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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 366-387, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378397

ABSTRACT

Doenças negligenciadas impõem um fardo humano, social e econômico devastador a mais de um bilhão de pessoas em todo o mundo. Embora existam ferramentas para controlar e até mesmo eliminar muitas dessas doenças, novos produtos terapêuticos precisam urgentemente ser desenvolvidos. Este artigo se baseia em um estudo que buscou quantificar e caracterizar a produção científica global sobre desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos para doenças negligenciadas, por meio de uma análise bibliométrica. De modo a investigar a pesquisa relacionada ao desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos para as doenças negligenciadas em âmbito global na última década, foi utilizada a base de dados Scopus. Observou-se aumento da produção de conhecimento sobre o tema, com relevante participação de autores, instituições e financiamento brasileiros, sobretudo de instituições públicas. Contudo, os esforços realizados têm sido insuficientes, sendo necessária a implementação de estratégias futuras de pesquisa e de financiamento que propiciem maior produção científica e uma tradução da pesquisa básica para a prática clínica.


Neglected diseases impose a devastating human, social, and economic burden on more than one billion people worldwide. While tools exist to control and even eliminate many of these diseases, new therapeutic products urgently need to be developed. This article is based on a study that sought to quantify and characterize the global scientific production on new drug development for neglected diseases through a bibliometric analysis. The Scopus database was used to investigate the research related to the development of new drugs for neglected diseases globally in the last decade. An increase in the production of knowledge about the theme and the relevant participation of Brazilian authors, institutions and funding, especially from public institutions were observed. However, their efforts have been insufficient, and the implementation of future research and funding strategies that provide greater scientific production and a translation of basic research into clinical practice is necessary.


Las enfermedades desatendidas imponen una carga humana, social y económica devastadora a más de mil millones de personas en todo el mundo. A pesar de haber herramientas para controlar y incluso eliminar muchas de estas enfermedades, es necesario desarrollar con urgencia nuevos productos terapéuticos. Este artículo se basa en un estudio lo cual ha buscado cuantificar y caracterizar la producción científica global sobre el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos para enfermedades desatendidas, a través de un análisis bibliométrico. Para inspeccionar investigaciones relacionadas con el desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos para enfermedades desatendidas en ámbito mundial durante la última década se utilizó la base de datos Scopus. Hubo un aumento de la producción de conocimiento sobre el tema, con una participación relevante de autores, instituciones y financiamiento brasileños, especialmente de instituciones públicas. Sin embargo, los esfuerzos realizados siguen siendo insuficientes, requiriendo la implementación de futuras estrategias de investigación y financiamiento que propicien una mayor producción científica y una traducción de la investigación básica a la práctica clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Design , Bibliometrics , Scientific Research and Technological Development , Neglected Diseases , Drug Development , Research Design , Therapeutics , Analysis of Situation , Research Financing
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 624-630, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359446

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as parasitoses intestinais estão distribuídas mundialmente e são frequentes entre indivíduos com maior contato interpessoal. A prevalência destas infecções reflete a precariedade das condições sanitárias e socioeconômicas que propiciam sua disseminação na população. Objetivos: determinar a frequência de parasitos intestinais e analisar o perfil socioeconômico e higiênico-sanitário entre crianças e adolescentes em Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brasil. Metodologia: estudo transversal conduzido em 116 participantes a partir de entrevista e análise coproparasitológica segundo o método Hoffman, Pons e Janer. O programa EpiInfo Windows versão 3.5.4 foi utilizado para a criação e análise dos bancos de dados. Valor de p<0,05 e IC de 95% foram considerados como significativos. Resultados: foi identificada prevalência de 77,6% de indivíduos parasitados. A média de idade foi de 9,6 anos e 57,8% eram do sexo masculino. Os patógenos mais frequentes foram Giardia duodenalis (35,5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16,6%), Enterobius vermicularis (3,3%) e Ascaris lumbricoides (1,1%). Organismos comensais foram encontrados em 93,3% dos indivíduos infectados. Verificou-se que 97,8% tinham abastecimento de água tratada; 76,7% possuíam rede de esgoto; 86,7% tinham acesso à coleta de lixo; 72,2% consumiam água filtrada ou fervida em casa e 41,1% declararam higienizar as frutas, verduras e hortaliças antes do consumo. Conclusão: foi identificada alta taxa de parasitismo retratando as condições socioeconômicas e higiênico-sanitárias da população estudada. Destaca-se a necessidade de maiores esforços para a realização de programas de educação em saúde para que a população seja modificadora da sua realidade a partir da conscientização sobre a problemática.


