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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Agricultural Cultivation , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e263959, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529204

ABSTRACT

A luta pela terra e seu uso incide na forma como as subjetividades têm sido produzidas no Brasil. No contexto capitalista, patriarcal e machista, vive-se um processo de exploração da mão de obra de mulheres e de recursos naturais da Terra. Este estudo objetivou conhecer histórias de vida de mulheres agricultoras rurais que participam de movimentos sociais agroecológicos no Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram do estudo três mulheres agricultoras, com idades entre 21 e 53 anos, residentes e trabalhadoras em zonas rurais das cidades de Viamão e Rolante, escolhidas por conveniência. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário sociodemográfico, entrevista de história de vida e observação participante, os quais foram, posteriormente, submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados demonstram que as histórias de vida das mulheres relatadas são marcadas por lutas e formas de resistência. Para além das situações de conflitos e falta de recursos, avistam-se questões próprias de gênero, como a invisibilidade feminina e a desigualdade no acesso à terra por mulheres. A construção de base e o fortalecimento do papel político das mulheres nos movimentos sociais permite inferir que existem melhorias significativas nas desigualdades e injustiças no meio rural. Contudo, pontua-se a necessidade de se promover o diálogo entre os movimentos sociais, as mulheres e a sociedade política sobre os modelos atuais de políticas públicas existentes, possibilitando, assim, avançar nas discussões a respeito da promoção da equidade de gênero nos espaços rurais, bem como potencializar o avanço das práticas agroecológicas em direção à superação do capitalismo.(AU)


The struggle for land and its use affects the way subjectivities have been produced in Brazil. In the capitalist, patriarchal, and male-chauvinist context, women's labor and the Earth's natural resources are strongly exploited. This study aimed to know the life stories of female farmers who participate in agroecological social movements in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Three female farmers, aged from 21 to 53, residents and workers in rural areas of the municipalities of Viamão and Rolante, chosen by convenience, participated in the study. The instruments used were: sociodemographic questionnaire, a life story interview, and participant observation, which were later subjected to thematic analysis. The results show that the participants' life stories are marked by struggles and means of resistance. In addition to conflicts and lack of resources, there are specific gender issues, such as female invisibility and inequality in women's access to land. The grassroots construction and the strengthening of the political role of women in social movements allow us to infer that there are significant improvements in inequalities and injustices in rural areas. However, it is necessary to promote dialogue between social movements, women, and political society about the current models of existing public policies, thus making it possible to advance in discussions about gender equity in rural spaces, as well as to enhance the advancement of agroecological practices to overcoming capitalism.(AU)


La lucha por la tierra y su uso afecta a la forma en que se han producido las subjetividades en Brasil. En el contexto capitalista, patriarcal y machista, hay un proceso de explotación del trabajo de las mujeres y de los recursos naturales de la tierra. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las historias de vida de agricultoras rurales que participan en movimientos sociales agroecológicos en Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). Participaron en el estudio tres agricultoras, de entre 21 y 53 años, residentes y trabajadoras en áreas rurales de las ciudades de Viamão y Rolante, elegidas por conveniencia. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: cuestionario sociodemográfico, entrevista de historia de vida y observación participante, cuyos datos posteriormente se sometieron a análisis temático. Los resultados muestran que las historias de vida de las mujeres relatadas están marcadas por luchas y formas de resistencia. A las situaciones de conflicto y falta de recursos se suman cuestiones específicas de género, como la invisibilidad femenina y la desigualdad en el acceso de las mujeres a la tierra. La construcción popular y el fortalecimiento del papel político de las mujeres en los movimientos sociales permiten inferir que hay mejoras significativas en las desigualdades e injusticias en las zonas rurales. Sin embargo, es necesario promover el diálogo entre los movimientos sociales, las mujeres y la sociedad sobre los modelos actuales de las políticas públicas existentes, para posibilitar avances en las discusiones sobre la promoción de la equidad de género en los espacios rurales y potenciar el avance de las prácticas agroecológicas hacia la superación del capitalismo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology, Social , Women , Rural Areas , Sustainable Agriculture , Gender Studies , Ownership , Personal Satisfaction , Poverty , Psychology , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Conditions , Social Justice , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Soil , Women's Rights , Family , Economic Development , Agricultural Cultivation , Land Use , Forests , Environmental Health , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Agrochemicals , Interview , Ecosystem , Crops, Agricultural , Natural Resources Exploitation , Conservation of Natural Resources , Whole Foods , Feminism , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Food, Genetically Modified , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Diet , Ecology , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Job Market , Sustainable Development Indicators , Agribusiness , Environmental Policy , Personal Narrative , Social Capital , Genetic Background , Survivorship , Androcentrism , Freedom , Sustainable Development , Right to Work , Food Supply , Environmental Justice , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Family Structure
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21762, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429954

