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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 35-39, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095986

ABSTRACT

O câncer infanto-juvenil corresponde a um grupo de várias doenças que têm em comum a proliferação descontrolada de células anormais e que pode ocorrer em qualquer órgão em fase de desenvolvimento. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico de crianças e adolescentes atendidos na UNACON durante o ano de 2017. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, desenvolvido a partir da análise de 20 prontuários de crianças e adolescentes com câncer. Foram coletados dados sobre as características sociodemográficas e clínicas-epidemiológicas dos pacientes. Os dados foram digitados, revisados e analisados no programa estatístico SPSS, na versão 21.0. Foram calculadas as frequências e a média das variáveis de interesse. Observou-se que a maioria dos pacientes tinha de um a três anos (45,0%), era do sexo masculino (60,0%), pardos (70,0%), com renda familiar de até um salário mínimo (60,0%) e metade procedia do interior do estado (50,0%), sendo o tipo de câncer mais diagnosticado a leucemia linfoide aguda (45,0%) e o principal tratamento utilizado a quimioterapia (95,0%), causando principalmente alopecia (100%), algia (100%), náuseas (65,0%), palidez (40,0%) e febre (25,0%) nos pacientes. Foi possível concluir que conhecer o perfil pode contribuir para a tomada de decisões da equipe gestora e profissionais de saúde da unidade no estabelecimento de medidas assistenciais aos pacientes, visando um atendimento mais humanizado, voltado para as necessidades sociodemográficas e levando em consideração as características clínicas-epidemiológicas desse grupo populacional.


Child and youth cancer corresponds to a group of several diseases that have in common the uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells and that can occur in any organ during the development phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents cared at UNACON during 2017. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study developed from the analysis of 20 records of children and adolescents with cancer. Data on the sociodemographic and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of the patients were collected. The data were entered, reviewed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical program, version 21.0. The frequencies and the average of the variables of interest were calculated. It could be observed that the majority of patients were aged between one and three years (45.0%), male (60.0%), brown (70.0%), with a family income of up to one minimum wage (60.0%) and half (50.0%) came from the interior of the state, with acute lymphoid leukemia (45.0%) being the most frequent diagnosis, and chemotherapy (95.0%) the most frequent treatment used, causing mainly alopecia (100%), pain (100%), nausea (65.0%), pallor (40.0%) and fever (25.0%) in patients. It was possible to conclude that knowing the profile can contribute to the decision-making of the management team and health professionals at the health facility in the establishment of care measures for patients, aiming at a more humanized care, focused on sociodemographic needs and taking into account the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of this population group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Health Profile , Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Leukemia/prevention & control , Medical Records , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Alopecia/drug therapy , Health Services Needs and Demand , Medical Oncology , Nausea/drug therapy
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 106, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139472

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and to evaluate risk factors for antineoplastic nausea and vomiting with high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy in adult patients in the first treatment cycle. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with follow-up of 269 adults during the first cycle of antineoplastic chemotherapy. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was evaluated in the acute phase (0-24 hours), in the late phase (24 hours-5th day) and in the total phase (0-5th day). RESULTS: In total, 152 patients underwent high emetogenic chemotherapy and 117 moderate emetogenic chemotherapy. The relative frequency of nausea was higher when compared with vomiting in the acute phase (p < 0.001) and in the late phase (p < 0.001). The risk factors identified were: age group ≤ 49 years (odds ratio = 0.47; 95%CI 0.23-0.95) and 50-64 years (odds ratio = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23-0.87), tobacco use (odds ratio = 0.35; 95%CI 0.14-0.88), and high emetogenic chemotherapy (odds ratio 0.55; 95%CI 0.31-0.95). CONCLUSION: The incidence of nausea was higher than that of vomiting, and adverse effects were more frequent in the late phase. The results suggest the risk factors for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are tobacco, age (young adults), and high emetogenic chemotherapy.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Estimar a incidência e avaliar os fatores de risco para náuseas e vômitos induzidos por antineoplásicos com alto e moderado potencial emético em pacientes adultos, no primeiro ciclo de tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, com 269 adultos acompanhados durante o primeiro ciclo de quimioterapia antineoplásica. A incidência de náuseas e vômitos foi avaliada na fase aguda (0-24 horas), na fase tardia (24 horas-5° dia) e na fase total (0-5° dia). RESULTADOS: 152 pacientes foram submetidos a quimioterápico com alto potencial emético e 117 a moderado potencial emético. A frequência relativa de náuseas foi maior quando comparada à de vômitos na fase aguda (p < 0,001) e na fase tardia (p < 0,001). Os fatores de risco identificados foram: faixa etária ≤ 49 anos (odds ratio = 0,47; IC95% 0,23-0,95) e 50-64 anos (odds ratio = 0,45; IC95% 0,23-0,87), uso de tabaco (odds ratio = 0,35; IC95% 0,14-0,88) e alto potencial emético dos quimioterápicos (odds ratio 0,55; IC95% 0,31-0,95). CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de náuseas foi maior do que a de vômitos, e na fase tardia os efeitos adversos foram mais frequentes. Os resultados sugerem que os fatores de risco para náuseas e vômitos induzidos por quimioterapia são o tabaco, a idade (adultos jovens) e o alto potencial emético do quimioterápico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vomiting/chemically induced , Nausea/chemically induced , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 472-478, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979377

