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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(12): 4945-4956, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142715

ABSTRACT

Resumo A pandemia de Covid-19 revelou a existência de ameaça concreta e imediata à segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN), em especial de grupos vulnerabilizados. O estudo buscou identificar as estratégias governamentais implementadas no Brasil para prover o Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada e Saudável em contextos de elevada vulnerabilidade social frente à Covid-19. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com análise de documentos oficiais publicados entre 20 de março e 30 de julho de 2020 pela União, Distrito Federal, estados e capitais brasileiras, com foco em medidas que assegurem disponibilidade e acesso físico ou financeiro a alimentos. As estratégias implementadas envolvem fundamentalmente distribuição de alimentos e garantia de renda mínima. Foram instituídas: Renda Básica Emergencial (União); Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA) e auxílio financeiro emergencial (estados); programas de doação emergencial de alimentos (estados e municípios). Medidas existentes foram adaptadas frente à pandemia, como o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE), o Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA) nacional, a distribuição de alimentos e de cestas básicas. Embora importantes, essas estratégias têm alcance limitado e são insuficientes para assegurar a SAN.


Abstract The Covid-19 pandemic revealed a concrete and immediate threat to food and nutrition security (FNS), especially for vulnerable groups. This study aimed to identify government strategies implemented in Brazil to provide the Human Right to Adequate and Healthy Food in high social vulnerability contexts during the Covid-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out, with analysis of official documents published between March 20 and July 30, 2020, by the Federal Government, Federal District, Brazilian states, and capitals, focusing on measures to ensure availability and physical or financial access to food. Strategies implemented mainly involve food distribution and minimum income assurance. The following were implemented: Basic Emergency Income (Federal Government); Food Acquisition Program (PAA), and emergency financial aid (states); emergency food donation programs (states and municipalities). Existing measures were adapted to the pandemic, such as the National School Food Program (PNAE), the National Food Acquisition Program (PAA), and the distribution of food and staple food baskets. While essential, these strategies have limited scope and are insufficient to ensure FNS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Food Supply/legislation & jurisprudence , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Cross-Sectional Studies , Government Regulation , Emergencies , Food Assistance/legislation & jurisprudence , Food Assistance/organization & administration , Financing, Government/legislation & jurisprudence , Food Supply , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/methods , Diet, Healthy , Income , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/organization & administration
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(3): 681-691, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121856

ABSTRACT

A doença falciforme é a afecção genética mais prevalente no Brasil; de acordo com o Programa Nacional de Triagem Neonatal (PNTN), nascem cerca de 3.500 (três mil e quinhentas) crianças por ano com hemoglobina S, uma das responsáveis pela doença, ou seja, 1/1.000 nascidos vivos no Brasil. Considerando o grau de sua incidência, é necessário observar o acesso à saúde possibilitado aos portadores dessa enfermidade, devendose analisar as dificuldades que afligem esse segmento populacional e a efetividade das políticas públicas existentes para enfrentamento dessa hemoglobinopatia. Por meio de metodologia descritiva e explicativa, constatou-se que o segmento social acometido por essa doença se encontra historicamente associado aos afrodescendentes, dada sua origem mutante no continente africano em resposta à disseminação da malária, fato que conjuga a enfermidade com os fatores raciais de discriminação histórica da população negra. A falciforme foi utilizada, em certos casos, como fundamento para exclusão dos negros da sociedade, como argumento para segregação racial nos Estados Unidos e como fundamento para ideia de embranquecimento da população brasileira.


Sickle cell disease is the most prevalent genetic disorder in Brazil; according to the PNTN ­ Programa Nacional de Triagem Neonatal (National Neonatal Screening Program), approximately 3,500 (three thousand, five hundred) babies with haemoglobin disorders are born each year that is to say 1/1,000 live-born in Brazil. Since the high degree of its incidence, it is necessary to observe how the access to the health is given to patients with this disease, and the difficulties that afflict this population segment and the effectiveness of existing public policies to confront this kind of genetic hemoglobinopath should be analyzed. Through descriptive and explanatory methodology, it was found that the social segment affected by this disease is historically associated with people of African descent, due to its mutant origin in the African continent in response to the spread of malaria, fact that combines the disease with the factors of historical discrimination against the Black population. Sickle cell disease, in certain cases, was used as a basis for exclusion of Black people from society, as an argument for racial segregation in the United States and as a basis for the idea of whitening the Brazilian population.