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hydroelectrolytic beverages segment has been expading its market and introducing new flavors in order to meet the demand for new products. However, experimental studies find concerns about the chemical compositions of these drinks. The aim of this study was to develop a drink without synthetic coloring or flavoring, with functional attributes based on the bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) peel extract. Two hydroelectrolytic drinks were developed, one hypotonic and the other isotonic, containing 0.5 and 1.0% of bacaba peel extract. Physicochemical characterization, determination of total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were perfomed, in addition to color evaluation, as well as sensory analysis by means of preference tests. The developed formulations showed potential antioxidant activity and natural red coloring due to the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in the beverages. The sensory evaluation indicated positive acceptance by the tasters regarding the addition of the bacaba peel extract to the beverage formulations. The developed formulations demonstrated that the use of the bacaba peel is a viable option for the production of sports drinks, acting as a natural dye and offering health benefits due to its bioactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Natural Resources Exploitation , Consumer Behavior , Arecaceae , Plant Bark/classification , Beverages/analysis , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(4): 1063-1084, oct,-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421584

ABSTRACT

Resumo Na primeira metade do século XX, a Região Carbonífera Catarinense passou por um intenso processo de industrialização que impactou diretamente as diferentes formas de vida. Como resultado da exploração do carvão mineral, a região enfrentou uma série de problemas sanitários que dificultavam o próprio processo de acumulação do capital. Diante da incapacidade de o poder público atender às demandas sanitárias, o empresariado local estabeleceu parcerias com congregações religiosas femininas para prestar serviços assistenciais em suas vilas operárias. Como resultado dessa relação, as Pequenas Irmãs da Divina Providência produziram um álbum/relatório, composto por textos, desenhos e fotografias que retratam suas atividades assistenciais, entre 1955 e 1957, em uma das vilas da região.


Abstract During the first half of the twentieth century, the coal-producing region of Santa Catarina state underwent intense industrialization that directly impacted various ways of life; various health problems emerged in the region as a result of coal mining and impeded economic progress. As the government was unable to meet health demands, local businesses established partnerships with female religious orders that provided assistance services in the villages where workers lived. As part of such a partnership, the Pequenas Irmãs da Divina Providência created an album of texts, drawings, and photographs as a report describing their activities from 1955 to 1957 in one such village in the region.


Subject(s)
Coal , Natural Resources Exploitation , Delivery of Health Care , Industrial Development , Health Services Needs and Demand , Brazil , History, 20th Century
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 365-388, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396918

ABSTRACT

Modifications of land use and vegetation cover are proceeding faster than ever before in human history, with a considerable reduction in forest cover in biodiversity hotspots. We investigated the land use and vegetation cover changes, their impact on biodiversity in the Kurram District, Pakistan, for 27 years (1989 to 2015). Temporal satellite imagery was processed using a supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm in ARCGIS 10.1 to elucidate information regarding land use/land cover changes,with conducted structured interviews to obtain the inhabitants' perspectives on their dependence on ecosystems in Kurram, and how their environment is changing. We found that the land under forest cover and rangeland showed a remarkable decrease over the study period. This decline in rangeland and forest cover was a result of the increased of farmland, barren land. The study area is part of a biodiversity, with important medicinal, rare and unique plant species.


Las modificaciones del uso de la tierra y la cobertura vegetal están avanzando más rápido que nunca en la historia de la humanidad, con una reducción considerable de la cobertura forestal en los puntos críticos de biodiversidad. Investigamos el uso de la tierra y los cambios en la cobertura vegetal, su impacto en la biodiversidad en el distrito de Kurram, Pakistán, durante 27 años (1989 a 2015). Las imágenes satelitales temporales se procesaron utilizando un algoritmo de clasificación de máxima verosimilitud supervisada en ARCGIS 10.1 para dilucidar información sobre los cambios en el uso del suelo/cobertura del suelo, con entrevistas estructuradas realizadas para obtener las perspectivas de los habitantes sobre su dependencia de los ecosistemas en Kurram y cómo está cambiando su entorno. Descubrimos que la tierra cubierta por bosques y pastizales mostró una disminución notable durante el período de estudio. Esta disminución en los pastizales y la cubierta forestal fue el resultado del aumento de las tierras de cultivo, tierras estériles. El área de estudio es parte de una biodiversidad, con importantes especies de plantas medicinales, raras y únicas.