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Fibromyalgia/drug therapy , Tourette Syndrome/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Dementia/drug therapy , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Nausea/drug therapy
5.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 82-90, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757418

ABSTRACT

This article reports orthodontic treatment of a case of hypodontia of five premolars in an 11-year-old female patient with a positive tooth size-arch length discrepancy in both dental arches. The patient had a straight profile with balanced facial growth. Setup manufacture revealed the possibility of achieving ideal occlusion by mesializing permanent molars up to 15 mm, in addition to keeping a primary molar in the dental arch. With the aid of absolute anchorage, the proposed mechanics was performed and the occlusion predicted in the setup was achieved, while profile and facial growth pattern were maintained. The use of miniscrews for extensive orthodontic movements was successful. Furthermore, one primary molar was extensively mesialized. The indication of gingivoplasty to correct gingival smile proved effective. This is considered a useful technique for orthodontists.


Este artigo apresenta o tratamento ortodôntico de um caso com hipodontia de cinco pré-molares, em uma paciente, de 11 anos de idade, com discrepância positiva de modelo em ambas as arcadas. A paciente apresentava perfil reto, com crescimento facial equilibrado. Por meio da confecção de set-up, verificou-se a possibilidade de se estabelecer uma oclusão ideal por meio da mesialização, de até 15mm, dos molares permanentes e manutenção de um molar decíduo no arco. Com o auxílio de ancoragem absoluta, foi realizada a mecânica proposta, alcançando-se a oclusão prevista em set-up, além da manutenção do perfil e do padrão de crescimento facial. A utilização de mini-implantes para grandes movimentos ortodônticos foi favorável, incluindo a extensa mesialização de um molar decíduo. A indicação da gengivoplastia para correção do sorriso gengival se mostrou acertada, sendo essa uma técnica de grande auxílio à Ortodontia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Dog Diseases/chemically induced , Hydromorphone/adverse effects , Nausea/veterinary , Quinuclidines/therapeutic use , Vomiting/veterinary , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule/veterinary , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/drug therapy , Quinuclidines/administration & dosage , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/drug therapy
6.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 61(2): 115-121, abr./jun. 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833809

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Náuseas e vômitos estão entre os efeitos mais frequentes da quimioterapia antineoplásica, afetando cerca de 70% a 80% dos pacientes. A terapia antiemética objetiva prevenir o surgimento desses efeitos. Objetivo: Verificar a conformidade das prescrições de antieméticos, em uma unidade oncológica, de acordo com as diretrizes internacionais. Método: Estudo retrospectivo-descritivo a partir da coleta de dados das prescrições de quimioterapia do serviço de oncologia de um hospital universitário de Belém. Foram analisadas as prescrições dos pacientes ambulatoriais atendidos durante o período de um ano. Para a classificação do nível emetogênico de quimioterápicos isolados, utilizaram-se as classificações adotadas pela Multinational Association of Suportive Care in Cancer, American Society of Clinical Oncology e National Comprehensive Cancer Network; e, para associações de quimioterápicos, o algoritmo de Hesketh e colaboradores. Resultados: Entre as 143 prescrições analisadas, 27,3% apresentaram nível emetogênico baixo, 0,7% moderado e 72% alto. O estudo demonstrou que houve variabilidade entre as prescrições de antieméticos analisadas e as principais diretrizes. Quanto às não conformidades observadas, 53,8% ocorreram no manejo da terapia de nível emetogênico baixo, envolvendo associação ou dose; 100% no nível moderado e 27,2% no nível alto, relacionados à dose.Conclusão: A prevenção adequada das náuseas e vômitos é essencial para preservar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes oncológicos. Dessa forma, é necessário um protocolo intra-hospitalar para prescrição de antieméticos conforme as diretrizes internacionais. Esta pesquisa também alerta para a necessidade da intervenção farmacêutica em tempo real a fim de contribuir para o uso racional de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/prevention & control , Vomiting/prevention & control
7.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 35(3): 117-123, Sep/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-725732

