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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 74-79, 30 junio 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292925

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Para el tratamiento farmacoterapéutico de enfermedades respi-ratorias, el uso de herramientas para abordar la vía inhalatoria es de elección por su mayor eficacia y menos efectos secundarios; registrar su adhesión y prevalencia es importante. OBJETIVO. Determinar el nivel y la prevalencia de adhesión al uso de inhaladores en pacientes con Asma y Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Cróni-ca. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 215 y muestra de 121 Historias Clínicas. Se aplicó el Test de Adhesión a Inhaladores, que consistió en dos cuestionarios complementarios: el de 10 ítems, que valoró el nivel de adhesión, y el de 12 que identificó el tipo de incumplimiento en pacientes de Consulta Externa de la Unidad Técnica de Neumología del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, periodo julio 2018 - enero 2019. La tabulación y análisis de datos se realizó con el programa Excel. RESULTADOS. La prevalencia de mala adhesión en asmáticos fue de 83,33% y en Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica 13,33%. En cuanto al sexo, la prevalencia de mala adhesión fue de 15,28% en hombres y de 40,82% en mujeres, con una p<0,05. No se encontró diferencia significativa respecto a los niveles de instrucción. CONCLUSIÓN. La prevalencia de mala adhesión al uso de inhaladores en pacientes con Asma y Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica fue alta sobre todo en los asmáticos.


INTRODUCTION. For respiratory diseases and their pharmacotherapeutic treatment, the use of tools to address the inhalation route is chosen due to its greater efficacy and fewer secondary effects; then record the adherence and prevalence is important. OBJECTIVE. To determine both level and prevalence of adherence to the use of inhalers in patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. MATE-RIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 215 and sam-ple of 121 patients. The Inhaler Adherence Test was applied, which consisted of two complementary questionnaires: a 10-item questionnaire, which assessed the level of adherence, and a 12-item questionnaire that identified the type of non-compliance in patients of the Pneumology Technical Unit of the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, period July 2018 - January 2019. The tabulation and data analysis was performed with Microsoft Excel program. RESULTS. The prevalence of poor ad-herence in asthmatics was 83.33% and in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease was 13.3%. Regarding gender, the prevalence of poor adherence was 15.28% in men and 40.82% in women, with a p <0.05. No significant differences were found regarding the levels of instruction. CONCLUSION. The prevalence of poor adherence to the use of inhalers in patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease was high, especially in asthmatics


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Asthma , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pulmonary Medicine , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Respiratory Therapy , Bronchodilator Agents , Medication Therapy Management , Medication Adherence , Dry Powder Inhalers
2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-14, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363249

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the most used and effective preservation strategies in foods is drying. However, there are problems with the rheological properties, color, and viability of lactic acid bacteria in the yogurt once reconstituted when applying such conservation strategies. Objectives: Determine the concentration of the type of texture improver and drying that minimizes the negative effect on the rheological, color, and microbiological properties of a reconstituted yogurt powder. Methods: Intended to determine the texture improver which increases rheological properties of reconstituted yogurt powder, a mixture type experimental design was applied where three texture improvers were assessed; carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (mass fraction 0 - 1), pectin (mass fraction 0 - 1), and xanthan gum (mass fraction 0 - 1). The rheological parameters; consistency index (K), flow behavior (n), viscosity at 100s-1 (η), the storage (G') and loss (G'') modules, and the phase shift angle (δ) of each of the reconstitutions were considered as design-dependent variables. Secondly, a central composite design (face-centered) was used for assessing the effectiveness of the drying (convection, spray-drying, and freeze-drying), the concentration of the texture improver (0.0 - 1.0 %), and the yogurt powder concentration (8.0 - 15.0 %). The above-mentioned rheological parameters, color, and viability of the lactic acid bacteria from each reconstituted yogurt powder were considered as the dependent variables. Optimization sought to match the parameters of reconstituted yogurt powder that approximated the conditions of fresh yogurt. Results: The independent variables in their lineal expression and some interactions between them had statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). At a concentration of 10.59 % with 0.03 % xanthan gum, the reconstitution of freeze-dried yogurt powder was the optimized condition (p < 0.05) and obtained the rheological, color, and microbiological parameters closest to fresh yogurt. Conclusions: The drying of the yogurt by freeze-drying mixed with xanthan gum as a texture improver allowed to obtain a reconstituted yogurt with properties close to the fresh product for direct consumption