Subject(s)
Land Use , Natural Resources Exploitation , Biodiversity , Pakistan , Pasture , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Satellite Imagery
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(1): 245-259, Mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375595

ABSTRACT

Resumo Dos letrados que pensaram a economia portuguesa no século XVII, talvez Duarte Ribeiro de Macedo seja o mais conhecido. Formado em direito e em filosofia, Macedo escreveu diferentes discursos sobre a introdução de manufaturas e o maior aproveitamento dos recursos naturais encontrados nas colônias portuguesas. Em seu "Discurso sobre os gêneros para o comércio, que há no Maranhão e Pará" (1633), apresentou 37 gêneros de elevado potencial econômico e que estariam disponíveis no Maranhão e no Pará. Este trabalho se dedica à transcrição desse manuscrito inédito e à apresentação das propostas de Macedo acerca das potencialidades econômicas maranhenses.


Abstract Duarte Ribeiro de Macedo may be the best-known scholar that contemplated the Portuguese economy in the seventeenth century. Macedo had degrees in law and philosophy, and wrote various texts on the introduction of manufacturing and best way to utilize the natural resources found in Portugal's colonies. In Discurso sobre os gêneros para o comércio, que há no Maranhão e Pará [Discussion on the genera in Maranhão and Pará for trade] (1633), he introduces 37 plants with superior economic potential that were available in Maranhão and Pará. Here this groundbreaking manuscript is transcribed, and Macedo's suggestions about the economic potential of Maranhão are introduced.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Natural Resources Exploitation , Economics , Brazil , History, 17th Century
8.
Rev. polis psique ; 9(3): 77-94, set.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | INDEXPSI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1127168

ABSTRACT

Este estudo tem como objetivo refletir sobre os modos de vida e de luta de mulheres quebradeiras de coco piauienses junto ao Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Tratou-se de um estudo cartográfico realizado em três comunidades da zona rural da cidade de Esperantina, no Piauí, onde está localizada a sede regional do MIQCB. Para a produção dos dados, utilizamos como recursos a intervenção fotográfica e a produção de narrativas de vida. Assim, destacamos, por um lado, as relações de poder com os patrões que marcaram as trajetórias de vida das mulheres, produzindo assujeitamento; mas por outro, evidenciamos suas formas de luta. Para isso, utilizamos a noção de parresía foucaultiana e da amizade como exercício político enquanto formas de contraconduta e resistência às sujeições e como modos de reinvenção de si, contribuindo para o fortalecimento da luta.


The objective of this study was to reflect on the female coconut breakers from Piauí in their ways of life and fights with the Interstate Movement of Babassu Breakers (MIQCB). It was a cartographic study carried out in three rural communities in Esperantina, where the Piauí regional headquarters of the MIQCB is located. We used as resources the production of life narratives and photographs. Thus, on the one hand, we highlighted the power relations which marked the life trajectories of those women, producing lack of subjectivation; but on the other hand, we show their forms of fights. For this, we use a Foucauldian parresia notion and friendship in its political potential as ways of hostile conducts and resistance and ways of reinventing oneself, contributing to the strengthening of the fight.


Este estudio tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre los modos de vida y de lucha de mujeres quebradoras de coco piauienses junto al Movimiento Interestatal de Quebradoras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Se trató de un estudio cartográfico, realizado en tres comunidades de la zona rural de la ciudad de Esperantina, en Piauí, donde está ubicada la sede regional del MIQCB. Utilizamos como recursos la intervención fotográfica y la producción de narrativas de vida. Así, destacamos, por un lado, las relaciones de poder con los patrones que marcaron las trayectorias de vida de las mujeres, produciendo asombro; pero por otro, evidenciamos sus formas de lucha. Para ello, utilizamos la noción de parresía foucaultiana y de la amistad como ejercicio político como formas de contraconducta y resistencia a las sujeciones y como modos de reinvención de sí, contribuyendo al fortalecimiento de la lucha.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Politics , Social Conditions , Social Problems , Women/psychology , Friends/psychology , Brazil , Adaptation, Psychological , Natural Resources Exploitation , Population Groups
9.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 316-323, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118962

ABSTRACT

Overexploitation is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss and local extinction. In the Brazilian Amazon, the intensive use of high-value timber species is leading to a decline in their populations. When in decline, these species can be replaced by less valuable and more common ones that are more feasible to exploit. We conducted interviews with residents of two communities in a sustainable development reserve in central Amazonia, and used free lists and the cognitive salience index (S) to assess the perceptions of residents regarding the occurrence and purpose of timber exploitation, and to identify possible endangered species in white-sand and terra-firme forests. In addition, to infer possible consequences of logging, we assessed the current population status of timber species cited by residents in forest-plot inventories carried out within the reserve. S-index values and interviewee reports suggested an intensive use of terra-firme timber species and an apparently recent increase in the exploitation of white-sand species, which did not use to be exploited because of their relatively low commercial value. The inventories showed that the white-sand timber species have high relative densities and low S values in contrast to the terra-firme species, which mostly have low relative densities and high S values. Our results highlight the need to identify and monitor relevant timber species in both terra-firme and white-sand forests, and to increase the involvement of the local community in the development of logging management practices. (AU)