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in women with breast cancer and identify strategies used by them to control these signs and symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected through interviews during the last cycle of chemotherapy, between August 2011 and March 2012, in a university hospital in the State of São Paulo. The sample consisted of 22 women between the ages of 31 and 70, of whom 77.3% reported nausea and 50% vomiting during treatment. Regarding symptom management, 82% of the women reported having received some information centered on the use of prescribed medication. However, 27.3% did not know what medication they had taken. We concluded that there is a lack of systematic care and institutional protocol to guide professionals in providing standardized information to women so they can better control nausea and vomiting.


Este estudio objetivó analizar la incidencia de náuseas y vómitos en mujeres con cáncer de mama durante la quimioterapia, identificar el manejo utilizado para controlar estos signos y síntomas. Estudio transversal, cuyos datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas en el último ciclo de quimioterapia entre agosto 2011 y marzo 2012 en un hospital universitario en el Estado de São Paulo. La muestra consistió de 22 mujeres, con edades entre 31 y 70 años, que el 77,3% reportó náuseas y el 50% vómitos durante el tratamiento. Cuanto al manejo, el 82% afirmó que habían recibido algún tipo de información centrada en el uso de la medicación prescrita, sin embargo, el 27,3% no supo responder cuál medicación fue utilizada. Se concluye que falta de sistematización de la atención y protocolo institucional para orientar profesionales para ofrecer información estandarizada, posibilitando el seguimiento de las mujeres para tener un mejor control de náuseas y vómitos.


Objetivou-se analisar a ocorrência de náusea e vômito em mulheres com câncer de mama durante a quimioterapia, e identificar o manejo utilizado para o controle desses sinais e sintomas. Pesquisa transversal, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, no último ciclo de quimioterapia, entre agosto de 2011 e março de 2012 em um hospital universitário no interior do Estado de São Paulo. A amostra foi composta por 22 mulheres, com idade entre 31 e 70 anos, e 77,3% relataram náusea e 50% vômito, durante o tratamento. Quanto ao manejo, 82% delas afirmaram ter recebido algum tipo de informação que ficou centrada no uso da medicamento prescrito, entretanto, 27,3% não souberam responder qual medicamento usaram. Concluiu-se que há falta de sistematização da assistência e protocolo institucional que norteiem os profissionais a fornecer informações padronizadas, possibilitando o seguimento das mulheres, a fim de terem controle mais adequado da náusea e vômito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/epidemiology , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Incidence , Nausea/chemically induced , Vomiting/chemically induced
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(3): 147-151, 14/abr. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710417