Antecedentes: Una de las estrategias de conservación más utilizadas y efectivas en los alimentos es el secado. Sin embargo, existen problemas en las propiedades reológicas, el color y la viabilidad de bacterias ácido lácticas en el yogur una vez reconstituido al aplicar tales estrategias de conservación. Objetivos: Determinar la concentración del tipo de mejorador de textura y secado que minimiza el efecto negativo sobre las propiedades reológicas, de color y microbiológicas de un yogur en polvo reconstituido. Métodos: Para determinar el mejorador de textura que aumente las propiedades reológicas del yogur en polvo reconstituido, se aplicó un diseño experimental de tipo de mezcla donde se evaluaron tres mejoradores de textura; carboximetilcelulosa (CMC) (fracción de masa 0 -1), pectina (fracción de masa 0 -1) y goma xantan (fracción de masa 0 -1); los parámetros reológicos: índice de consistencia (K), comportamiento de flujo (n), viscosidad a 100s-1 (η), módulos de almacenamiento (G') y pérdida (G''), y ángulo de desfase (δ) de cada una de las reconstituciones fueron considerados como variables dependientes. En segundo lugar, se utilizó un diseño central compuesto (centrado a las caras) para evaluar el efecto del tipo de secado (convección, secado por aspersión y liofilización), la concentración del mejorador de textura (0.0 - 1.0 %) y concentración del yogur en polvo (8.0 - 15.0 %). Como variables dependientes se consideraron los parámetros reológicos mencionados anteriormente, el color y la viabilidad de las bacterias ácido lácticas de cada yogur en polvo reconstituido. La optimización buscó igualar los parámetros del yogur en polvo reconstituido que se aproximaran a las condiciones del yogur fresco. Resultados: Las variables independientes en su expresión lineal y algunas interacciones entre ellas tuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0.05). La reconstitución de yogur liofilizado en polvo a una concentración de 10.59 % con 0.03 % de goma xantan, fueron las condiciones optimizadas (p < 0.05) que obtuvieron los parámetros reológicos, de color y microbiológicos más cercanos al yogur fresco. Conclusión: El secado del yogur por liofilización mezclado con goma xantan como mejorador de la textura, permitió obtener un yogur reconstituido con propiedades cercanas al producto fresco para consumo directo


Subject(s)
Humans , Freeze Drying , Rheology , Yogurt , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Food Preservation
3.
Más Vita ; 3(1): 56-65, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253308

ABSTRACT

Los Terapeutas respiratorios juegan un papel importante en la prevención de la neumonía asociada al ventilador, esta enfermedad es la infección hospitalaria más común en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y la principal causa de muerte. Objetivo: Describir el rol del terapeuta respiratorio en la prevención de neumonía asociada al ventilador. Materiales y métodos: Este artículo fue realizado bajo los parámetros de la revisión documental, de nivel descriptivo, monográfico. La técnica aplicada fue el fichaje bibliográfico y el análisis sistemático de los documentos encontrados en la web. Resultados: Gracias a la revisión, análisis y síntesis de la bibliografía se obtuvo como resultado que la higiene de las manos, sumado a medidas específicas de prevención no farmacológicas, como elevación de la cabecera, manejo de presión del neumotaponamiento, aseo de la cavidad oral, aspiración y manejo de secreciones, así como estrategias para conservar la nutrición integral, son medidas simples y con buenos resultados en la prevención de la NAVM. Conclusiones: El rol del terapista respiratorio en la prevención de neumonía asociada al ventilador es cumplir con el tratamiento no farmacológico para el bienestar del paciente. Estas acciones van desde el acompañamiento hasta el lavado de manos adecuado antes y después de la atención(AU)


Respiratory therapists play an important role in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the leading cause of death. Objective: To describe the role of the respiratory therapist in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: This article was carried out under the parameters of a descriptive, monographic, documentary review. The technique applied was the bibliographic file and the systematic analysis of the documents found on the web. The results: According the review, analysis and synthesis of the literature, it was found that hand hygiene, together with specific non-pharmacological prevention measures, such as head elevation, pneumotapon pressure management, oral cavity cleaning, secretion aspiration and management, as well as strategies to maintain integral nutrition, are simple measures with good results in the prevention of VAP. Conclusions: The role of the respiratory therapist in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia is to comply with non-pharmacological treatment for the patient's well-being. These actions range from accompaniment to proper hand washing before and after care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Therapy , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory System , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(3): e20200473, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279291