Subject(s)
Lumber Industry/adverse effects , Amazonian Ecosystem , Natural Resources Exploitation , Rainforest
10.
Estud. av ; 33(95): 113-132, 2019. ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008267

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem por objeto abordar os aspectos de regulação internacional do petróleo, mais precisamente aqueles previstos na Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o direito do mar de 1982, que definem a obrigatoriedade do pagamento de royalties às Nações Unidas advindos da exploração dos hidrocarbonetos nas plataformas estendidas. Utiliza o método dedutivo e o tipo de pesquisa exploratório e comparativo, o artigo dividiu-se em três capítulos. Após introduzir o leitor ao tema, abordando-se as particularidades do direito do mar e seu viés de exploração econômica, os autores discorrem sobre a questão com uma dimensão da regulação quase sempre ausente da formulação de políticas energéticas. Essa discussão é apresentada a partir do estudo de caso do Brasil. Para tanto, cuida de apresentar a importância do setor petrolífero e o histórico da exploração offshore no Brasil. Adentra-se em seguida a temática da distribuição dos royalties entre o estado nacional e as nações unidas. No desenvolvimento da questão são trazidos à tona o possíveis cenários entre o futuro da exploração petrolífera no Brasil e os resultados da aplicação da regulação internacional pela Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o Direito do Mar de 1982. Por fim, chegou-se à conclusão de que algumas plataformas de petróleo já estão localizadas próximas do limite das 200 milhas marítimas e o polígono do pré-sal também encontra-se adentrando as 200 milhas marítimas, o que demonstra uma necessidade de uma abordagem imparcial sobre os prós e contras do posicionamento brasileiro, analisando os possíveis cenários futuros.


This papers seeks to verify aspects of the international regulation of oil, specifically those contained in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea that refer to the obligation to pay royalties to the United Nations on the exploration by the Brazilian government of hydrocarbons in extended platforms. The deductive method and exploratory and comparative research were used. After identifying how the work was carried out, it discusses the issue of law of the sea and the economic exploitation discourses on the theme, their motivation and the context of work to be investigated. The authors also discuss the issue within the dimension of regulation being almost always absent from the formulation of energy policies. The discussion is grounded on a case study of Brazil and presents the importance of the oil industry, the history of offshore exploration in Brazil, and even the distribution of royalties between the national state and the United Nations. In the development of this issue, possible scenarios are brought to light regarding the future of offshore oil exploration in Brazil and the results of enforcement of international regulation by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Finally, we reach the conclusion that some oil rigs are already located near the 200 nautical miles limit and that the polygon of the pre-salt oils reserves is also entering this limit, demonstrating the need for an impartial reckoning of the pros and cons of Brazil's position by analyzing possible future scenarios.


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , United Nations , Petroleum , Maritime Rights , Commerce , Natural Resources Exploitation
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(5): 453-491, sept. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915688

ABSTRACT

Medicinal and aromatic plants are biologically and economically valuable species because of their intrinsic value as plants, ability to produce secondary metabolites, possible use in the pharmaceutical and food industries, germplasm availability and applications in traditional medicine. In addition, they hold social and economic importance due to the ancestral knowledge they represent and because they are part of the livelihood of many families. Most of them are collected from the wild and are in serious danger of extinction. Through biotechnological tools it is possible to develop their germplasm and obtain new and improved varieties from wild material, while advocating the alternative of production by cultivation instead of extracting it from nature. The objective of this review is to provide an updated perspective on the traditional uses, conservation status and biotechnological advances in a group of 30 plant species native to the American continent.


Las plantas medicinales y aromáticas deben ser valoradas tanto por su valor intrínseco como tales, por su capacidad de producir metabolitos secundarios, su posible uso en las industrias farmacéutica y alimentaria y por sus aplicaciones en medicina tradicional. Además, tienen importancia social y económica debido al conocimiento ancestral que representan y porque son parte del sustento de muchas familias. La mayoría de estas especies son recolectadas de la naturaleza y están en grave peligro de extinción. A través de herramientas biotecnológicas es posible desarrollar su germoplasma y obtener variedades nuevas y mejoradas a partir de material silvestre; esta estrategia propicia la alternativa de producción por cultivo en lugar de extraerla de la naturaleza. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar una perspectiva actualizada de los usos tradicionales, el estado de conservación y los avances biotecnológicos en un grupo de 30 especies de plantas nativas del continente americano.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Biotechnology , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional , Pharmacognosy , Americas , Natural Resources Exploitation , Conservation of Natural Resources
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 739-753, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977341