La anemia de células falciformes es el trastorno genético que prevalece en Brasil; según el PNTN ­ Programa Nacional de Triagem Neonatal (Programa Nacional de Detección Neonatal), aproximadamente 3 500 (tres mil quinientos) niños nacen por año con una alteración de la sangre que causa esa enfermedad, o sea 1/1.000 nacidos vivos en Brasil. Teniendo en cuenta el grado de su incidencia, es necesario observar el acceso a la salud posibilitado a los portadores de la enfermedad, y se deben analizar las dificultades que afligen ese segmento de la población y la efectividad de las políticas públicas existentes para enfrentar esa hemoglobinoptía genética. A través de una metodología descriptiva y explicativa, se descubrió que el segmento social afectado por la enfermedad está históricamente asociado con los afrodescendientes, debido a su origen cambiante en el continente africano en respuesta a la propagación de la malaria, un hecho que combina la enfermedad con los factores de discriminación histórica de la población negra. La célula falciforme, en ciertos casos, ha sido utilizada como base para la exclusión de los negros de la sociedad, como argumento para la segregación racial en los Estados Unidos y como base para la idea de blanquear la población brasileña.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemoglobin, Sickle , African Continental Ancestry Group , Live Birth , Race Factors , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Public Policy , Brazil , Right to Health , National Health Programs
3.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 25: 1-9, set. 2020. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129587

ABSTRACT

The Academia da Saúde programme has been considered an important health promotion strategy in the scope of primary health care in Brazil. However, there is little evidence on what and how professional practices have been developed as a means to enact health promotion processes in the programme. The study ́s purpose was to analyse the health promotion work in a Academia da Saúde programme ́s unit from Lajeado city, Brazil. The study employed a qualitative approach and grounded theory research method. Participants included a female Health and Physical Education professional (aged 32y), a female health centre coordinator (aged 41y) and eight users (2 men, 6 women, aged 30-69y). Data were collected through condensed fieldwork, involving interviews and non-participant observation of group sessions. Using salutonegesis theory, qualitative analysis generated key findings on the elements of the health promotion work, namely: holistic care, use of diversification into cognitive, psychosocial and physical activities, development of skills and capacities that served as health resources, and the occurrence of resistance and challenges in the programme. Furthermore, the findings offered practical examples of possibilities to enact health promotion process, which represents a significant contribution to knowledge on health work. The study may support both future interventions and professional education, indicating alternative pathways for practitioners and undergraduate students to widen the scope of health promotion actions beyond the biophysical dimension


O programa Academia da Saúde tem sido considerado uma importante estratégia de promoção da saúde no âmbito da atenção primária à saúde no Brasil. Entretanto, existem poucas evidências sobre quais e como práticas profissionais têm sido desenvolvidas como forma de operacionalizar processos de promoção da saúde no programa. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o trabalho de promoção da saúde em uma unidade do programa Academia da Saúde de Lajeado, Brasil. O estudo empregou uma abordagem qualitativa e o método de pesquisa da teoria fundamentada nos dados. Os participantes incluíram uma profissional de Educação Física (32 anos), uma coordenadora de centro de saúde (41 anos) e oito usuários (2 homens, 6 mulheres, 30-69 anos). Os dados foram coletados por meio do trabalho de campo condensado, envolvendo entrevistas e observação não-participante das atividades coletivas. Utilizando a teoria da salutogênese, a análise qualitativa gerou os resultados sobre os elementos do trabalho de promoção da saúde, a saber: cuidado holístico, uso da diversificação em atividades cognitivas, psicossociais e físicas, desenvolvimento de habilidades e capacidades que serviram como recursos de saúde, e a ocorrência de resistências e desafios no programa. Além disso, os resultados ofereceram exemplos práticos de possibilidades para mobilizar o processo de promoção da saúde, o que representa uma contribuição significativa para o conhecimento sobre o trabalho em saúde. O estudo pode subsidiar intervenções futuras e a formação profissional, indicando caminhos alternativos para profissionais e estudantes de graduação ampliarem o escopo das ações de promoção da saúde para além da dimensão biofísica