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To measure peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and assess dynamic lung function in children and adolescents with asthma, as well as to determine the association of PIF with dynamic lung function and clinical variables. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents with asthma using dry powder inhalers (DPIs) regularly. The control group included sex-, age-, weight-, and height-matched individuals without lung disease. Socioeconomic and clinical variables were collected. PIF and dynamic lung function variables were obtained with a specific device. Between-group comparisons were made with the Student's t-test and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess associations between PIF and the other variables. Results: A total of 88 individuals (44 asthma patients and 44 controls) participated in the study. PIF and respiratory muscle strength (S-index) values were lower in the asthma patients than in the controls. PIF correlated positively with age, weight, height, and S-index in the asthma group. After controlling for height, we found an increase of 0.05 units in PIF associated with an increase of 1 unit in the S-index in the asthma group. Conclusions: PIF appears to be lower in children and adolescents with asthma than in those without asthma, correlating positively with age, height, weight, and respiratory muscle strength.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o pico de fluxo inspiratório (PFI) e a função pulmonar dinâmica de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos e verificar sua associação com variáveis clínicas. Métodos: Estudo transversal com crianças e adolescentes asmáticos que faziam uso regular de inaladores de pó. O grupo controle foi composto por participantes sem doença pulmonar, pareados por sexo, idade, peso e altura. Foram coletadas variáveis socioeconômicas e clínicas. O PFI e variáveis de função pulmonar dinâmica foram obtidos através de um dispositivo específico. As associações entre os dois grupos foram estudadas utilizando-se o teste t de Student e ANOVA. Realizou-se um modelo de regressão linear múltipla e foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson para estimar associações entre o PFI e as demais variáveis. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 88 participantes (44 em cada grupo). Nos asmáticos, os valores do PFI e de força muscular respiratória (S-índex) foram menores que os dos controles. O PFI nos asmáticos apresentou correlações positivas com as variáveis idade, peso, altura e S-índex. Controlando-se a altura, houve um aumento de 0,05 unidades no PFI associado ao aumento de 1 unidade de S-índex nos asmáticos. Conclusões: O PFI é menor em crianças e adolescentes com asma em comparação àqueles sem asma com características antropométricas semelhantes e apresenta correlações positivas com idade, altura, peso e força dos músculos respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Dry Powder Inhalers , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Muscles , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 176-201, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138552

ABSTRACT

El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo, en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/drug therapy , Vitamin D/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Radiography, Thoracic , Precipitating Factors , Chile , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential
7.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(3): 381-401, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127611

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren.


El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/physiopathology , Status Asthmaticus/etiology , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Chile , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
8.
s.l; IETSI; 24 mar. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1095866