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nausea and vomiting are major inconveniences for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Despite standard preventive treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still occurs in approximately 50% of these patients. In an attempt to optimize this treatment, we evaluated the possible effects of carbamazepine for prevention of CINV. DESIGN AND LOCATION: Prospective nonrandomized open-label phase II study carried out at a Brazilian public oncology service. METHODS: Patients allocated for their first cycle of highly emetogenic chemotherapy were continuously recruited. In addition to standard antiemetic protocol that was made available, they received carbamazepine orally, with staggered doses, from the third day before until the fifth day after chemotherapy. Considering the sparseness of evidence about the efficacy of anticonvulsants for CINV prevention, we used Simon's two-stage design, in which 43 patients should be included unless overall complete prevention was not achieved in 9 out of the first 15 entries. The Functional Living Index-Emesis questionnaire was used to measure the impact on quality of life. RESULTS: None of the ten patients (0%) presented overall complete prevention. In three cases, carbamazepine therapy was withdrawn because of somnolence and vomiting before chemotherapy. Seven were able to take the medication for the entire period and none were responsive, so the study was closed. There was no impact on the patients' quality of life. CONCLUSION: Carbamazepine was not effective for prevention of CINV and also had a deleterious side-effect profile in this population. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Náusea e vômito são inconvenientes importantes para pacientes submetidos a quimioterapia. A despeito do tratamento preventivo padrão, náuseas e vômitos induzidos por quimioterapia (NVIQ) ocorrem em aproximadamente 50% dos pacientes. Na tentativa de otimizar este tratamento, avaliamos os possíveis efeitos da carbamazepina na prevenção de náuseas e vômitos induzidos por quimioterapia. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo fase II, prospectivo, não randomizado, aberto, realizado em um serviço público brasileiro de oncologia. MÉTODOS: Recrutaram-se continuamente pacientes alocados para o primeiro ciclo de quimioterapia altamente emetogênica. Além do protocolo anti-emético padrão disponibilizado, os pacientes receberam carbamazepina, por via oral, em doses escalonadas, a partir do terceiro dia anterior até o quinto dia após a quimioterapia. Dada a escassa evidência de eficácia dos anticonvulsivantes na prevenção de NVIQ, adotamos o desenho de Simon em duas fases, que deveria incluir 43 pacientes a não ser que prevenção completa global não fosse alcançada em 9 dos primeiros 15 participantes. O questionário "Functional Living Index-Emesis" foi usado para avaliar o impacto na qualidade da vida. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos 10 pacientes (0%) apresentou prevenção completa global. Três tiveram a carbamazepina suspensa por sonolência e vômito antes da quimioterapia. Sete foram capazes de tomar a medicação por todo o período proposto e nenhum obteve resposta, sendo então interrompido o estudo. Não houve impacto na qualidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Carbamazepina não foi efetiva para prevenção de NVIQ e apresentou perfil deletério de efeitos adversos nesta população. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Nausea/prevention & control , Vomiting/prevention & control , Antiemetics/adverse effects , Carbamazepine/adverse effects , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders/chemically induced , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/drug therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70747

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the toxicity profiles of temozolomide in the treatment of malignant glioma as either concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 300 malignant glioma patients treated with temozolomide in two medical institutions in Korea between 2004 and 2010. Two hundred nine patients experienced a total of 618 toxicities during temozolomide therapy. A total of 84.8% of the 618 toxicities were Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade 1 or 2, while 15.2% were grade 3 or 4. Among the hematologic toxicities, thrombocytopenia (13.7%), anemia (11.0%), and AST/ALT increases (7.0%) were common. Among the non-hematologic toxicities, nausea (44.3%), vomiting (37.0%), and anorexia (14.3%) were the three most common toxicities. There was no mortality due to temozolomide. Although temozolomide showed many types of toxicities, the majority of the toxicities were tolerable and of lower grade. Gastrointestinal troubles are the most common toxicities in Korean patients treated with temozolomide.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anorexia/etiology , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/adverse effects , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Dacarbazine/adverse effects , Female , Glioma/drug therapy , Hematologic Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Vomiting/drug therapy , Young Adult
10.
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 Oct-Dec; 50(4): 285-291
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154279

ABSTRACT

Context: Currently, there is limited data on the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in Indian patients. Aims: This post hoc study assessed the efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant compared with aprepitant for prevention of CINV in the Indian population. A subgroup analysis was performed from data collected in a phase 3 study of intravenous (IV) fosaprepitant or oral aprepitant, plus the 5-HT 3 antagonist ondansetron and the corticosteroid dexamethasone, in cisplatin-naοve patients with solid malignancies. Materials and Methods: Patients scheduled to receive cisplatin (≥70 mg/m 2 ) were administered a single IV dose of fosaprepitant dimeglumine (150 mg) on day 1 or a 3-day dosing regimen of oral aprepitant (day 1:125 mg, days 2 and 3:80 mg) with standard doses of ondansetron and dexamethasone. Patients recorded nausea and/or vomiting episodes and their use of rescue medication and were monitored for adverse events (AEs) and tolerability. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in response rates between fosaprepitant and aprepitant were calculated using the Miettinen and Nurminen method. Results: In the Indian subpopulation (n = 372), efficacy was similar for patients in both the fosaprepitant or aprepitant groups; complete response in the overall, acute, and delayed phases and no vomiting in all phases were approximately 4 percentage points higher in the fosaprepitant group compared with the aprepitant group. Fosaprepitant was generally well-tolerated; common AEs were similar to oral aprepitant. Conclusions: IV fosaprepitant is as safe and effective as oral aprepitant in the Indian subpopulation and offers an alternative to the oral formulation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , African Continental Ancestry Group , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Continental Population Groups , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Indians, North American , Male , Middle Aged , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/prevention & control , Oceanic Ancestry Group , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/prevention & control
12.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-551640