Subject(s)
Professional Practice , Community Mental Health Services , Health Facility Merger , Holistic Health , National Health Programs
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e1056, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126762

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presencia de tuberculosis infantil constituye una señal de alerta de transmisión en la comunidad. Objetivos: Determinar incidencia y características de la tuberculosis infantil en Cuba en su etapa más reciente. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo de los 107 casos diagnosticados 0-18 años, periodo 2013-2017, según datos de la Dirección de Registros Médicos y Estadísticas de Salud, la ficha epidemiológica y datos del Centro de Referencia Nacional de tuberculosis infantil. Se estudiaron variables demográficas, epidemiológicas, clínicas y de estudios que contribuyeron al diagnóstico, así como a la evolución final de los casos. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edad de 15 - 18 años (52,0 - 48,6 por ciento) , sexo masculino (59,0-55,1 por ciento) y los procedentes de La Habana (43,0 - 40,2 por ciento). La tuberculosis en menores de 19 años representó entre 1,8 y 4,4 por ciento del total de casos en el país. La tasa de incidencia por 100 mil habitantes se comportó en menores de 15 años entre 0,4 y 0,8 con tendencia descendente; en el grupo 15-18 años, entre 0,8 y 3,0 con tendencia ascendente. Predominaron las formas pulmonares (87,0 - 82,6 por ciento) con pobre confirmación bacteriológica (49,0 - 45,7 por ciento). Ningún caso tuvo coinfección VIH-TB ni drogorresistencia. Hubo una fallecida (0,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: Cuba tiene muy baja incidencia de tuberculosis infantil, no es un problema de salud, pero sí un indicador de transmisión de la enfermedad en la comunidad. Para su eliminación, hay que fortalecer las acciones del Programa Nacional de Control, particularmente en La Habana y en el grupo de edad de 15 a 18 años(AU)


Introduction: The presence of children tuberculosis constitutes a transmission alert sign in the community. Objectives: To determine the incidence and characteristics of children tuberculosis in Cuba in its earliest stage. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional and restrospective study of 107 diagnosed cases in the ages from 0 to 18 years during the period 2013-2017, according to data provided by the National Division of Medical Records and Health Statistics, epidemiological records and data from the Center of National Reference on Children Tuberculosis. There were studied demographic, epidemiological, clinical and study variables which contributed to the diagnosis as well as to the final evolution of the cases. Results: There was a predominance of the age of group of 15 - 18 years (52.0 - 48.6 percent), masculine sex (59.0 - 55.1 percent) and patients from Havana city (43.0 - 40.2 percent). Tuberculosis in patients under 19 years represented between the 1.8 and 4.4 percent of all the cases in the country. The incidence rate per 100 000 inhabitants in patients under 15 years was 0.4 to 0.8 with a decreasing trend; in the group age of 15 to 18 years it was between 0.8 and 3.0 with an increasing trend. Pulmonary conditions predominated (87.0 - 82.6 percent) with poor bacteriological confirmation (49.0 - 45.7 percent). None of the cases had HIV-TB co-infection nor drugs resistance. There was one deceased girl (0,9 percent). Conclusions: Cuba has a very low incidence of children tuberculosis; it does not represent a health problem but it actually is an indicator of transmission of the disease in the community. For its erradication, it is needed to strenght the actions of the Control´s National Program, particularly in Havana city and the age group of 15 to 18 years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , National Health Programs/standards , Cuba
5.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
6.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 30, 2020. 4 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116084

ABSTRACT

Varios países de América Latina son el epicentro de la pandemia de COVID-19. La región, la más desigual del mundo, es especialmente vulnerable a la COVID-19 por sus altos niveles de informalidad laboral, urbanización y débiles sistemas de salud y protección social.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Health Systems/economics , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Economics , Pandemics/economics , Betacoronavirus , Sustainable Development/economics , National Health Programs/economics , Caribbean Region , Public Health Policy , Latin America
7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 515-519, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102937

ABSTRACT

Em 2018, o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) completou 30 anos de sua criação no Brasil. Embora reúna muitas conquistas nessas três décadas, o SUS hoje enfrenta novos desafios, impostos pela agenda liberal e conservadora em curso no país. Nesse contexto, o documentário O Espírito de 45 (2013), dirigido por Ken Loach, que destaca a criação do Serviço Nacional de Saúde (National Health Service - NHS), no Reino Unido, é um filme salutar. Tendo a cidadania e o bem comum como grandes temas, a obra mostra como é possível, revisitando o passado, despertar o espírito combativo em defesa de uma sociedade mais justa e solidária, que privilegie o bem-estar da população em lugar do lucro e que aponte caminhos para a defesa do SUS, enquanto uma conquista do povo brasileiro.