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: El paciente con diagnóstico de COVID19 puede desarrollar dentro de sus complicaciones, compromiso pulmonar y neumonía, esto se traduce en síntomas como dificultad para respirar (distress respiratorio); de confirmarse el diagnóstico se debe realizar el manejo del cuadro causado por el virus SARS-CoV-2. En ese contexto se aplican medicamentos como los broncodilatadores. Gracias a su acción beta-2- agonista, llegan por vía inhalada a los pulmones y al músculo liso bronquial donde incrementa el diámetro del bronquio, lo que mejora la ventilación pulmonar. La vía de administración del medicamento puede realizarse mediante: (a) nebulización, utilizando una mascarilla que cubra la región de nariz y boca conectada a una solución que contenga el broncodilatador, donde la solución se convierte en aerosol lo que es impulsado hacia los pulmones con ayuda de un pequeño motor eléctrico o a baterías; (b) aerocámara, es un dispositivo que por un extremo cubre la región de nariz y boca, que tiene en el otro extremo una desembocadura que encaja en la boquilla de un inhalador (producto que contiene el medicamento precargado y dosificado en puffs). Ante el escenario de administrar un broncodilatador por vía inhalada mediante nebulización versus aerocámara en pacientes con COVID19, es que nos planteamos los siguientes escenarios: (a) determinar si existen diferencias en la eficacia de la administración de medicamento (como el broncodilatador) mediante nebulización versus aerocámara, en pacientes con diagnostico de COVID19 que se encuentren estables y (b) determinar si la nebulización del paciente con diagnóstico de COVID19 con medicamentos tipo broncodilatadores, incrementan el riesgo de contagio al personal de salud. EFICACIA DE LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE MEDICAMENTO (COMO EL BRONCODILATADOR) MEDIANTE NEBULIZACIÓN VERSUS AEROCÁMARA, EN PACIENTES CON DIAGNÓSTICO DE COVID19 QUE SE ENCUENTREN ESTABLES: Encontramos que a la fecha (21 marzo 2020), no existen estudios comparativos que evalúen la eficacia de la administración de medicamento (como el broncodilatador) mediante nebulización versus aerocámara, en pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID19 que se encuentren estables. Sin embargo, como antecedente tomamos información de una revisión sistemática (RS) donde se hace la misma comparación en pacientes con diagnóstico de asma (Cates, Welsh, and Rowe 2013). En dicha RS, se tuvo como objetivo evaluar la efectividad comparada de las aerocámaras vs nebulizadores para administración de broncodilatadores (beta-2-agonistas) en pacientes con asma aguda. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la cantidad de hospitalizaciones en los pacientes atendidos con broncodilatador mediante aerocámara comparada con nebulización en niños (RR=0.71 IC95% 0.47 a 1.08) ni en adultos (RR=0.94 IC95% 0.61 a 1.43) con asma (que no llegaba a comprometer la vida del paciente). En el grupo de pacientes pediátricos, los que recibieron broncodilatador mediante aerocámara permanecieron en la emergencia durante menos tiempo (media tiempo de permanencia=33 minutos), comparado con los niños que recibieron el broncodilatador mediante nebulizador (media de tiempo= 103 minutos), (IC95% -43 a -24 minutos). Por ello, los autores concluyeron de manera indirecta, que la recuperación de la crisis asmática en el paciente pediátrico con el uso de aerocámara fue más rápida que cuando se utilizó el nebulizador. LA NEBULIZACIÓN DEL PACIENTE CON DIAGNÓSTICO DE COVID19 CON MEDICAMENTOS TIPO BRONCODILATADORES, INCREMENTAN EL RIESGO DE CONTAGIO AL PERSONAL DE SALUD: Guías de Práctica Clínica: La ANZICS, publicó el 16 de marzo 2020, recomendaciones sobre el manejo de aerosoles por parte del personal de salud y del uso de equipo de protección personal (EPP). La guía recomienda el uso de equipo de protección personal (EPP) contra infecciones trasmitidas por aerosoles como precaución en la atención de pacientes hospitalizados en la UCI, con diagnóstico de COVID19. Recomienda aplicar la mínima cantidad de procedimientos que generen aerosoles en el paciente con COVID19 en la UCI, como la intubación, extubación, broncoscopía, uso de oxígeno de alto flujo, ventilación no invasiva (con pobre sello hermético), realizar procedimientos en niños en llanto, traqueostomía, resucitación cardiopulmonar antes de la intubación; en habitaciones a presión negativa (de preferencia) o en habitaciones con aire ambiental. Manifiestan una recomendación en contra de la nebulización de medicamentos como broncodilatadores o solución salina. Además, se manifiestan en contra de utilizar el EPP que no cumpla con las recomendaciones señaladas. REPORTE DE CASO: Este es el reporte de un paciente en China que ejemplifica que, si se utiliza adecuadamente la EPP, los contagios a personal de salud se pueden minimizar. En este reporte se presenta un paciente con neumonía severa inicialmente con sospecha de COVID19, en quien se realizó los siguientes procedimientos: administración de oxígeno. por presentar dificultad respiratoria, intubación endotraqueal, laringoscopía y ventilación mecánica (VM) en la UCI. El paciente mejoró y a los 3 días salió de VM. La confirmación de que el paciente tenía COVID19 se obtuvo cuando se extubó al paciente. El punto de interés es que 41 profesionales de la salud estuvieron en contacto con el paciente durante procedimientos que generaron aerosoles, por lo menos durante 10 minutos y a una distancia de menos de 2 metros del paciente. Todos los trabajadores fueron aislados por dos semanas, tuvieron monitorización cercana de los síntomas, con realización de PCR para determinar infección. Sin embargo, ninguno de los 41 trabajadores de salud desarrolló síntomas y todos los PCR fueron negativos. Este reporte no pretende determinar que no existen contagios de pacientes con COVID19 a profesionales de la salud, sino ser un ejemplo, de que cuando se tienen las medidas de protección adecuada (EPP), el riesgo de contagio puede llegar a ser muy bajo. CONCLUSIONES: No se han encontrado estudios que evalúen si hay diferencias respecto a usar nebulizadores o aerocámaras en aliviar la dificultad respiratoria en pacientes con COVID-19. No obstante, se tiene evidencia científica proveniente de estudios en asma que muestra que, para el desenlace clínico de cantidad de hospitalizaciones en el contexto de pacientes con asma aguda, no existen diferencias entre usar nebulizadores o aerocámaras. Lo que sugiere que, desde la perspectiva del paciente, podría ser igual de beneficioso usar uno u otro método para mejorar los síntomas de dificultad respiratoria. Sin embargo, al ser el SARS-CoV-2 un agente infeccioso con alto índice de transmisión existiría un riesgo de infección para los trabajadores de salud si se nebuliza a estos pacientes debido a la alta dispersión de aerosol exhalado, por lo que sería recomendable preferir administrar el broncodilatador por aerocámara.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Peru , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
9.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(260): 3537-3542, jan.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1095562

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a técnica de uso dos dispositivos inalatórios em pacientes portadores de DPOC, atendidos no ambulatório de pneumologia de um Hospital Terciário na cidade do Recife-PE. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, prospectiva, de corte transversal. Participaram da pesquisa 150 pessoas com diagnóstico de DPOC. Foram utilizados 02 instrumentos estruturados, um questionário demográfico e um checklist observacional. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o software SPSS, versão 18. Os principais erros encontrados da técnica inalatória são: "Expirar o ar normalmente" e "Fazer pausa inspiratória de 10 segundos" (p-valor < 0,005). Em geral, a renda salarial baixa e o baixo nível de escolaridade foram determinantes para a inadequacidade da técnica inalatória. Estudos anteriores, nacionais e internacionais, corroboram na reprodução desses condicionantes.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the technique of inhaled devices used in patients with COPD, treated at a pulmonary outpatient clinic at a Tertiary Hospital in Recife, PE. It is a descriptive, prospective cross-sectional study. 150 people with a diagnosis of COPD participated in the study. We used 02 structured instruments, a demographic questionnaire and an observational checklist. The SPSS version 18 software was used to analyze the data. The main errors found in the inhalation technique were: "Exhale the air normally" and "Take a 10 second inspiratory pause" (p-value <0.005). In general, low wage income and low level of schooling were decisive for the inadequacy of the inhalation technique. Previous national and international studies corroborate the reproduction of these conditions.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el uso de dispositivos de inhalación en pacientes con EPOC tratados en la clínica de neumología ambulatoria de un hospital terciario en Recife-PE. Esta es una investigación descriptiva, prospectiva, transversal. 150 personas diagnosticadas con EPOC participaron en el estudio. Se utilizaron dos instrumentos estructurados, un cuestionario demográfico y una lista de verificación observacional. El software SPSS versión 18 se utilizó para el análisis de datos. Los principales errores encontrados en la técnica de inhalación fueron: "Exhalar normalmente" y "Tomar una pausa inspiratoria de 10 segundos" (valor de p <0,005). En general, los bajos ingresos salariales y el bajo nivel de educación fueron determinantes para la insuficiencia de la técnica de inhalación. Estudios nacionales e internacionales anteriores corroboram la reproducción de estas condiciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Socioeconomic Factors , Nursing Care
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811066