ABSTRACT

Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common gastrointestinal toxicities of antineoplastic treatment; it may affect negatively patient`s nutritional condition, hidroeletrolitic balance and quality of life. This study aimed to identify evidences in medical literature regarding non-pharmacologic interventions to prevent and treat chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. We performed an integrative review on online databases for that purpose. We elected 9 articles from this research, which presented the following possible non-pharmacological interventions for chemotherapy emesis: accupressure, acupuncture, electroacupuncture, relaxing techniques and yoga. The authors concluded that the results suggested that these interventions should be recommended for cancer patients, mainly those presenting chemotherapy emesis in consecutive cycles.


Náuseas e vômitos são os sinais e sintomas mais prevalentes em relação à toxicidade gastrintestinal decorrentes da quimioterapia antineoplásica, podendo afetar a condição nutricional, o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico e a qualidade de vida do paciente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo identificar evidências na literatura científica relacionadas a intervenções não farmacológicas para náuseas e vômitos induzidos por quimioterapia. Foi realizada revisão integrativa da literatura. 09 estudos elegíveis apresentaram intervenções não farmacológicas para o manejo de náuseas e vômitos em pacientes submetidos à quimioterapia, a saber: acupressão, acupuntura, eletroacunpuntura, relaxamento e yoga. Os autores concluem que os resultados sugerem que o uso de intervenções não farmacológicas para náuseas e vômitos induzidos por quimioterapia deve ser considerado em pacientes com câncer principalmente naqueles que experimentam recorrência de êmese em ciclos subseqüentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oncology Nursing , Neoplasms , Nausea/drug therapy , Drug Therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Complementary Therapies
13.
Payesh-Health Monitor. 2008; 7 (4): 345-354
in Persian, English | IMEMR | ID: emr-89779

ABSTRACT

To assess the efficacy and safety of ginger [rhizome of Zingiber officinale] to reduce severity of nausea and numbers of vomiting in early pregnancy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and SID databaseswere searched for relevant sources. Randomized trials of oral ginger in comparison with placebo for nausea and/or vomiting in early pregnancy were selected. Two reviewers assessed the trial quality and extracted the data independently. Five trials met the inclusion criteria to assess the efficacy. Based on these trials, there was a significant reduction in severity of nausea after taking ginger compared with placebo [Pooled SMD= 0.882, 90% confidence interval 0.267 to 1.496]. Also there was similar effect in reducing number of vomiting [Pooled SMD= 0.631, 90% confidence interval 0.433 to 0.829]. In addition, there were 5 trials or observational studies which had assessed the potential fetomaternal side effects of ginger. There was no supporting evidence for increasing pregnancy complications after using Ginger. Based on the current evidences, Ginger reduces the severity of nausea and frequency of vomiting in early pregnancy. There are considerations about adverse effects, but they are not supported by the clinical evidence. It seems that ginger could be used during pregnancy in therapeutic doses [almost 1 gr per day] for limited durations


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Morning Sickness/drug therapy , Ginger/adverse effects , Nausea/drug therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Pregnancy
14.
Payesh-Health Monitor. 2008; 7 (4): 369-379
in Persian, English | IMEMR | ID: emr-89782