ABSTRACT

Resumen La expansión de la producción agrícola y ganadera ha sido un factor clave en la deforestación en el mundo y especialmente en la región tropical. En consecuencia, más de la mitad de la superficie terrestre del planeta se utiliza para el establecimiento de sistemas productivos, en este contexto las cercas vivas pueden generan efectos positivos sobre el ambiente y proveer bienes y servicios ambientales. En este trabajo hacemos una revisión sobre los efectos que tienen las cercas vivas sobre los sistemas productivos, analizando los usos y percepciones que tienen los agricultores. Esta revisión abarca las diferentes regiones tropicales del mundo. Se encontró que las cercas vivas estuvieron principalmente vinculadas a la delimitación de predios y potreros. No obstante, sus usos y beneficios son múltiples, entre los que se encontraron suministrar forraje, extracción de madera, proveer frutos, servir como rompevientos, generar medicinas, evitar la erosión del suelo, retener la humedad y suministrar aportes nutricionales. Además, se encontraron percepciones a favor como aumentar la conectividad del paisaje, aumentar los ingresos económicos, reducir los costos productivos, reducir la presión sobre la vegetación remanente, tener bajo costos de mantenimiento, contribuir al control de plagas y mejoran la fertilidad. Sin embargo, también se encontraron percepciones negativas como el excesivo trabajo al repararlas o podarlas, la sombra puede afectar la producción agrícola, la falta de información desestimula su establecimiento, costos elevados de establecimiento, generación de conflictos de propiedades y dificultad de manejo. Se encontró que los usos por parte de los agricultores están enfocados a mejorar los rendimientos de los sistemas productivos, pero también a la conservación de recursos naturales como el suelo y la biodiversidad. Se proponen temas de investigación para el futuro como determinar los criterios en la elección de especies nativas para establecer y enriquecer las cercas vivas dando valor a aspectos ecológicos y socioeconómicos, además, se debe profundizar en los beneficios que producen sobre los rendimientos de los sistemas productivos Se sugiere realizar estudios sobre las cercas vivas en la región tropical de Australasia debido a que no se encontraron estudios en esta región, así se podría conocer el estado de su biodiversidad y servicios que brinda a la comunidad rural. Por último, lo que se busca con esta revisión es generar iniciativas que fomenten la formulación de políticas rurales, la creación de programas que estimulen el establecimiento de cercas vivas, ya sea por medio de pagos por servicios ambientales, compensaciones tributarias u otro tipo de mecanismos. Proveer información adecuada a agricultores y ganaderos es un aspecto central de dinamiza el establecimiento de las cercas vivas.


Abstract The expansion of agricultural and livestock production has been a key factor in deforestation in the world and especially in the tropical region. Currently, more than half of the Earth's surface is used for the establishment of production systems; in this context, live fences can generate positive effects on the environment and provide environmental goods and services. In this work, we reviewed the effects of live fences on production systems from the tropical regions of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, analyzing the uses and perceptions of farmers that have made use of these fences. It was found that live fences were mainly related to the delimitation of farms and pastures. However, their uses and benefits are manifold, among which we found: provide forage, wood extraction, fruit supply, windbreaks, medicinal, to avoid soil erosion, moisture retention and nutritional support. In addition, other positive perceptions were: increasing landscape connectivity, increasing economic incomes, reducing production costs, reducing pressure on remaining vegetation, keeping maintenance costs down, contributing to pest control, and improving fertility. However, negative perceptions included the excessive work in repairing or pruning them, shade negative impact on agricultural production, lack of information discourages establishment, high establishment costs, generation of property conflicts and management difficulty. It was found that the uses by farmers are focused on improving the yields of productive systems, but also on the conservation of natural resources especially soil and biodiversity. We proposed research topics for the future, as determining the criteria in the selection of native species to establish and enrich living fences valuing ecological and socioeconomic aspects; in additionally, we must deepen the benefits they produce on the yields of productive systems. We suggest the development of live fences studies in the tropical region of Australasia, because no data was found for this region, in order to know the biodiversity and services status that they provide to the rural communities. As a conclusion, it will be important to generate initiatives that encourage the formulation of rural policies, the creation of programs that encourage the establishment of live fences, whether through payments for environmental services, tax compensation or other mechanisms. Providing adequate information to farmers and livestock farmers is a key aspect on dynamizing the establishment of live fences. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 739-753. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Zones/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/adverse effects , Natural Resources Exploitation , Conservation of Natural Resources , Biodiversity , Sustainable Agriculture , Environmental Damage Minimization , Environmental Performance , Animal Husbandry/trends
13.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(2): 136-150, 2018. ^c27 cmilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987186