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma control in older asthmatics is often less effective, which may be attributed to small airway dysfunction and poor inhalation technique. We compared the efficacy of 2 inhalers (fluticasone propionate/formoterol treatment using a pressurized metered-dose inhaler [p-MDI group] vs. fluticasone propionate/salmeterol treatment using a dry powder inhaler [DPI group]) in older asthmatics.METHODS: We conducted a 12-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-designed trial in older patients (over 55 years old) with moderate-to-severe asthma, and compared the efficacy and safety for asthma control between the 2 groups. Subgroup analyses on disease duration and air trapping were performed. Clinical parameters, including changes in lung function parameters, inhaler technique and adherence, were compared with monitoring adverse reactions between the 2 groups.RESULTS: A total of 68 patients underwent randomization, and 63 (30 in the p-MDI group and 33 in the DPI group) completed this study. The p-MDI group was non-inferior to the DPI group with regard to the rate of well-controlled asthma (53.3% vs. 45.5%, P < 0.001; a predefined non-inferiority limit of 17%). In subgroup analyses, the proportion of patients who did not reach well-controlled asthma in the p-MDI group was non-inferior to that in the DPI group; the difference was 12.7% among those with a longer disease duration (≥ 15 years) and 17.5% among those with higher air-trapping (RV/TLC ≥ 45%), respectively (a predefined non-inferiority limit of 17%, P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in lung function parameters, inhalation techniques, adherence and adverse reactions between the 2 groups.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the p-MDI group may be comparable to the DPI group in the management of older asthmatics in aspects of efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Airway Management , Asthma , Dry Powder Inhalers , Fluticasone , Humans , Inhalation , Lung , Medication Adherence , Metered Dose Inhalers , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Random Allocation
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 350-357, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The administration of ketamine as nebulized inhalation is relatively new and studies on nebulized ketamine are scarce. We aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of nebulized ketamine (1 and 2 mg.kg-1) administered 30 min before general anesthesia in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy in comparison with intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and saline placebo. Methods One hundred children aged (7-12) years were randomly allocated in four groups (n = 25) receive; Saline Placebo (Group C), Intravenous Ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group K-IV), Nebulized Ketamine 1 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N1) or 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N2). The primary endpoint was the total consumption of rescue analgesics in the first 24 h postoperative. Results The mean time to first request for rescue analgesics was prolonged in K-N1 (400.9 ± 60.5 min, 95% CI 375.9-425.87) and K-N2 (455.5 ± 44.6 min, 95% CI 437.1-473.9) groups compared with Group K-IV (318.5 ± 86.1 min, 95% CI 282.9-354.1) and Group C (68.3 ± 21.9 min, 95% CI 59.5-77.1; p < 0.001), with a significant difference between K-N1 and K-N2 Groups (p < 0.001). The total consumption of IV paracetamol in the first 24 h postoperative was reduced in Group K-IV (672.6 ± 272.8 mg, 95% CI 559.9-785.2), Group K-N1 (715.6 ± 103.2 mg, 95% CI 590.4-840.8) and Group K-N2 (696.6 ± 133.3 mg, 95% CI 558.8-834.4) compared with Control Group (1153.8 ± 312.4 mg, 95% CI 1024.8-1282.8; p < 0.001). With no difference between intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups (p = 0.312). Patients in intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups showed lower postoperative VRS scores compared with Group C (p < 0.001), no differences between K-IV, K-N1 or K-N2 group and without significant adverse effects. Conclusion Preemptive nebulized ketamine was effective for post-tonsillectomy pain relief. It can be considered as an effective alternative route to IV ketamine.