In 2018, the SUS ­ Sistema Unificado de Saúde (Unified Health System) celebrated the 30th anniversary of its setting up in Brazil. Despite its many achievements in these three decades, nowadays SUS faces new challenges which were imposed by a liberal and conservative agenda ongoing in the country. In this context, the documentary The Spirit of '45 (2013), directed by Ken Loach, which highlights the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom, is a very important film. Addressing citizenship and the common good as major themes, the movie shows how it is possible by revisiting the past to awaken the combative spirit in favour of a fairer and more solidary society, in order to prioritize the population's wellbeing instead of the profit and to point out ways to defend SUS as an achievement of the Brazilian people.


En 2018, el SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde (Sistema Único de Salud) completó 30 años de su creación en Brasil. Aunque haya tenido muchos logros en estas tres décadas, el SUS enfrenta hoy nuevos desafíos, impuestos por la agenda liberal y conservadora en curso en el país. En este contexto, la película documental The Spirit of '45 (2013), en la versión brasileña, O Espírito de 45, de Ken Loach, que destaca la creación del Servicio Nacional de Salud (National Health Service ­ NHS); en el Reino Unido, es un buen ejemplo. Con la ciudadanía y el bien común como temas principales, la producción muestra como es posible, reviviendo el pasado, despertar el espíritu combativo en defensa de una sociedad más justa y solidaria, que privilegie el bienestar de la población en lugar de losbeneficios lucrativos, y señale formas de defender el SUS, como un logro del pueblo brasileño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Welfare , Unified Health System , Health Care Reform , Documentaries and Factual Films , National Health Programs , Brazil , Narration , Universal Health Coverage , United Kingdom , Health Policy
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1293-1304, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Electronic medical records have been touted as a solution to many of the shortcomings of health care systems. The aim of this essay is to review pertinent literature and present examples and recommendations from several decades of experience in the use of medical records in primary health care, in ways that can help primary care doctors to organize their work processes to improve patient care. Considerable problems have been noted to result from a lack of interoperability and standardization of interfaces among these systems, impairing the effective collaboration and information exchange in the care of complex patients. It is extremely important that regional and national health policies be established to assure standardization and interoperability of systems. Lack of interoperability contributes to the fragmentation of the information environment. The electronic medical record (EMR) is a disruptive technology that can revolutionize the way we care for patients. The EMR has been shown to improve quality and reliability in the delivery of healthcare services when appropriately implemented. Careful attention to the impact of the EMR on clinical workflows, in order to take full advantage of the potential of the EMR to improve patient care, is the key lesson from our experience in the deployment and use of these systems.


Resumo Os registros médicos eletrônicos (RME) têm sido apontados como uma solução para muitas das deficiências dos sistemas de saúde. O objetivo deste ensaio é revisar a literatura pertinente e apresentar exemplos e recomendações de várias décadas de experiência no uso de registros médicos na atenção primária à saúde, de maneira a ajudá-los na organização de seus processos de trabalho para melhorar o atendimento ao paciente. Observou-se que problemas consideráveis resultam da falta de interoperabilidade e padronização de interfaces entre esses sistemas, prejudicando a colaboração efetiva e a troca de informações no atendimento a pacientes complexos. É extremamente importante que políticas regionais e nacionais de saúde sejam estabelecidas para garantir a padronização e interoperabilidade dos sistemas. A falta de interoperabilidade contribui para a fragmentação do ambiente de informações. O prontuário eletrônico (RME) é uma tecnologia disruptiva que pode revolucionar a maneira como cuidamos dos pacientes. Foi demonstrado que o RME melhora a qualidade e a confiabilidade na prestação de serviços de saúde quando implementada adequadamente. Uma atenção cuidadosa ao impacto do RME nos fluxos de trabalho clínicos, a fim de aproveitar ao máximo o potencial do RME para melhorar o atendimento ao paciente, é a principal lição de nossa experiência na implantação e uso desses sistemas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Health Care , Electronic Health Records/standards , National Health Programs , Patient Care Team , United States , Registries , Communication , Electronic Health Records/organization & administration , Quality Improvement , Health Information Exchange , Medication Errors/prevention & control
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1197-1204, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089520