ABSTRACT

To determine the effect of continuous acupressure at P6.applied by Sea-Bands with acupressure buttons on the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy during the 8-20 weeks. A two-group quasi-experimental posttest-only and posttest-repeated measure in seventeen medical clinics or offices in southern Tehran was carried out. A convenience sample of Persian-speaking; healthily pregnant women in their 8-20 weeks of pregnancy; who had at least one episode of nausea, vomiting, or both before their prenatal clinic/ office visit where they were recruited. The women were randomly assigned to treatment or placebo groups. Treatment group [1] applied Sea-Bands with acupressure buttons to both wrists for 4 days and removed the Sea-Bands for 3 subsequent days. Placebo group [2] applied the Sea-Bands with out acupressure buttons to both wrists on the same time schedule as group 1. Self-reported daily diaries of the number of times per day that participants experienced nausea, the severity of nausea, the number of vomiting episodes per day, and the severity of vomiting were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the treatment group had significantly less frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy while wearing the Sea-Bands than did the placebo group. The treatment group also had significantly less frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy while wearing the Sea-Bands than when not wearing the Sea-Bands. Sea-Bands with acupressure buttons are a noninvasive, inexpensive, safe, and effective treatment for the nausea and vomiting of pregnancy


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Morning Sickness/therapy , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/drug therapy , Nausea/etiology , Nausea/drug therapy , Pregnancy
15.
Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences-Rahavard Danesh. 2008; 11 (2): 56-63
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-87734

ABSTRACT

Oral Ketamine is used as a low side effect analgesic in comparison with opioids, in different pain syndromes. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of oral Ketamine in renal colic treatment. In this clinical trial study 104 patients with renal colic, hospitalized in emergency department, were divided into two groups by Random block design. Group B received Pethidine [1 mg/kg up to 100 mg] and placebo, and group A received Pethidine with the same dose and Ketamine [0.5 mg/kg]. All patients were assessed for pain by using VAS chart, for nausea by a 0-3 scale and for the number of vomiting; at baseline and 1, 2 and 3 hours after taking drug. The results were analyzed by t-test. Average pain score and vomiting in all times and nausea score in one and three hours after receiving drugs were reduced significantly in patients who took Pethidine and Ketamine comparing patients who took Pethidine and placebo[p < 0.05]. Regarding the significant effect of Ketamine in reduction of pain, nausea and vomiting without side effects, it is possible to use Ketamine as an adjuvant drug in treatment of renal colic and to reduce narcotic dosage


Subject(s)
Humans , Colic/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Nausea/drug therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Double blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thammasat Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Between January 2005 and December 2005, 170 pregnant women who attended at antenatal clinic Thammasat University Hospital with the symptoms of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy were randomly allocated into group A (n = 85) and group B (n = 85). The patients in group A received one capsule of ginger twice daily (one capsule contained 0.5 gm of ginger powder) while the patients in group B received the identical capsule of 50 mg dimenhydrinate twice daily. The visual analogue nausea scores (VANS) and vomiting times were evaluated at day 0-7 of the treatment. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the visual analogue nausea scores (VANS) between group A and group B in day 1-7 of the treatment. The vomiting episodes of group A were greater than group B during the first and second day of the treatment with statistically significant difference. No difference in vomiting episodes during the day 3-7 of treatment was found in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the side effect of drowsiness after treatment in group B greater (77.64%) than group A (5.88%) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: From the presented data, ginger is as effective as dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and has fewer side effects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiemetics/pharmacology , Dimenhydrinate/pharmacology , Female , Ginger , Humans , Nausea/drug therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Sickness Impact Profile , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/drug therapy
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Medical College and Vajira Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred and twenty-six pregnant women, with a gestational age of < or = 16 weeks who had nausea and vomiting, required anti-emetics, had no medical complication, and were not hospitalized. Pregnant women were randomly allocated to receive either 650 mg of ginger or 25 mg of vitamin B6. They were given three times per day for 4 days. The degree of nausea and vomiting were assessed by three physical symptoms of Rhode's score (episodes of nausea, duration of nausea and number of vomits). These were recorded 24 hours before treatment for baseline and each subsequent day of treatment. Difference of baseline and post-treatment nausea vomiting scores were calculated for both groups during 4 days of treatment. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-three women returned to follow-up. Ginger and vitamin B6 significantly reduced nausea and vomiting scores from 8.7 +/- 2.2 to 5.4 +/- 2.0 and 8.3 +/- 2.5 to 5.7 +/- 2.3 respectively, (p < 0.05). The mean score change after treatment with ginger was greater than with vitamin B6 (3.3 +/- 1.5 versus 2.6 +/- 1.3), (p < 0.05). There were some minor side effects in both groups 25.4% and 23.8% (p = 0.795) respectively, such as sedation, heartburn, arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: Both ginger and vitamin B6 were effective for treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Moreover, ginger was more effective than vitamin B6. Side effects from ginger were reported to be minor and did not need any treatment.