Resumo Objetivos A administração de cetamina por via inalatória através de nebulizador é relativamente nova e os estudos sobre este assunto são escassos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a eficácia analgésica da cetamina nebulizada (1 e 2 mg.kg-1) administrada 30 minutos antes da anestesia geral em crianças submetidas à amigdalectomia eletiva, em comparação com cetamina intravenosa (0,5 mg.kg-1) e placebo (soro fisiológico). Métodos Cem crianças entre 7-12 anos foram randomicamente alocadas em quatro grupos (n = 25) e receberam: soro fisiológico para controle (Grupo C); 0,5 mg.kg-1 de cetamina intravenosa (Grupo C-IV); 1 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N1); 2 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N2). O desfecho primário foi o consumo total de analgésicos de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados O tempo médio para a primeira solicitação de analgésicos de resgate foi prolongado nos grupos C-N1 (400,9 ± 60,5 min, IC 95% 375,9-425,87) e C-N2 (455,5 ± 44,6 min, IC 95% 437,1-473,9) em comparação com o Grupo C-IV (318,5 ± 86,1 min, IC 95% 282,9-354,1) e o Grupo C (68,3 ± 21,9 min, IC 95% 59,5-77,1; p < 0,001), com uma diferença significativa entre os grupos C-N1 e C-N2 (p < 0,001). O consumo total de paracetamol IV nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório foi reduzido no Grupo C-IV (672,6 ± 272,8 mg, IC 95% 559,9-785,2), Grupo C-N1 (715,6 ± 103,2 mg, IC 95% 590,4-840,8) e Grupo C-N2 (696,6 ± 133,3 mg, IC 95% 558,8-834,4) em comparação com o Grupo C (1153,8 ± 312,4 mg, IC 95% 1024,8-1282,8; p < 0,001). Não houve diferença entre os grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada (p = 0,312). Os pacientes dos grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada apresentaram escores VRS pós-operatórios menores, em comparação com o Grupo C (p < 0,001), sem diferenças entre os grupos C-IV, C-N1 ou C-N2 e sem efeitos adversos significativos. Conclusão A administração preventiva de cetamina nebulizada foi eficaz no alívio da dor pós-amigdalectomia. Cetamina nebulizada pode ser considerada como uma via alternativa eficaz à cetamina IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Double-Blind Method , Administration, Intravenous , Anesthesia, General/methods , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage
14.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 35(1): e538, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093476

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El principal inconveniente de la utilización de la vía inhalada para la administración de fármacos estriba en la dificultad que la mayoría de los pacientes tienen para utilizarlos correctamente. Un uso inapropiado de estos contribuye a un control deficiente del asma. Objetivo: Determinar el conocimiento del uso de los inhaladores en pacientes asmáticos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con los 29 pacientes diagnosticados como asmáticos en el Consultorio 9, Área II, de Cienfuegos. Se utilizaron como variables: edad, sexo y los nueve pasos a evaluar en el uso de los nebulizadores. Los datos se expresaron en frecuencia absoluta y relativa para mejor comprensión. Resultados: Se demostró que el 72,4 por ciento de los enfermos recibieron calificación de mal. Predominaron los errores en realizar una espiración lenta y profunda, rectificar la curvatura de la tráquea, periodo de apnea y en retener la respiración, al menos, 10 segundos. Conclusiones: El mayor número de pacientes presentó un uso incorrecto de los aerosoles presurizados, a pesar de haber sido adiestrados por especialistas(AU)


Introduction: The main drawback of the inhaled pathway for drugs administration lies in the difficulty that most patients present to use them correctly. An inappropriate use of those contributes to an inadequate control of asthma. Objective: To determine the knowledge on the use of inhalers in asthmatic patients. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with the 29 patients diagnosed as asthmatics in the Family Doctor´s Office 9, Area II, Cienfuegos province. The variables used were: age, sex, as well as the nine steps to assess in the use of nebulizers. Data were expressed in absolute and relative frequency for a better understanding. Results: It was shown that 72.4 percent of the patients received bad scores predominating errors in the performance of a slow and deep exhalation, in rectifying the curvature of the trachea, in the apnea period and holding the breath for at least 10 seconds. Conclusions: The highest number of patients presented a misuse of pressurized aerosols despite being trained by specialists(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asthma/prevention & control , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(3): e20170351, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012549