ABSTRACT

Resumo Ao longo século XX, as profundas alterações que ocorreram na Medicina apenas podem ser completamente esclarecidas se forem observadas numa perspectiva histórica, pois elas sempre ocorreram em resposta a influências externas, umas científicas e tecnológicas, outras de ordem social. A moderna Medicina Familiar é uma das muitas disciplinas novas que se desenvolveram durante o curso da história da Medicina e aqui debatemos de forma crítica, os últimos 40 anos dos cuidados primários em saúde em Portugal, começando em 1971, mesmo antes da Declaração de Alma-Ata (1978). Ao longo do percurso, em 2005, surge a Reforma dos Cuidados Primários em Saúde em Portugal e as novas unidades de saúde familiar, que até setembro de 2019 atendiam cerca de 94% dos cidadãos portugueses, ou seja, mais de nove milhões e meio de pessoas. No final dessa trajetória, de forma solidária e voluntária, esta Reforma serviu de inspiração para outra, no Brasil, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em 2009. Por fim, apresentamos os desafios apontados na Declaração de Astana de 2018, dentre elas, a questão da força de trabalho nos cuidados de saúde primários, como fator essencial para o desempenho e a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de saúde.


Abstract Throughout the twentieth century, the profound changes that have taken place in Medicine can only be wholly explained if observed from a historical perspective, for they have always occurred in response to external influences, some scientific and technological, others of a social nature. Modern Family Medicine is one of the many new disciplines that have developed during medical history, and we critically discuss the last 40 years of primary health care in Portugal, which started in 1971, long before the Alma-Ata Declaration (1978). Along the way, in 2005, the Primary Health Care Reform emerges in Portugal, along with the new family health facilities, which until September 2019, attended about 94 % of Portuguese citizens, i.e., 9,5 million people. At the end of this course, in solidarity and voluntarily, this Reform inspired another one in Brazil, in Rio de Janeiro, in 2009. Finally, we present the challenges pointed out in the 2018 Astana Declaration, among them, the issue of the workforce in primary health care as an essential factor for the performance and sustainability of health systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/history , Health Care Reform/history , Congresses as Topic/history , Family Practice/history , Portugal , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Specialization/history , Brazil , Global Health , Kazakhstan , Health Care Reform/organization & administration , Community Health Centers/history , Community Health Centers/legislation & jurisprudence , Community Health Centers/organization & administration , Congresses as Topic/organization & administration , Academies and Institutes/history , Academies and Institutes/organization & administration , Europe , Family Practice/organization & administration , National Health Programs/history , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/organization & administration
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1475-1482, abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089511

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa políticas recentes no campo da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e suas possíveis implicações para o modelo assistencial no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Inicialmente resgatam-se algumas das concepções que influenciaram os modelos de atenção no sistema público brasileiro e argumenta-se que a Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) apresenta as bases para reorientação das práticas assistenciais na atenção básica coerentes com os princípios do SUS. A seguir, analisam-se elementos centrais de políticas federais recentes para a APS. Demonstra-se que as mudanças no modelo assistencial da APS com ameaças à multiprofissionalidade das equipes, prioridade ao pronto atendimento, centralidade no cuidado individual, enfraquecimento do enfoque territorial comunitário e cobertura por cadastramento, evidenciam redirecionamento da política de saúde, ferindo os princípios da universalidade, integralidade e equidade no SUS.