ABSTRACT

The Northern Humid Guatemalan Lowlands contains a significant diversity of tree species, including some valuable-timber producers; these species are threatened by commercial overexploitation and habitat loss due to deforestation. The cultivation of these species in forest and agroforest plantations is a potentially viable option for balancing their conservation and commercial harvesting, something that has been promoted with Government Incentives in Guatemala during the past two decades. However, these species have not been widely planted, among other constraints, because knowledge on their ecological requirements and silviculture is scarce. A characterization of monoculture and mixed plantations with 14 native valuable-timber species was made in the Humid Lowlands of Northern Guatemala, analyzing for each species frequency of association and accompanying species, planted area, the main ecological features and growth rates. To gather information, we combined field observation and measurements with interviews and literature review. Based on our survey, main management challenges for cultivation of the species were identified and described. Valuable-timber native trees could potentially be sustainably cultivated in the study zone in different types of forest plantations and agroforestry schemes of coffee, cacao, cardamom and cattle; considering their suitability to fit in diversified systems, growth performance and farmer's preferences, Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata, Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Calophyllum brasiliense and Cordia alliodora were the species with the higher potential for inclusion in plantations. However, several unsolved problems continue restricting the cultivation of these species in plantations; therefore, is essential a careful design and management.


Las Tierras Bajas y Húmedas del Norte de Guatemala contienen diversidad relevante de especies arbóreas, incluyendo algunas de madera valiosa; estas especies están amenazadas por sobre explotación comercial de su madera y deforestación. El cultivo de estas especies en plantaciones forestales y agroforestales es una opción potencialmente viable para equilibrar su conservación y aprovechamiento, lo cual ha sido promovido en Guatemala durante las dos décadas pasadas. Sin embargo, estas especies no se cultivan extensivamente, entre otras limitantes, debido al escaso conocimiento sobre su ecología y silvicultura. Se caracterizaron plantaciones puras y mixtas con 14 especies nativas maderables valiosas en Tierras Bajas y Húmedas del Norte de Guatemala, analizando para cada especie, presencia de especies, superficies plantadas, rasgos ecológicos y crecimiento. Para obtener información se combinó observaciones de campo, mediciones, entrevistas, consultas de archivo y revisión bibliográfica. Se identifican y describen los principales desafíos de manejo para cultivar las especies. Las especies nativas de madera valiosa podrían potencialmente ser cultivadas de manera sostenible, en diferentes tipos de plantación forestal y agroforestal con café, cacao, cardamomo y ganadería; considerando idoneidad para encajar en sistemas diversificados, tasas de crecimiento y preferencias de productores, Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata, Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Calophyllum brasiliense y Cordia alliodora fueron las especies que mostraron mayor potencialidad para ser incluidas en plantaciones en la zona. Sin embargo, aún persisten diferentes aspectos no resueltos que limitan el cultivo de estas especies en plantación, requiriéndose un cuidadoso diseño y manejo.


Subject(s)
Endangered Species/statistics & numerical data , Natural Resources Exploitation/adverse effects , Wood/economics , Agricultural Cultivation , Forestry/economics
14.
Inmanencia (San Martín, Prov. B. Aires) ; 7(1): 113-117, 2018.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1016609
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 78-87, ene. 2017. ilus, map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907566

ABSTRACT

This paper is the result of an experience of applied research that seeks to revalue local knowledge of management medicinal species in San Pedro Norte, Northwest Córdoba. It was proposed to rescue local knowledge about management and reproduction of the species; to reproduce the species with the educational community of Instituto Provincial de Educación Media 369 Anexo San Pedro Norte and workshops with the residents of San Pedro Norte. In addition 30 semi-structured interviews were made and 68 species were determined. Workshops and interviews enabled increase knowledge of the species, their uses and forms of cultivation and facilitated the exchange of knowledge among local people.


El presente trabajo es el resultado de una experiencia de investigación aplicada que busca revalorizar los conocimientos locales sobre el manejo de las especies medicinales en San Pedro Norte, Noroeste de Córdoba. Se propuso rescatar los saberes locales sobre el manejo y reproducción de las especies; reproducirlas con la comunidad educativa del Instituto Provincial de Educación Media 369, Anexo San Pedro Norte, y realizar talleres con los pobladores de la localidad. Se realizaron también 30 entrevistas semiestructuradas y se identificaron 68 especies botánicas. Los talleres y las entrevistas posibilitaron ampliar el conocimiento sobre las especies, sus usos y formas de cultivo, y facilitaron el intercambio de saberes entre los pobladores locales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ethnobotany , Natural Resources Exploitation , Plants, Medicinal , Argentina , Interviews as Topic
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(4): 233-248, jul. 2016. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907540