Introduction: intestinal parasites are distributed worldwide and are frequent among individuals with greater interpersonal contact. The prevalence of these infections reflects the precariousness of the sanitary and socioeconomic conditions that promote their dissemination in the population. Objectives: to determine the frequency of intestinal parasites and to analyze the socioeconomic and hygienic-sanitary profile among children and teenagers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted in 116 participants based on interview and parasitological analysis of feces according to the Hoffman, Pons and Janer method. The EpiInfo Windows version 3.5.4 software was used to create and analyze the databases. p-value <0.05 and 95% CI were considered significant. Results: a prevalence of 77.6% of parasitized individuals was identified. The average age was 9.6 years and 57.8% were male. The most frequent pathogens were Giardia duodenalis (35.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.6%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%). Commensal organisms were found in 93.3% of infected individuals. It was found that 97.8% had treated water supply; 76.7% had a sewage system; 86.7% had access to garbage collection; 72.2% consumed filtered or boiled water at home and 41.1% declared to clean fruits, vegetables and vegetables before consumption. Conclusion: we identified a high rate of parasitism representing the socioeconomic and hygienic-sanitary conditions of the studied population. We highlight the need for greater efforts in carrying out health education programs so that the population can modify their reality based on awareness of the problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Parasitic Diseases , Public Health , Neglected Diseases , Demography , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Evaluation Studies as Topic
4.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1361480

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o resultado de teste Ml Flow entre casos de hanseníase recém-diagnosticados e contatos intradomiciliares.Métodos: estudo transversal, descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa realizado no município de Caxias, Maranhão, Brasil, onde recrutou-se casos recém-diagnosticados, virgens de tratamento e contatos intradomiciliares. Resultados: recrutou-se 324 contatos de casos de hanseníase, no período de 2015 a 2018. Nos casos recém-diagnosticados o teste Ml Flow foi negativo em 87,5% (7/8) dos paucibacilares e positivo em 70% (21/30) dos multibacilares, ambos concordantes com a baciloscopia do raspado intradérmico. Identificou-se 30 (9%) contatos intradomiciliares com alto risco de adoecer. Conclusão: o teste Ml Flow constitui-se uma ferramenta útil para correta detecção de contatos com alta chance de adoecer da hanseníase, bem como para classificar corretamente os casos novos


Objective: to identify the Ml Flow test result between newly diagnosed leprosy cases and household contacts. Methods: cross-sectional, descriptive study with a quantitative approach carried out in the city of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, where newly diagnosed cases, treatment virgins and intra-household contacts were recruited. Results: 324 contacts of leprosy cases were recruited from 2015 to 2018. In newly diagnosed cases, the Ml Flow test was negative in 87.5% (7/8) of paucibacillary patients and positive in 70% (21/ 30) of the multibacillary, both in agreement with the bacilloscopy of the intradermal smear. Thirty (9%) household contacts with high risk of illness were identified. Conclusion: the Ml Flow test is a useful tool for the correct detection of contacts with a high chance of getting sick from leprosy, as well as for correctly classifying new cases


Objetivo: identificar el resultado de la prueba Ml Flow entre casos de lepra recién diagnosticados y contactos domésticos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal con abordaje cuantitativo realizado en la ciudad de Caxias, Maranhão, Brasil, donde se reclutaron casos recién diagnosticados, vírgenes en tratamiento y contactos intrafamiliares. Resultados: se reclutaron 324 contactos de casos de lepra entre 2015 y 2018. En los casos recién diagnosticados, la prueba Ml Flow fue negativa en el 87,5% (7/8) de los pacientes paucibacilares y positiva en el 70% (21/30) de los multibacilares, ambos de acuerdo con la baciloscopia del frotis intradérmico. Identificamos 30 (9%) contactos dentro del hogar con alto riesgo de enfermarse. Conclusión: la prueba Ml Flow es una herramienta útil para la correcta detección de contactos con alta probabilidad de enfermarse de lepra, así como para clasificar correctamente nuevos casos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Serologic Tests , Early Diagnosis , Leprosy , Communicable Diseases , Neglected Diseases
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353104

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma endemia parasitária típica das Américas, Ásia e África. A Mielorradiculopatia Esquistossomótica surge como uma evolução severa da infecção por esquistossomose e, apesar de muito comum, sua prevalência em áreas endêmicas vem sendo subestimada. Objetivo: relatar caso de Mielorradiculopatia Esquistossomótica ocorrido em paciente pediátrico. Metodologia: estudo descritivo do tipo Relato de Caso retrospectivo, submetido e aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Centro Universitário CESMAC, CAAE: 28835220.0.0000.0039, N.º do Parecer: 3.898.292. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo masculino, previamente hígido, 11 anos, iniciou quadro com história álgica aguda em membros inferiores que piorava no período da noite acompanhada de relato de febre. Quadro clínico evoluiu com lombalgia, disúria, oligúria, posterior anúria e formação de globo vesical. Evoluiu, também, com paresia de membros inferiores. A investigação realizou-se com Exame Parasitológico de Fezes positivo para esquistossomose, além de Ressonância Magnética de coluna lombo-sacra que corroboraram com a hipótese diagnóstica. Instituiu-se tratamento com Albendazol, Praziquantel e pulsoterapia com Metilprednisolona durante internação. Paciente teve alta hospitalar com melhora de quadro neurológico, em uso de prednisona 40 mg/dia. Conclusão: a MRE constitui a forma mais grave dentre as manifestações ectópicas da esquistossomose. A dificuldade do reconhecimento do quadro clínico e a limitação no acesso aos métodos complementares diagnósticos contribuem para o subdiagnóstico da enfermidade, acarretando sequelas graves para os portadores da doença e ocultando sua importância epidemiológica principalmente em pacientes pediátricos e jovens. (AU)