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Home nebulizers are routinely used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aims to evaluate the contamination of nebulizers used for CF patients, that are chronically colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the association of nebulizer contamination with cleaning, decontamination and drying practices. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted in seven CF reference centers in Brazil to obtain data from medical records, structured interviews with patients/caregivers were performed, and nebulizer's parts (interface and cup) were collected for microbiological culture. Results: overall, 77 CF patients were included. The frequency of nebulizer contamination was 71.6%. Candida spp. (52.9%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11.9%), non-mucoid P. aeruginosa (4.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (4.8%) and Burkholderia cepacia complex (2.4%) were the most common isolated pathogens. The frequency of nebulizers' hygiene was 97.4%, and 70.3% of patients reported cleaning, disinfection and drying the nebulizers. The use of tap water in cleaning method and outdoor drying of the parts significantly increased (9.10 times) the chance of nebulizers' contamination. Conclusion: Despite the high frequency hygiene of the nebulizers reported, the cleaning and disinfection methods used were often inadequate. A significant proportion of nebulizers was contaminated with potentially pathogenic microorganisms for CF patients. These findings support the need to include patients/caregivers in educational programs and / or new strategies for delivering inhaled antibiotics.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nebulizadores caseiros são usados rotineiramente no tratamento de pacientes com fibrose cística (FC). Este estudo objetiva avaliar a contaminação de nebulizadores utilizados por pacientes de FC que estão cronicamente colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e a associação da contaminação do nebulizador com a higienização, esterilização e método de secagem. Métodos: Um estudo transversal, observacional, multicêntrico foi conduzido em sete centros de referência de FC no Brasil para obter dados de registros médicos; foram feitas entrevistas estruturadas com os pacientes/cuidadores e partes de nebulizadores (máscara e copo) foram coletados para cultura microbiológica. Resultados: No geral, 77 pacientes com FC foram incluídos. A frequência da contaminação do nebulizador foi de 71,6%. Candida spp. (52,9%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11,9%), P. aeruginosa não mucoide (4,8%), Staphylococcus aureus (4,8%) e complexo Burkholderia cepacia (2.4%) foram os patógenos isolados mais comuns. A frequência de higienização dos nebulizadores foi de 97,4%, e 70,3% dos pacientes relata higienização, esterilização e secagem dos aparelhos. A lavagem com água da torneira e secagem das partes no tempo, em espaço aberto, aumentou significativamente (9 a 10 vezes) a chance de contaminação dos nebulizadores. Conclusões: Apesar dos relatos de frequente higienização dos nebulizadores, os métodos de limpeza e esterilização usados eram inadequados. Uma proporção significativa de nebulizadores foi contaminada com microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos para pacientes com FC. Estes resultados apoiam a necessidade de inclusão dos pacientes/cuidadores em programas educacionais e/ou novas estratégias para fornecimento de antibióticos inalatórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/microbiology , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Reference Values , Brazil , Colony Count, Microbial , Logistic Models , Decontamination/methods , Decontamination/statistics & numerical data , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the influence of vitamin D deficiency on COPD has not been fully established. Moreover, the inflammation process is associated with vitamin D deficiency in the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether clinical phenotypes, comorbidities, and exacerbation rates are affected by the level of plasma fibrinogen, well studied by an inflammatory marker in COPD patients, and 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed patients with COPD whose inflammatory marker levels, especially plasma fibrinogen and 25-OH vitamin D levels, had been examined. A correlation analysis was conducted for inflammatory markers and 25-OH vitamin D. Clinical characteristics, comorbidities and exacerbation rates were compared among four groups based on plasma fibrinogen concentrations (threshold, 350 mg/dL) and 25-OH vitamin D levels (threshold, 20 ng/mL). RESULTS: Among 611 patients with COPD, 236 were included in the study. The levels of inflammatory markers had no statistical correlation with the serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. The four groups showed no statistically significant differences in age, sex, smoking history, inhaler use, and severity of comorbidities. Patients with high plasma fibrinogen concentrations and low 25-OH vitamin D levels had lower lung function, higher severity index, and higher annual rate of severe exacerbations 12 months before (0.23/year) and after (0.41/year) the measurement of 25-OH vitamin D levels than did the other patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested an interaction between vitamin D deficiency and COPD. The measurement of plasma fibrinogen concentrations could help identify a severe phenotypic group among patients with vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Fibrinogen , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Phenotype , Plasma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea. Severe asthma was defined according to modified European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society criteria. Information on demographics, medical history, pulmonary function tests and skin prick tests was collected; the clinical characteristics of severe asthmatics were analyzed from the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 489 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 62.3; 45% are male. Sixty percent of patients received Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment, and 30% received step 5 treatment. The most common comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (58.7%). Aspirin hypersensitivity was observed in 14.0%. Approximately half (53.9%) are non-smokers. Atopy was proven in 38.5% of the patients. Regarding asthma medications, inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist combination inhalers were most commonly prescribed (96.5%), followed by leukotriene antagonists (71.0%). A recombinant anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been used in 1.8% of the patients. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were 78.7%, 67.5% and 67.9% of predicted values, respectively. The mean Asthma Control Test and quality of life questionnaire scores were 16.5 out of 25 and 59.5 out of 85, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline characteristics of severe asthma patients in the Korea Severe Asthma Registry were analyzed and reported for the first time. With this cohort, further prospective studies should be performed to search for ways to improve management of severe refractory asthma.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Allergy and Immunology , Aspirin , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Demography , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , Male , Mortality , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Vital Capacity
18.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(4): 149-163, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947843

ABSTRACT

We discuss the general as well as the specific factors influencing this therapy among patients on mechanical ventilation, describing its physical aspects, aerosol generators and some devices available for their application. Recommendations are proposed to increase lung deposition and improve the efficiency and safety of inhalation therapy in children receiving respiratory support.