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the anthropogenic activities at Rio Doce Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from ethnopharmacological surveys in Timóteo and Marliéria, which are located around the park. Interviews were conducted with previously identified, key informants, 15 in Timóteo and 10 in Marliéria. Two respondents collected medicinal plants in the forest of the park (from a few trees) but kept the same vulnerability of the use of their barks. Among the 141 surveyed botanical terms, we identified 95 species of 44 different botanical families. On the basis of statistical analyses, the 12 most used species were selected by respondents considering their therapeutic purposes and also obtaining the purpose of the use and dosage, among others. The knowledge about the use of medicinal plants has been maintained through generations but away from the formal health system and a sustainable management plan to encourage the preservation of the park.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar las actividades humanas en Rio Doce Park, MG, desde encuesta ethnopharmacological en las ciudades de Timoteo y Marliéria. Realizamos entrevistas semi-estructuradas con informantes clave identificados anteriormente, un total de 15 en Timoteo y 10 en Marliéria. Sólo dos encuestados informaron de recolección de plantas medicinales en el parque forestal. De los 141 términos botánicos citados, se identificaron 95 especies y 44 familias de plantas. Basado en el análisis estadístico, 12 especies fueron seleccionadas más utilizados por los encuestados y sus efectos terapéuticos, también la obtención de la finalidad del uso y la dosis, entre otros. Se encontró que se perpetúan los conocimientos combate el uso de plantas medicinales, pero desconectado del sistema formal de salud y un plan de manejo sostenible para promover la conservación del parque.


Subject(s)
Humans , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ethnobotany , Natural Resources Exploitation , Plants, Medicinal , Brazil , Protected Areas , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Saúde Soc ; 25(1): 233-246, jan.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776575

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir os processos de determinação socioambiental nos estados que compõem a Amazônia Legal, com base na análise de indicadores socioeconômicos, ambientais e sanitários. Nesse sentido, os resultados demonstraram uma região dinâmica e muito heterogênea, com uma população crescente e concentrada principal mente em áreas urbanas, combinando crescimento econômico e degradação ambiental a um rápido e precário processo de urbanização e aos projetos de desenvolvimento voltados para a exploração de recursos naturais. O resultado é um quadro complexo de problemas de saúde, com expressividade das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias relaciona das às intensas mudanças ambientais e às difíceis condições de vida, decorrentes principalmente da persistência de imensas desigualdades nos indica dores sociais e econômicos. Tais vulnerabilidades produzem efeitos negativos no quadro ambiental e sanitário da região.


This article aimed to discuss the processes of deter mining the environmental situation in the states that are part of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, based on the analysis of socio-economic, environmental and sanitary indicators. The indicators showed a very dynamic and heterogeneous region, with a growing population mostly concentrated in urban areas, combining economic growth and environ mental degradation associated with a rapid and precarious urbanization process, and with deve lopment projects focused on the exploitation of natural resources. The result is a complex picture of health problems, with the presence of infectious and parasitic diseases related to severe environmental changes and poor conditions of life, caused mainly by inequalities in social and economic indicators that produce vulnerabilities and negative effects on the environmental and sanitary context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biodegradation, Environmental , Social Conditions , Sustainable Development , Environmental Indicators , Health Status Indicators , Economic Indexes , Environmental Health , Urbanization , Health Vulnerability , Disease , Natural Resources Exploitation , Socioeconomic Factors , Sanitation
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 130 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871035

ABSTRACT

A representação da cidade como um território densamente construído, estruturado pela intensidade da velocidade, da tecnologia, de modos de vida embasados na brevidade dos contatos, entre pessoas e entre pessoas e o espaço, não dá conta de explicar as diferenças encontradas ao se percorrer os vários espaços da cidade. Nos limites do território urbano, mais especificamente no extremo sul da cidade de São Paulo, deparamos com Engenheiro Marsilac, um bairro situado dentro de uma área de proteção ambiental, onde os modos de vida mesclam elementos de um passado tradicional com a modernidade proveniente da circularidade de pessoas, da comunicação e das mercadorias. Ademais, acrescenta-se aos mesmos, o convívio direto com áreas naturais, onde a preservação vai além do discurso, sendo incorporada no conjunto de práticas cotidianas. Neste contexto, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi o de compreender essas relações sociais e as articulações espaciais presentes no dia a dia desse bairro. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa etnográfica que muitas vezes se estendeu para além da circunscrição do bairro, ao seguir os trajetos dos moradores pelos espaços da cidade.


he representation of the city as a densely territory built, structured by the intensity of speed, technology, ways of life grounded in the earliest contacts between people and between people and space, does not account to explain the differences when you go through the several areas of the city. Within the limits of the urban territory, more specifically at the south end of the city of São Paulo, you arrive to a Engenheiro Marsilac, a neighborhood located within a protected area where lifestyles mixed elements of a traditional past with modernity from the circularity people, communication and goods. Moreover, it adds up to, the direct contact with natural areas where the preservation goes beyond speech, being incorporated into the set of daily practices. In this context, the objective of this research was to understand these social relations and spatial joints present on the day of that neighborhood. For both held an ethnographic research that often extended beyond the neighborhood boundaries to follow the paths of residents through the spaces of the city.