Schistosomiasis is a parasitic endemic typical of the Americas, Asia and Africa. Schistosomal Myeloradiculopathy is a severe evolution of schistosomiasis infection and, although very common, the prevalence in endemic areas has been underestimated. Objective: to report Schistosomal Myeloradiculopathy case in a pediatric patient. Methodology: descriptive study of the type Case Report retrospective, submitted and approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the CESMAC University Center, CAAE: 28835220.0.0000.0039, Opinion N.º: 3.898.292. Case report: a previously healthy 11-year-old boy, started with a history of acute pain in lower limbs that worsened during the night accompanied of fever. Evolved with low back pain, dysuria, oliguria, subsequent anuria, vesical globe formation and lower limbs paresis. The investigation resulted in positive stool examination for schistosomiasis and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine that corroborated the diagnostic hypothesis. The treatment included Albendazol, Praziquantel and pulsetherapy with Methylprednisolone during hospitalization. The patient was discharged from the hospital with improved neurological status, using prednisone 40 mg/day. Conclusion: Schistosomal Myeloradiculopathy is the most severe form of the ectopic manifestations of schistosomiasis. The difficulty in recognizing the clinical condition and the limitation of access to complementary diagnostic methods contributes to the underdiagnosis of the disease, causing severe sequels for patients with disease and hiding its epidemiological importance, especially in pediatric and young patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Oliguria , Paresis , Methylprednisolone , Prednisone , Endemic Diseases , Neuroschistosomiasis , Neglected Diseases , Fever
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 808-823, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343982

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo objetivou analisar a produção científica brasileira sobre a doença de Chagas a partir de publicações indexadas na base de dados Web of Science. Foram coletados e analisados os dados de 1.008 publicações no período entre 2006 e 2020. A interpretação dos dados permitiu identificar um expressivo crescimento da produção científica brasileira sobre a doença de Chagas e a abrangência da temática em periódicos internacionais. Contudo, há um enfoque nas áreas biomédicas do conhecimento com destaque para a Parasitologia e um diminuto número de investigações direcionadas às áreas da Saúde Pública, Ciências Sociais e Farmacêuticas. A bibliometria desvelou as lacunas ainda existentes na produção nacional e a necessidade de fortalecimento de políticas direcionadas a editais de pesquisa no país.


The present study aimed to analyze the Brazilian scientific production on Chagas disease from publications indexed in the Web of Science database. Data from 1,008 articles published between 2006 and 2020 were collected and analyzed. The interpretation of the data allowed the identification of an expressive growth of Brazilian scientific production on Chagas disease and comprehensiveness of the theme in international journals. However, there is a focus on the biomedical areas of knowledge with emphasis on Parasitology and a small number of investigations directed to the areas of Public Health, Social Sciences and Pharmaceuticals. The bibliometry revealed the gaps that still exist in the national production and the need to strengthen policies directed to research edicts in the country.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la producción científica brasileña sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, a partir de las publicaciones indexadas en la base de datos Web of Science. Se recogieron y analizaron los datos de 1.008 artículos publicados entre 2006 y 2020. La interpretación de los datos permitió identificar un crecimiento expresivo de la producción científica brasileña sobre la enfermedad de Chagas y la amplitud del tema en las revistas internacionales. Sin embargo, hay un enfoque en las áreas biomédicas del conocimiento con énfasis en la Parasitología y un pequeño número de investigaciones dirigidas a las áreas de Salud Pública, Ciencias Sociales y Farmacéutica. La bibliometría reveló las lagunas que aún existen en la producción nacional y la necesidad de fortalecer las políticas dirigidas a los edictos de investigación en el país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brazil , Bibliometrics , Chagas Disease , Scientific and Technical Activities , Neglected Diseases , Parasitology , Tropical Medicine , Data Analysis
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 808-816, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351055

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas (ETD) constituyen un conjunto de afecciones altamente prevalentes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales, asociadas a pobreza y subdesarrollo. Constituyen una verdadera crisis sanitaria, incapacitando y llevando a la muerte a millones de personas anualmente. Esto se ve potenciado por las dificultades socioeconómicas que cursan estos países, mayormente en vías de desa rrollo, lo cual repercute en la calidad de la asistencia sanitaria que pueden proveer a la población. La morbilidad de estas enfermedades se explica por la amplia afectación orgánica que generan. El aparato cardiovascular resulta particularmente afectado, lo que explica en gran medida la morbimortalidad de las ETD. En el presente artículo se revisan los aspectos fundamentales de un proyecto llevado a cabo por los Líderes Emergentes de la Sociedad Interamericana de Cardiología (SIAC), cubriendo diferentes aspectos del impacto sobre el aparato cardiovascular de las ETD: el Proyecto NET-Heart (del inglés, Neglected Tropical Diseases and other Infectious Diseases Affecting the Heart).


Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are a group of diseases with high prevalence in tropical and subtropi cal countries. They are associated to poverty and underdevelopment. Due to its high morbimortality, these conditions are considered a health crisis. The impact of these diseases can be worsened by the poor socioeconomic status of the affected countries, most of them under-developed, which affects the health care provided to patients. The morbidity of these diseases is explained by the wide organic impairment that they produce. The cardiovascular system is par ticularly affected, which explains the high morbimortality of NTD. In this article, we review the key issues of a project elaborated by Emerging Leaders of the Interamerican Society of Cardiology (SIAC), about the cardiovascular impact of NTD: the NET-Heart Project (Neglected Tropical Diseases and other Infectious Diseases affecting the Heart).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tropical Medicine , Cardiovascular System , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(1): 54-60, jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1254987

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o discurso dos gestores do Programa Nacional de Controle da Hanseníase (PNCH). Método: estudo descritivo, qualitativo, de abordagem discursiva. Os coordenadores dos pólos da PNCH do Rio Grande do Norte (RN), os coordenadores regionais e o coordenador estadual compuseram a população, foram incluídos aqueles com vínculo com o serviço por pelo menos seis meses, 12 gestores foram considerados adequados como amostra. O material empírico, coletado de novembro de 2015 a junho de 2016, foi analisado por meio da análise do discurso. Resultados: os enunciadores construíram discursos em torno de dois eixos: a questão dos médicos, com ênfase no centro de atenção à saúde, e a questão da gestão, apoiada nos princípios burocráticos com componentes legados do regime autoritário, tendo, ambos os eixos, influência do modelo sanitarista/ativista. Conclusão: entende-se que o PNCH pode melhorar a partir da profissionalização da gestão e da ênfase na promoção da saúde e no trabalho em equipe. (AU)


Objective: This study aimed to analyze the discourse of the managers of the National Leprosy Control Program (NLCP). Method: a descriptive and qualitative study with a discursive approach.The coordinators of the NLCP host cities of Rio Grande do Norte, the regional coordinators and the state coordinator composed the population, witch included those with bond to the service for at least six months, 12 managers were considered suitable as a sample. The empirical material, collected from November 2015 to June 2016, was investigated through discourse analysis. Results: The enunciators built speeches around two axes: the subject of the phisicyans, emphasizing the center of Health Care, and the subject of management, supported by the bureaucrats principles with legacy components of the authoritarian regime, with both axes having influence of the sanitary/activist model. Conclusion: It is understood that the NLCP can improve from the professionalization of management and the emphasis on health promotion and teamwork. (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el discurso de los gerentes del Programa Nacional de Control de la Lepra (PNCL). Método: estudio descriptivo e cualitativo con enfoque discursivo. Los coordinadores de las ciudades sede del PNCL en Rio Grande do Norte (RN), los coordinadores regionales y el coordinador estatal componían la población, se incluyeron aquellos con vínculos al servicio durante al menos seis meses, 12 gerentes se consideraron adecuados como muestra. El material empírico, recopilado desde noviembre de 2015 hasta junio de 2016, fue investigado mediante análisis del discurso. Resultados: Los enunciadores formularon discursos en torno a dos ejes: la cuestión de los médicos, con énfasis en el centro de atención de la salud, y la cuestión de la gestión, respaldada por principios burocráticos con componentes heredados del régimen autoritario, con ambos ejes influenciados por el modelo sanitario/activista. Conclusión: Se entiende que el PNCL puede mejorar en función de la profesionalización de la gestión y el énfasis en la promoción de la salud y el trabajo en equipo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Leprosy , Public Policy , Treatment Outcome , Chief Executive Officers, Hospital , Neglected Diseases
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 314-337, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339270

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El ofidismo en Colombia es un problema de salud pública, lo cual se hace evidente al examinar los datos epidemiológicos a nivel latinoamericano, pues el país ocupa el tercer lugar en número de accidentes ofídicos después de Brasil y México. Objetivo. Hacer un análisis retrospectivo de los casos de accidente ofídico ocurridos entre 2009 y 2018 en el departamento de Cauca, según los datos del Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila) registrados en el Instituto Departamental de Salud del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Se recopiló e interpretó la información consignada en las fichas de notificación obligatoria de accidente ofídico en los 10 años de estudio. Se determinaron la incidencia y la frecuencia de accidentes según la distribución geográfica y los agentes causales, y se analizaron las variables socioeconómicas relacionadas. Resultados. Se registraron 1.653 casos y una baja mortalidad. Los géneros Bothrops y Bothriechis causaron la mayoría (77,43 %) de los accidentes, seguidos por el género Micrurus (2,9 %). La mayoría de las notificaciones procedían del sur del departamento; las personas de sexo masculino y los agricultores fueron los más afectados, con mordeduras en las extremidades superiores principalmente. Las principales manifestaciones del envenenamiento fueron las hemorrágicas, más frecuentes que la necrosis y la infección. Aunque el criterio para utilizar la seroterapia no siempre fue el mejor, las complicaciones iatrogénicas no fueron frecuentes. Conclusiones. Los municipios de El Tambo y Piamonte, las personas de sexo masculino y las áreas rurales, fueron las variables más afectadas por el ofidismo, principalmente el ofidismo botrópico. Las mayores incidencias se presentaron en la zona sur del Cauca, en las cuencas de los ríos Patía y Caquetá.