Se discuten los factores que influyen en la terapia inhalatoria, tanto en general como específicamente para pacientes ventilados, discutiendo los aspectos físicos, los generadores de aerosol y ciertos dispositivos disponibles para su aplicación. Se proponen recomendaciones necesarias para aumentar la fracción de depósito pulmonar y mejorar la eficiencia y seguridad de la terapia inhalatoria en niños que reciben soporte respiratorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Aerosol Propellants/administration & dosage , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
19.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(3): 364-371, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977063

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia no tratamento da asma pediátrica por nebulizador e inalador dosimetrado com uso de espaçador (MDI-espaçador), no emprego das técnicas de resgate de pacientes asmáticos atendidos em emergências pediátricas. Fontes de dados: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática para identificar os principais estudos randomizados controlados que comparam a administração de broncodilatador (β-2 agonista) por meio das técnicas inalatórias nebulização e MDI-espaçador no tratamento da asma em unidades de emergência pediátrica. Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e ScienceDirect. Dois pesquisadores, de forma independente, aplicaram os critérios de elegibilidade, sendo incluídos na pesquisa apenas estudos randomizados controlados com o objetivo de comparar as técnicas inalatórias nebulização e MDI-espaçador no tratamento da asma em unidades de emergência pediátrica. Síntese dos dados: Foram pré-selecionados 212 artigos, dos quais apenas nove seguiram os critérios de elegibilidade e foram incluídos na metanálise. Os resultados apontam não existir diferenças nas técnicas inalatórias em nenhum dos quatro desfechos analisados: frequência cardíaca (diferença -Df: 1,99 [intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% -2,01-6,00]); frequência respiratória (Df: 0,11 [IC95% -1,35-1,56]); saturação de O2 (Df: -0,01 [IC95% -0,50-0,48]); e escore clínico de asma (Df: 0,06 [IC95% -0,26-0,38]). Conclusões: Os achados demonstram não haver diferenças na frequência cardiorrespiratória, na saturação de O2 nem nos escores de asma, na administração de β-2 agonista entre as técnicas inalatórias (nebulizador e MDI-espaçador) em pacientes asmáticos atendidos em emergências pediátricas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the efficacy of pediatric asthma treatment by nebulizer and metered-dose inhaler with the use of a spacer (MDI-spacer) in rescue techniques for asthmatic patients assisted at pediatric emergency units. Data sources: A systematic review was conducted to identify the most relevant randomized controlled trials comparing the administration of a bronchodilator (β-2 agonist) by two inhalation techniques (nebulization and MDI-spacer) to treat asthma in children at pediatric emergency units. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and ScienceDirect. Two researchers independently applied the eligibility criteria, and only randomized controlled trials that compared both inhalation techniques (nebulization and MDI-spacer) for asthma treatment at pediatric emergency units were included. Data synthesis: 212 articles were pre-selected, of which only nine met the eligibility criteria and were included in meta-analysis. Results show no differences between inhalation techniques for any of the four outcomes analyzed: heart rate (difference - Df: 1.99 [95% confidence interval - 95%CI -2.01-6.00]); respiratory rate (Df: 0.11 [95%CI -1.35-1.56]); O2 saturation (Df: -0.01 [95%CI -0.50-0.48]); and asthma score (Df: 0.06 [95%CI -0,26-0.38]). Conclusions: The findings demonstrate no differences in cardiorespiratory frequency, O2 saturation, and asthma scores upon administration of β-2 agonist by both inhalation techniques (nebulization and MDI-spacer) to asthmatic patients assisted at pediatric emergency units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Acute Disease , Metered Dose Inhalers
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(4): 298-303, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962744

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of asthma implies inhalation of specific drugs to reach high concentrations in the respiratory tree and ensure low drug bioavailability and few adverse effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the inhalation technique among outpatients with asthma. DESIGN AND SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital-based cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We evaluated inhalation practices in a convenience sample. A questionnaire was used to investigate sociodemographic data and assess disease control level, duration of use of the inhalation device, length of treatment and previous instructions provided by the prescribing physician. Patients demonstrated their inhalation technique using empty devices, and their technique was considered correct when all steps were appropriately performed or when errors did not interfere with the treatment outcome. RESULTS: Among the 71 participants, 53 (74.7%) had been using the same inhaler device for at least two years and 41 (57.8%) had been under treatment for two years or more. Twelve (17.1%) said that they had been taught once and 57 (81.4%) at least twice, while one (1.4%) reported not having received any guidance regarding use of inhaler devices. Eighteen patients (25.3%) presented controlled asthma and 28 (39.5%) performed the inhalation technique correctly. Incorrect technique was associated with fewer evaluations of the inhalation technique (P =0.04) and uncontrolled asthma (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Less than half of the sample performed the inhalation technique correctly. Incorrect inhalation technique was related to lower number of evaluations of the use of the inhalation device and uncontrolled asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Asthma/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/standards , Socioeconomic Factors , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
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