Subject(s)
City Planning , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environment , Natural Resources Exploitation , Urban Area , Urban Population , Anthropology, Cultural , Environment , Environmental Management , Cities
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 383-389, 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782983

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O fato de possuir espécies com potencial econômico ilimitado, faz com que o ambiente amazônico se torne alvo constante da biopirataria e da extração predatória dos recursos. Muitas espécies deste ambiente sequer possuem catalogação e, mesmo assim, encontram risco eminente de desaparecimento. Neste âmbito, trabalhos que reúnam dados sobre estas espécies possuem grande valor científico, cultural e econômico, sendo este o estímulo que desencadeou a produção desta revisão. Aqui a espécie Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum., uma Rubiaceae amazônica, é contemplada por meio de características botânicas, indicações etnofarmacológicas e propriedades químicas. Popularmente conhecida como mulateiro, a espécie é frequentemente receitada na etnomedicina como cicatrizante e rejuvenescedor, além de ser usada no controle de manchas de pele. Como peculiaridade botânica, mulateiro apresenta tronco retilíneo com epiderme fina esverdeada que evolui para uma periderme castanho-escuro, que é anualmente renovada. Em termos químicos, há destaque para a presença de alcalóides, taninos e, sobretudo, secoiridóides (7-metoxididerrosideo, 6´-acetil-β-D-glucopiranosildiderrosideo e 8-0-tigloildiderrosideo são peculiares à espécie). Mesmo com propriedades fotoprotetoras comprovadas, C. spruceanum ainda carece de pesquisas, sobretudo àquelas voltadas para a produção ex situ da planta e àquelas que demonstrem a relação entre a ecologia da planta e a produção de metabólitos funcionais para a indústria.


ABSTRACT The Amazonian environment is a constant target for biopiracy and predatory extraction of resources due to the species with vast economic potential. Many of these species have not even been cataloged, and yet are already at imminent risk of extinction. In this paper, Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex k. Schum., an Amazonian Rubiaceae, is studied with information on its botanical characteristics, ethnopharmacological uses, and chemical properties. Popularly known as mulateiro, the species is often prescribed in ethnomedicine for healing and vitality, and is also used to control skin patches. As a botanical peculiarity, it has a thin green epidermis that evolves into a dark brown periderm, which is renewed annually. In terms of chemistry, there is emphasis on the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and, especially, secoiridoids (7-methoxydiderroside, 6′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyldiderroside, and 8-O-tigloyldiderroside are peculiar to the species). Even with proven photoprotective properties, research on C. spruceanum is still lacking, in particular studies aimed at the ex situ production of the plant and those that show the relationship between the plant’s ecology and the production of functional metabolites for the industry.


Subject(s)
Botany/instrumentation , Natural Resources Exploitation/analysis , Rubiaceae/classification , Ethnopharmacology/instrumentation
20.
Fortaleza; s.n; 2016. 250 p. map, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971963

ABSTRACT

O desenvolvimento como forma de intervenção do capital constitui uma ideologia que se difunde nos marcos do colonialismo, ao longo dos tempos históricos. Assim, marca a relação Norte-Sul, redefinindo-se, hoje, na cooperação Sul-Sul, a constituir-se um dos eixos da nova ordem económica e política. Este trabalho vincula-se, fundamentalmente a uma discussão crítica da cooperação Sul-Sul. Neste sentido, considera, como um marco, na configuração geopolítica contemporânea, os BRICS, na condição de bloco constituído pelo Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul, efetivando novas formas de imperialismo que se constituem em nome da cooperação. Neste contexto de relações assimétricas Sul-Sul, esta dissertação problematiza a chamada cooperação dos países do Sul global, tendo como foco específico as relações Brasil-Moçambique, a partir da atuação da empresa multinacional Vale S.A que opera no território moçambicano, na extração de carvão mineral...


The development as a form of capital intervention is an ideology that is spreading in colonial landmarks over the historical times. This marks the North-South relationship, resetting itself today in South-South cooperation, to constitute one of the pillarsof the new economic and political order. This work is linked to fundamentally a critical discussion of South-South cooperation. Therefore considers, as a milestone in contemporary geopolitical configuration, the BRICS, in block condition comprising Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, making effective new forms of imperialism which are in the name of the cooperation. In this context of asymmetric South-South, this dissertation problematizes the so-called cooperation of the global South countries,with the specific focus of the Brazil-Mozambique relations, from the activities of multinational Vale SA operating in Mozambique in coal mining mineral...


Subject(s)
Humans , Economic Development , Natural Resources Exploitation , Health , Environment , Work
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