Abstract | Introduction: Snakebite is a relevant public health problem in Colombia, which is evident in epidemiological data at the Latin American level, where it ranks third place in the number of snakebites, after México and Brazil. Objective: To perform a retrospective analysis of snakebite accidents in the department of Cauca between 2009 and 2018 based on the data from the Public Health Surveillance System of Colombia reported to the Health Institute of Cauca. Materials and methods: We compiled and interpreted the information from the compulsory snakebite notification forms for the study's 10 years period. We determined snakebite incidence and frequency according to the geographical distribution and the causal agents, and we analyzed related socioeconomic variables as well. Results: The records accounted for 1,653 cases and low mortality. Bothrops and Bothriechis species (77.43%) caused most of the accidents followed by Micrurus (2.9%). Most of the notifications came from the south of the department, and males and farmers were the most affected with bites mainly in the upper extremities. During poisoning, hemorrhagic manifestations predominated over necrosis and infections; serotherapy criteria were not always adequately applied, however, iatrogenic complications were not frequent. Conclusions: El Tambo and Piamonte municipalities, being male, and rural areas were the variables most affected by ophidism, mainly bothropic ophidism. The highest incidences occurred in the southern part of Cauca, in the Patía and Caquetá river basins.


Subject(s)
Snake Bites , Colombia , Bothrops , Neglected Diseases
13.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2019500, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142939

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o processo de integração do agente de combate às endemias (ACE) na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Métodos: Estudo transversal descritivo. Os dados foram coletados por questionário semiestruturado autoaplicável, de fevereiro a maio de 2017, em quatro unidades de Saúde da Família na região urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Resultados: Participaram 57 agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS) e 8 ACEs. Todos os participantes informaram realizar orientações ao morador e 58 realizavam controle mecânico durante a vistoria de imóveis, visando evitar e eliminar possíveis criadouros do Aedes aegypti. Quanto à integração dos ACEs na ESF, 18 participantes destacaram o trabalho em equipe como aspecto positivo, enquanto 15 referiram falta de autonomia para intervenções legais como aspecto negativo. Conclusão: A integração do ACE na ESF é viável; contudo, ajustes devem ser realizados para potencializar as atividades, na perspectiva do trabalho compartilhado em uma mesma base territorial.


Objetivo: Describir el proceso de integración del Agente de Combate a las Endemias (ACE) en la Estrategia de Salud Familiar (ESF). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Los datos se recopilaron por un cuestionario semiestructurado autoadministrado, de febrero a mayo de 2017, en cuatro Unidades de Salud Familiar en la región urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Resultados: Participaran 57 Agentes de Salud Comunitaria (ACS) y 8 ACE. Todos informaron que proporcionaron orientación a los habitantes y 58 realizaron control mecánico durante la inspección de las propiedades, buscando evitar y eliminar posibles sitios de reproducción para Aedes aegypti. En cuanto a la integración de los ACE en la ESF, 18 participantes destacaron el trabajo en equipo como un aspecto positivo, y 15, la falta de autonomía para las intervenciones legales como un aspecto negativo. Conclusión: La integración de los ACE en la ESF es factible, sin embargo, son necesarios ajustes para mejorar las actividades en la perspectiva del trabajo compartido sobre la misma base territorial.


Objective: To describe the process of Endemic Disease Control Worker (EDCW) integration into the Family Health Strategy. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, from February to May 2017, in four Family Health centers in the urban region of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Results: 57 Community Health Agents (CHW) and eight EDCWs participated. All participants reported providing guidance to property dwellers and 58 carried out mechanical vector control during the inspection of properties, in order to avoid and eliminate possible Aedes aegypti breeding sites. With regard to EDCW integration in the Family Health Strategy, 18 participants highlighted teamwork as a positive aspect; while 15 highlighted lack of autonomy to undertake legal interventions as a negative aspect. Conclusion: EDCW integration in the Family Health Strategy is feasible, however, adjustments need to be made to optimize activities within the perspective of shared work in the same territorial area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , National Health Strategies , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community Health Workers/statistics & numerical data , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases
14.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1817, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363858