Subject(s)
Double-Blind Method , Female , Ginger , Humans , Nausea/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Vitamin B 6/administration & dosage , Vitamin B Complex/therapeutic use , Vomiting/drug therapy
18.
Annals of King Edward Medical College. 2006; 12 (2): 184-186
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-75825

ABSTRACT

The etiology, assessment and the pharmacotherapy of patients with Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting are reviewed. In the clinical practice of oncology, adverse drug reactions due to chemotherapy have become almost synonymous with the treatment themselves. The low therapeutic index of chemotherapy and the predictable and common adverse events with cancer treatments means that these events are seen as an un-avoidable component of treatment. Supportive care therapies are critical to the physical and emotional well being of the patient with cancer, which increases the chance, that chemotherapy and radiation can be administered at the optimal dose and on schedule. Approximately 70% to 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy; experience nausea and vomiting [N and V], which can disrupt their lives in numerous ways. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapy regimen greatly affects the patient's risk for developing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting [CINV]. In addition to established and emerging pharmaco logical approaches to managing CINV, many complementary and integrated modalities may be the options. Progress in CINV management must include a better understanding of its etiology and focus on prevention


Subject(s)
Humans , Nausea/drug therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/chemically induced , Antiemetics
19.
Armaghane-danesh. 2006; 11 (3): 21-28
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-76142

ABSTRACT

Nausea and vomiting are common after general anesthesia. Nausea and vomiting are also common after tympanomastoid surgery that may endanger the results of middle ear reconstruction. Medications like dexamethasone have been used to prevent nausea and vomiting. In this study, the effect of dexamethasone on decreasing nausea and vomiting following tympanomastoid surgery has been evaluated. This study is a case control, double blinded, clinical trial that was performed in Dastgheib Hospital affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during 1381-1383. Eighty patients candidate for tympanomastoid surgery who were in physical status I [according to the classification of the American Anesthesiology Association] were selected randomly. These patients were divided into two control and study groups [each group consisting of 40 patients]. Just before induction of anesthesia, 2 ml normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in control group and 2 ml dexamethasone [8 mg] was given to the patients in the study group. The data were collected by a special form, and SPSS software and Chi Square test were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between the study and control groups regarding the mean of age, male to female ratio, and length of anesthesia. Use of dexamethasone resulted in 32.5% decrease in post operative nausea [p=0.002] and 22.5% decrease in vomiting [p=0.04]. It seems that 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone is effective in reducing nausea and vomiting following tympanomastoid surgery and can be used routinely during tympanornastoid surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nausea/drug therapy , Vomiting/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Mastoid/surgery , Tympanic Membrane/surgery , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy
20.
SPJ-Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2006; 14 (1): 84-86
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-81150

ABSTRACT

Most patients who undergo chemotherapy have noted that nausea and vomiting are the most feared and distressing side-effects of cancer treatment [1]. Nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy can be classified as acute, delayed, or anticipatory. Acute emesis generally occurs within 24 hours of chemotherapy administration; while delayed nausea and vomiting begin 24 hours after chemotherapy and may continue for up to one week. Anticipatory emesis occurs prior to chemotherapy in patients who anticipate another episode by sight, odors, or memory of the place where acute nausea and vomiting occurred [2.3]. Different neurotransmitters found in the gastrointestinal tract [GIT] and central nervous system [CNS] mediate the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting [CINV].These include dopamine, histamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and substance P; which act directly and indirectly on the vomiting center located in the lateral reticular formation of the medulla [1,4]. Substance P is a member of the tachykinins family of neuropeptides.The biological activity of this substance is to induce vomiting mediated by neurokinin-1 [NK1] receptors located primarily in the GIT and the CNS [5]. Both NK1 receptors and substance P play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute and delayed CINV


Subject(s)
Humans , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/drug therapy , Nausea/etiology , Nausea/drug therapy , Antiemetics , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects
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