e a cada 3 semanas). Entretanto, a desnutrição foi estatisticamente maior em pacientes tratados com cisplatina a cada 3 semanas em comparação com pacientes tratados com cisplatina semanalmente (p = 0,001). Conclusão: Uma dose de cisplatina ≥ 200 mg/m2 é fator prognóstico independente para sobrevida global. Os esquemas de quimioterapia semanais e a cada 3 semanas têm resultados e efeitos adversos semelhantes. Se os pacientes atingirem uma dose cumulativa ≥ 200 mg/m2 de cisplatina, os esquemas semanais de quimioterapia podem ser usados com segurança e eficácia em pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cisplatin , Treatment Outcome , Disease-Free Survival , Chemoradiotherapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
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