ABSTRACT

Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory disease characterized by nonspecific clinical manifestations. In CanL, inflammatory cells and chemical mediators released in response to the parasite play a role in disease development and progression. Alterations on hematological parameters have been documented in CanL. These changes can also be assessed in relation to systemic inflammation caused by this disease. The circulating leukocyte counting, such as neutrophils, as well as the albumin level, are considered direct indicators of an inflammatory host environment. Several studies point to the use of biomarkers on the assistance in diagnosis and prognosis of several canine pathologies. The present study investigated the Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Albumin to Globulin Ratio (AGR), and Neutrophils to Albumin Ratio (NAR) on systemic inflammatory response induced by Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL). For this purpose, adult dogs with confirmed diagnosis to CanL were divided into symptomatic (SD, n = 33) and asymptomatic (AD, n = 20) dogs for L. infantum and control dogs (CD, n = 20). Routine hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples using a veterinary automatic hematology and biochemical analyzers. Asymptomatic dogs (AD) had a higher number of white blood cells and neutrophils (16.48 ± 4.93; 13.41 ± 3.60, respectively) in relation to symptomatic dogs (SD) (13.54 ± 5.13; 10.42 ± 3.69, respectively) (P = 0.015 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) was higher in dogs with leishmaniasis (9.45 ± 3.76) than in healthy dogs (3.39 ± 1.19) (P < 0.0001). Serum total proteins (STP) and globulins increased in CanL, while albumin and AGR decreased in CanL, when compared to CD and references values to canine species. Neutrophils to Albumin Ratio (NAR) was higher in AD and SD (5.02 ± 1.14; 4.79 ± 1.07, respectively) when compared to CD (2.36 ± 0.55) (P < 0.0001). As reported in scientific researches, dogs with Leishmaniasis present alterations in circulating cell counts. Based on these data, we decided to expand this information using the NLR as a parameter in an attempt to better clarify the changes in these cells in CanL. We observed that NLR was increased on CanL in relation to healthy dogs, which could be a consequence of relative neutrophilia rather than lymphopenia. Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is a biomarker that conveys information about inflammatory conditions. An elevated NLR can reflect an upregulated innate immune response, since neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity and are involved in several acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Albumin is an acute phase protein that is considered an immune-inflammatory biomarker, which can be found reduced systemically in progressive inflammatory response. Serum total proteins (STP) and globulins were increased in CanL. These data are already well documented in CanL, which serum globulins are mainly associated with the increase of acute phase proteins, cytokines, and increase of specific antibodies to Leishmania infantum. Our results showed neutrophilia with hypoalbuminemia in CanL. So, in an attempt to assess the relationship of these two available markers, we used NAR calculation in order to evaluate the changes induced by CanL. In this study NAR was higher in CanL when compared to control dogs. Thus, our data indicate that NLR and NAR could be used as biomarkers in veterinary medical clinics in order to assess inflammatory profile in CanL, mainly in asymptomatic dogs. These parameters obtained from routine blood tests might be useful as cost-effective, easily accessible and helpful markers in order to distinguish the inflammatory response intensity in CanL.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Biomarkers/blood , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Dogs , Neglected Diseases/veterinary
15.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1837, 2021. mapa, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363605

ABSTRACT

Considering the importance of leptospirosis in sheep farming and public health and the significance of identifying which serogroups circulate in sheep within each region, the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of the most frequent serogroups causing infection by Leptospira sp. in ovine herds in the Northeast region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 4197 sheep from 229 herds in 7 Northeastern States. Sera were analyzed via microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The frequency of seroreactive sheep for Leptospira sp. was 14.06%. The states of Alagoas, Ceará, Paraíba, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe, located in the Caatinga biome, had the highest frequencies of serologically reactive sheep, and Maranhão, in the Cerrado biome, had the lowest frequency. The most frequent serogroups were Autumnalis (19.49%), Australis (15.76%) and Serjoe (14.41%). In the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe, 100% of their municipalities had at least one seroreactive animal. The highest frequencies of seropositive animals were found in the municipalities of União (50%), Passagem (49.06%), Canindé (48.89%), Igaci (28.95%), Gararu (31.2%), Pirapemas (17.5%), and Angicos (16%) located in the states of Piauí, Paraíba, Ceará, Alagoas, Sergipe, Maranhão and Rio Grande do Norte, respectively. The animal-level prevalence (14.06%) obtained in the present study is significant, especially considering the rustic nature of the species and the adverse conditions of the region for the infectious agent. In semi-arid conditions, it has been suggested that perhaps sheep do not seroconvert detectable titers on MAT with a cut-off point of 1:100. It is important to highlight that the ovine population in the Northeast region of Brazil is composed of mixed animals, which have been considered more resistant to infection by Leptospira spp. Also, environmental factors hostile to the survival of the infectious agent in the studied region should be taken into consideration, since they may have influenced the seropositive animal-level prevalence. A noteworthy variation was observed in agglutinin titers, which ranged from 100 to 1,600, where 80.2% of the positive samples had titers ≤ 200. It is important to highlight that more elevated titers (≥ 400) were obtained in all seven states, which may suggest an acute infection caused by a non-adapted serovar, indicating that preventive and control measures focused on possible infection sources for sheep should be adopted. Although some states showed the same serogroups as the most frequent, a variety of serogroups was observed in municipalities, which may indicate different sources of infection, whether interspecies, intraspecies, or via alternative routes of transmission in semi-arid conditions, such as venereal. This indicates that even though sheep are more resistant to infection, they become exposed due to the environment or management conditions. As such, identification, isolation, and treatment of the affected animals are alternative measures recommended for prevention and control of leptospirosis in sheep in the semi-arid region. It is evident that despite the lack of rain observed in the last decade in the Northeast region of Brazil, which prevented the formation of favorable environments for the presence of Leptospira, the infectious agent remains among the sheep, as well as other production and wild animals in the region. Some factors may be contributing to this scenario, such as the fact that sheep farming in the region is = characterized mainly by subsistence systems, where veterinary assistance and adequate sanitary management are absent, thus increasing the possibility of contact with Leptospira. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/blood , Bacterial Zoonoses/epidemiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology
17.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353043

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people around the world, mainly socially vulnerable populations and is considered a serious public health problem. Caused by several species of the flagellated protozoa of the Leishmania genus, it is transmitted to man through female sand fly bites. The disease can present the cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral clinical forms, varying according to the parasite species and depending on host immune response. Depending on its evolution, the disease may pose serious risks to the afflicted individual's health. In general, treatment for Leishmaniasis is with pentavalent antimonials, in use for approximately 70 years. However, the existing treatment for Leishmaniasis presents drawbacks such as high toxicity, several side effects, cases of resistance, highlighting the need for new efficient therapeutic approaches. Given all the problems that involve the current treatment of leishmaniasis, it is of paramount importance to seek and screen new molecules that have leishmanicidal activity, meet the safety criteria, while presenting low toxicity, low cost, easy administration and that cure efficiently. This review presents some considerations on the leishmaniasis situation, its treatment and the current panorama for the development of new therapies.