Abstract This paper analyzes recent policies in the field of Primary Health Care (PHC) and their possible implications for the care model in the Unified Health System (SUS). Initially, some of the concepts that influenced the models of care in the Brazilian public system are revived, and we argue that the Family Health Strategy (ESF) bases for reorienting care practices in primary care are consistent with the principles of the SUS. Below, we analyze the central elements of new federal policies for PHC. We show that changes in the PHC care model threaten the teams' multidisciplinarity, prioritize acute illness care, focus in individual care, weaken the community territorial approach and establish coverage by registration, which evidence redirection of the health policy, harming the principles of universality, integrality, and equity in the SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/trends , Family Health/trends , Health Policy/trends , National Health Programs/trends , Patient Care Team , Brazil , Community Health Services , Healthcare Disparities/trends , General Practice/education
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1215-1220, abr. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since 2012, the Besrour Centre for Global Family Medicine at the College of Family Physician of Canada has brought together its partners from the Americas annually, to reflect on the evolution of Family Medicine on the continent since Alma-Ata, and to look forward to future challenges. Family doctors are but one element of a strong health system. Family Medicine provides key ingredients to respond to population health needs especially as countries move through the epidemiological transition to face larger burdens of chronic disease and multimorbidity. In this paper, we provide a high-level overview of the state of Family Medicine on the continent. We then analyze trends in the education of family physicians to face this changing landscape, including the emphasis on the leader role of future family physicians. Postgraduate programs in Family Medicine in the Americas are placing increasing emphasis on teaching collaborative care in view of creating truly interdisciplinary health teams for the benefit of patients.


Resumo Desde 2012, o Centro Besrour de Medicina Global de Família, na Faculdade de Medicina de Família do Canadá, reúne seus parceiros das Américas anualmente para refletir sobre a evolução da Medicina de Família no continente desde Alma-Ata e para os desafios futuros. Os médicos de família são apenas um elemento de um forte sistema de saúde. A Medicina de Família fornece ingredientes-chave para responder às necessidades de saúde da população, especialmente à medida em que os países passam pela transição epidemiológica para enfrentar um fardo maior de doenças crônicas e de multimorbidade. Neste artigo, fornecemos uma visão geral de alto nível do estado da Medicina de Família no continente. Em seguida, analisamos as tendências na educação dos médicos de família para enfrentar esse cenário em mudança, incluindo a ênfase no papel de líder dos futuros médicos de família. Os programas de pós-graduação em Medicina de Família nas Américas estão enfatizando cada vez mais o ensino do cuidado colaborativo, a fim de criar equipes de saúde verdadeiramente interdisciplinares para o benefício dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Congresses as Topic , Family Practice/education , Family Practice/trends , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/trends , Americas , Brazil , Canada , Global Health , Kazakhstan , Health Services Needs and Demand , Leadership , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/organization & administration
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1361-1374, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089507

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo desse artigo é apresentar um debate sobre a nova política de financiamento para Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) no Brasil. Para desenvolvimento do método de pagamento foi realizado consulta da literatura nacional e internacional, além do envolvimento de gestores municipais, estaduais e federais da APS. O modelo final proposto é baseado em Capitação ponderada; Pagamento por desempenho; Incentivo para Ações Estratégicas. A capitação é ponderada por vulnerabilidade socioeconômica, aspectos demográficos e ajuste municipal, o pagamento por desempenho composto por um conjunto total de 21 indicadores e incentivos a ações estratégicas foi possível a partir da manutenção de alguns programas específicos. Os resultados das simulações apontaram para um baixo cadastro (90 milhões de brasileiros) para a cobertura estimada atual (148.674.300 milhões de brasileiros). Além disso, demonstraram um incremento imediato de recursos financeiros para 4.200 municípios brasileiros. Observa-se que a proposta do financiamento traz a APS brasileira para o século XXI, aponta para o fortalecimento dos atributos da APS e torna concreto os princípios de universalidade e equidade do Sistema Único de Saúde.


Abstract This paper aims to present a debate on the new Brazilian Primary Health Care (PHC) funding policy. We consulted the national and international literature, and we involved municipal, state, and federal PHC managers to develop the payment method. The proposed final model is based on weighted capitation, payment-for-performance, and incentive for strategic actions. Capitation is weighted by the socioeconomic vulnerability, demographic aspects, and municipal adjustment, the payment-for-performance consists of an entire set of 21 indicators, and incentives for strategic actions were facilitated from the maintenance of some specific programs. The results of the simulations pointed to low registration (90 million Brazilians) for the currently estimated coverage (148,674,300 Brazilians). Moreover, they showed an immediate increase in financial resources for 4,200 Brazilian municipalities. We observed that the funding proposal brings Brazilian PHC into the 21st century, points to the strengthening of PHC attributes, and materializes the principles of universality and equity of the Unified Health System.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/economics , Reimbursement, Incentive , Capitation Fee , Financing, Government/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/economics , Brazil , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 395-405, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055806