Subject(s)
Leishmaniasis , Therapeutic Approaches , Neglected Diseases , Immunity
18.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020354, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154143

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever os casos de raiva humana no estado do Ceará, Brasil, no período 1970-2019. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, sobre dados secundários da Secretaria da Saúde e do hospital de referência do Ceará. Resultados: Dos 171 casos, 75,7% ocorreram em homens, 60,0% nas idades até 19 anos e 56,0% em áreas urbanas. O cão foi agente transmissor em 74,0% dos casos; sagui em, 16,7%; e morcego, em 7,3%. Entre 1970 e 1978, houve crescimento do número de casos (pelo Joinpoint Regression Program, percentual da mudança anual [APC] = 13,7 - IC95% 4,6;41,5); e entre 1978 e 2019, redução (APC = -6,7 - IC95% -8,8;-5,9). Houve redução da transmissão por cães (71 casos; último caso em 2010) e aumento relativo por mamíferos silvestres (5 casos a partir de 2005). Conclusão: O estudo evidencia mudança na dinâmica da transmissão da raiva no período observado, com redução da transmissão por cão e incremento de casos por animais silvestres.


Objetivo: Describir los casos de la rabia humana en Ceará, Brasil, 1970-2019. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con datos secundarios de la Secretaría de Salud y del hospital de referencia de Ceará. Resultados: De los 171 casos, 75,7% ocurrió en hombres, el 60,0% en los 19 años y el 56,0% en áreas urbanas. El perro fue transmisor en 74,0%, el mono tití en 16,7% y el murciélago el 7,3%. Entre 1970 y 1978, hubo un aumento de casos (por el Joinpoint Regression Program, cambio porcentual anual [APC] = 13,7 - IC95% 4,6; 41,5), entre 1978 y 2019 una disminución (APC= -6,7 - IC95% -8,8; -5,9). Hubo una reducción de la transmisión por perros (71 casos, el último en 2010) y un aumento por mamíferos salvajes (5 casos, desde 2005). Conclusión: El estudio muestra un cambio en la dinámica de la transmisión de la rabia en los últimos años, con reducción de la transmisión por perros y aumento de casos por animales salvajes.


Objective: To describe cases of human rabies in Ceará State, Brazil between 1970 and 2019. Methods: This was a descriptive study using secondary data from the Ceará State Department of Health and the state reference hospital. Results: Of 171 cases, 75.7% occurred in males, 60.0% in <19-year-olds, and 56.0% in urban areas. Rabies was transmitted by dogs in 74.0% of cases, marmosets in 16.7% and bats in 7.3%. Between 1970 and 1978, there was an increase of cases (using the Joinpoint Regression Program, annual percentage change [APC] = 13.7 - 95%CI 4.6;41.5), while between 1978 and 2019 there was a decrease (APC = -6.7 - 95%CI -8.8;-5.9). There was a reduction in transmission by dogs (71 cases, last case in 2010) and an increase by sylvatic animals (5 cases since 2005). Conclusion: This study demonstrates changes in rabies transmission dynamics during the period studied, with a reduction in transmission by dogs and an increase of transmission by sylvatic animals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabies/transmission , Rabies/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rabies virus/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Neglected Diseases , Epidemiological Monitoring
19.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020520, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249805

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar aspectos relacionados com a positividade para esquistossomose em área de baixa prevalência, no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado no primeiro semestre de 2020, quando foram analisadas a proporção de positividade, em função do número de lâminas de Kato-Katz, o desempenho diagnóstico do teste e a estimação da positividade a partir dos dados do Sistema de Informação do Programa de Vigilância e Controle da Esquistossomose (SISPCE). Resultados: Foram analisadas 2.088 lâminas de 348 indivíduos, sendo a proporção de positividade de 11,8%, 26,7% e 31,0% para 1, 4 e 6 lâminas analisadas, respectivamente. Houve concordância excelente (índice Kappa = 0,91) na comparação entre as leituras de 4 e 6 lâminas. Foi estimada subnotificação de 2,1 vezes nos dados do SISPCE. Conclusão: Ampliar o número de lâminas aumentou a positividade do Kato-Katz, o que pode contribuir para maximizar o controle da doença enquanto problema de Saúde Pública.


Objetivo: Analizar aspectos relacionados con la positividad para esquistosomiasis en área de baja prevalencia en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal, realizado en el primer semestre de 2020, donde se analizó la proporción de positividad según el número de portaobjetos de Kato-Katz, el rendimiento diagnóstico de la prueba y la creación de un factor de estimación de positividad a partir de los datos del Sistema de Información del Programa de Vigilancia y Control de la Esquistosomiasis (SISPCE). Resultados: Se analizaron 2.088 láminas de 348 individuos, con proporción de positividad del 11,8%, 26,7% y 31,0% para 1, 4 y 6 láminas analizadas, respectivamente. Hubo una excelente concordancia (Kappa = 0,91) en la comparación entre la lectura de 4 y 6 láminas. Se estimó un subregistro de 2,1 veces en los datos del SISPCE. Conclusión: Aumentar el número de muestras aumentó la positividad de Kato-Katz, lo que puede contribuir a maximizar el control de la enfermedad como problema de Salud Pública.


Objective: To analyze aspects related to schistosomiasis positivity in an area of low prevalence in Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, carried out in the first half of 2020, where we analyzed the proportion of positivity, according to the number of Kato-Katz slides, the diagnostic performance of the test and positivity estimates based on data from the Schistosomiasis Surveillance and Control Program Information System (SISPCE). Results: 2,088 slides from 348 individuals were analyzed, with proportion of positivity of 11.8%, 26.7% and 31.0% for 1, 4 and 6 slides analyzed, respectively. There was excellent agreement (Kappa = 0.91) between the readings of 4 and 6 slides. The SISPCE data was estimated to be underreported by up to 2.1 times. Conclusion: Increasing the number of slides increased Kato-Katz positivity, which can contribute to maximizing the control of the disease as a Public Health problem.


Subject(s)
Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests/methods , Neglected Diseases , Epidemiological Monitoring
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 60 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361877

ABSTRACT

As doenças negligenciadas (DN) são um grupo diversificado de enfermidades que prevalecem em condições tropicais e subtropicais de 149 países e afetam mais de um bilhão de pessoas que vivem em situação de pobreza em todo o mundo. Atualmente, estima-se que oito milhões de pessoas estejam infectadas com a doença de Chagas (DC). Embora São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil seja uma região do estado de São Paulo conhecida pelo alto grau de incidência de dengue, existem, pelo menos, 700 pacientes chagásicos registrados no Hospital de Base de São José do Rio Preto e alta incidência do vetor, sendo que mais de 14 mil triatomíneos foram coletados no noroeste paulista entre 2004 e 2011. Assim, levando em consideração que a DC é clinicamente curável se o tratamento for realizado no estágio inicial de contaminação com o Trypanosoma cruzi e que a ação dos profissionais da saúde é fundamental para o diagnóstico laboratorial dessa doença na fase aguda da infecção (período em quem os fármacos anti-tripanosomatídeos são efetivos), avaliou-se a percepção de acadêmicos de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil sobre questões gerais relacionadas com essa enfermidade, por meio de uma pesquisa transversal, descritiva, prospectiva e quantitativa. A maioria dos alunos demonstrou conhecer o agente etiológico da DC. Além disso, os alunos de medicina demonstraram conhecimento da principal forma de transmissão do parasita, embora uma parcela deles não associou a transmissão da DC às fezes de triatomíneos. Outra dificuldade observada por esses discentes foi em relação ao tratamento da DC, pois mais da metade dos alunos respondeu erroneamente que a DC não tem cura ou tem cura na fase crônica. Levando-se em consideração que a DC foi descrita por um médico que caracterizou todos os aspectos da doença, há necessidade dos cursos de graduação de medicina abordarem as DNs de forma holística, pois as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais exigem a formação de profissionais de saúde competentes e capazes de integrarem dimensões biológicas, psicológicas, sociais e ambientais.


Neglected Diseases (ND) are a diverse group of diseases that are prevalent in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries and affect more than one billion people living in poverty worldwide. Currently, it is estimated that eight million people are infected with Chagas disease (CD). Although São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil is a region of the state of São Paulo known for its high incidence of dengue, there are at least 700 patients with CD registered at the Base Hospital of São José do Rio Preto and high incidence of the vector, as more than 14 thousand triatomines were collected in the northwest of São Paulo between 2004 and 2011. Thus, taking into account that CD is clinically curable if the treatment is carried out at the initial stage of contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi and that the action of health professionals is essential for the clinical diagnosis of this disease in the acute phase of the infection (period in which anti-trypanosomatids are effective), was evaluated the perception of medical students from São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil about general questions related to this disease, through a cross-sectional, descriptive, prospective and quantitative research. Most students demonstrated knowledge of the etiological agent of CD. In addition, medical students demonstrated knowledge of the main form of transmission of the parasite, although a portion of them did not associate CD transmission with triatomine feces. Another difficulty observed by these students was related to the treatment of CD, as more than half of the students answered erroneously that CD has no cure or can be cured in the chronic phase. Taking into account that CD was described by a doctor who characterized all aspects of the disease, there is a need for undergraduate medical courses to address NDs in a holistic way, as the National Curriculum Guidelines require the training of competent health professionals capable of integrating biological, psychological, social and environmental dimensions.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Triatominae , Chagas Disease , Neglected Diseases , Epidemiological Monitoring
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