ABSTRACT

Resumo Esta revisão narrativa tem por objetivo analisar a produção científica sobre as Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PIC) no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) visando compreender as potencialidades e fragilidades do processo de implantação da Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PNPIC). Após busca nas bases de dados, 25 artigos foram selecionados e os seus resultados analisados criticamente. Da análise do material emergiram cinco temas principais que explicitaram potencialidades e fragilidades de implantação da política: 1) Formação profissional em PIC para o SUS; 2) Estruturação da oferta em PIC, acesso e promoção da saúde; 3) Conhecimento, acesso e aceitação de usuários em relação às PIC; 4) Conhecimento de profissionais e gestores em relação à PNPIC; e 5) Escopo, monitoramento e avaliação da PNPIC. Os resultados se alinham aos relatórios de gestão da PNPIC aprofundando o conhecimento acerca da implantação da política e reforçando a necessidade de empoderamento dos atores do SUS para o enfrentamento de seus desafios.


Abstract This narrative review examines the literature on complementary and integrative practices (CIPs) and their incorporation into Brazil's national health system (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) in an attempt to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of the National Policy on Complementary and Integrative Practices in the SUS (PNPIC, acronym in Portuguese). A search was conducted of the MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases, resulting in final sample of 25 articles. Our analysis identified five key themes in the literature related to the strengths and weaknesses of policy implementation: 1) Professional training in CIPs in the SUS; 2) structuring the provision of CIPs, access, and health promotion; 3) knowledge, access, and acceptance of service users in relation to CIPs; 4) knowledge of SUS professional staff and managers in relation to the PNPIC; and 5) scope and monitoring and evaluation of the PNPIC. In consonance with the conclusions of the PNPIC management reports, the findings provide a deeper insight into policy implementation problems and reinforce the need to empower the actors involved in this process to tackle these challenges.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , National Health Programs , Complementary Therapies/organization & administration , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Integrative Medicine/organization & administration , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 407-420, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055827

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo buscou conhecer quem são os gestores municipais de saúde e práticas realizadas no âmbito de gestão. Possuiu delineamento transversal. A metodologia contou com o envio de um questionário eletrônico às secretarias de saúde dos 497 municípios do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Destes, 297 retornaram (59,75%). Contudo, foram considerados na análise estatística apenas os questionários com mais de 50% de respostas válidas (n = 264). A análise contou com o cálculo da distribuição das variáveis e com testes de qui-quadrado, onde o porte populacional foi considerado variável independente. A maioria foi composta por mulheres, com escolaridade alta e distintas formações, média de idade de 43,76 anos, cor branca. A média de gastos com saúde foi de ≈20% das receitas. Houve consenso quanto na insuficiência dos recursos. Quanto ao porte populacional, 79,92% possuíam ≤ 20.000 habitantes. Diferenças significativas foram observadas na gestão de municípios de distintos portes, tanto nas prioridades, quanto nas dificuldades. O estudo permitiu conhecer parcialmente a realidade da gestão municipal. Além disso, os resultados sugeriram a necessidade de novas pesquisas sobre a feminilização da gestão, avaliação de processos de trabalho e impactos da política de austeridade.


Abstract This study intended to gather who are the county health managers and the practices performed in management. It is based on a cross-sectional design. The methodology involved the use of electronic questionnaire, which was sent to the health departments of the 497 municipalities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Of these, 297 were answered (59.75%). However, only those with more than 50% of valid answers (n = 264) were included in the statistical analysis. The analysis included the calculation of the distribution of variables and chi-square testes, taking population size as an independent variable. Most managers were women; graduated; from different professional backgrounds; average age of 43.76 years-old, and white. The average health expenditure in the municipalities was ≈ 20% of revenues. There was a consensus on the insufficiency of resources. With regards to population size, 79.92% presented with ≤ 20,000 inhabitants. Statistically significant differences were found in the management of municipalities of different sizes, both in terms of priorities and difficulties. The study allowed to partially understanding the reality of municipal management. These results indicate the need to further investigate the feminization of health management, working process assessment, and the impacts of economical austerity policy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Administrative Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Population Density , Cities , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/economics
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 48-54, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088948

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Methods: We used a decision tree model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, from the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) perspective. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were administered to patients with the same treatment procedure, and the difference in treatment costs was calculated based on the cost of the drugs. Direct costs were estimated using the information provided by the Brazilian SUS. Effectiveness in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was calculated based on the utility values for visual impairment. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by comparing both treatments. The analytical horizon was one year. Results: The decision tree analysis showed that the difference in treatment effectiveness was 0.01 QALY. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio showed that ranibizumab treatment required an incremental annual cost of more than R$ 2 million to generate 1 additional QALY, as compared to bevacizumab. Conclusions: From the Brazilian SUS perspective, bevacizumab is more cost-effective than ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Its use could allow potential annual savings in health budget.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar o custo-efetividade do ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular. Métodos: Utilizamos um modelo de árvore de decisão para analisar a relação custo-efetividade do ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. O ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe foram administrados a pacientes com o mesmo procedimento de tratamento, e a diferença nos custos do tratamernto foi calculada com base no custo dos medicamentos. Os custos diretos foram estimados utilizando as informações fornecidas pelo SUS. A efetividade foi determinada em anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade (QALY) baseados em valores de utilidade em deficiênciavisual. A razãoincremental custo-efetividadefoicalculada comparando os dois tratamentos. O horizonte analítico foi de um ano. Resultados: A análise da árvore de decisão mostrou que a diferença na efetividade do tratamento foi de 0,01 QALY. A razão incremental de custo-efetividade mostrou que o tratamento com ranibizumabe exigiu um custo anual incremental de R$ 2 milhões para gerar um QALY adicional, em comparação ao bevacizumabe. Conclusões: Do ponto de vista do SUS, o bevacizumabe é mais custo-efetivo que o ranibizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular. O seu uso poderia gerar uma grande economia anual para o orçamento em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vision Disorders/economics , Vision Disorders/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/economics , Bevacizumab/economics , Ranibizumab/economics , Brazil , Visual Acuity , Health Care Costs , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , National Health Programs
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787240

ABSTRACT

The Big Data Research Committee of the Korean Society of Gastroenterology conducted activities and researches with three goals. First, it provides the basis for proper and cost-effective treatment of digestive diseases in Korea. Second, it carries out population-level global research by establishing a system of big data analysis related to gastroenterology. Third, it provides the members of the Korean Society of Gastroenterology with the opportunity to plan and assess the public interest related to big data. The studies published by the committee members in this paper were carried out under these objectives, and the findings are believed to have achieved the public interest goals that may be helpful in the current medical and health policy. The construction of the big data infrastructure for digestive drugs is also underway, and we expect to see meaningful results pertaining to important digestive drugs. Research using public health medical big data, such as the National Health Insurance Corporation data base, should ultimately provide a basis for reflecting public messages and policies for the public. To this end, it is necessary for Korean researchers to lead efforts to lower the barriers and to approach relevant information and opportunities using big data research.


Subject(s)
Committee Membership , Gastroenterology , Health Policy , Korea , National Health Programs , Public Health , Statistics as Topic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816626

ABSTRACT

Korea is currently an aged society and is on the cusp of becoming a superaged society in a few years. The health burden of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, and the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, may be linked to increased population-level cardiovascular risk. In 2018, the prevalence of obesity in Korea was 35.7% (men, 45.4%; women, 26.5%) according to the Obesity Fact Sheet 2019, based on National Health Insurance Corporation medical checkup data. In 2016, the prevalence of diabetes was 14.4% in Koreans older than 30 years according to the Diabetes Fact Sheet published by the Korean Diabetes Association, based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of hypertension in the total population of Korea in 2018 was 28.3% according to the Korean Hypertension Fact Sheet produced by the Korean Society of Hypertension. Lastly, the prevalence of dyslipidemia in 2018 was 40.5% according to the Dyslipidemia Fact Sheet published by the Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis. In this article, I would like to review the prevalence and current management of cardiovascular risk factors in Korea according to the fact sheets released by various associations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , National Health Programs , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.RESULTS: In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.


Subject(s)
Asia , Chromaffin Cells , Diagnosis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Prognosis , Survival Rate
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