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2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 44-48, jun 17, 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358663

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a meningite bacteriana é um grave problema de Saúde Pública mundial, tendo como principais agentes: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae. A metodologia de diagnóstico empregada no Instituto Adolfo Lutz ­ Centro de Laboratório Regional Santo André até o ano de 2011 era a contraimunoeletroforese (CIE), depois foi substituída pela reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (qPCR), que apresenta maior sensibilidade. Objetivo: este trabalho objetivou comparar ambas as metodologias no período de 2009 a 2018, para avaliação do impacto da introdução da qPCR no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas nos 7 municípios da região do ABC do Estado de São Paulo. Metodologia: foram avaliadas a quantidade total de exames realizados, a média mensal, a positividade no período, os municípios requisitantes e a prevalência das bactérias causadoras de meningite, no período de abril/2009 até dezembro/2018. Resultados: Foram 377 exames de CIE e 1305 de qPCR, com média anual de 230 exames em 2010-2013 e 130 exames em 2014-2018. Observou-se aumento da positividade entre as técnicas, 17,8% para CIE e 33,8% para qPCR. N. meningitidis foi responsável pela maioria dos casos entre 2011 e 2013, cerca de 61% dos casos positivos, enquanto que entre 2014 e 2018 foi S. pneumoniae, cerca de 53%. Conclusão: os resultados indicaram que a qPCR foi mais eficiente em detectar os agentes causadores de meningite bacteriana na região do que a técnica de CIE. Por fim, este trabalho suporta a implantação da metodologia de qPCR para diagnóstico de meningite em substituição de técnicas menos sensíveis.


Introduction: bacterial meningitis is still a serious worldwide public health problem, and the main etiological agents are: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The diagnostic methodology employed at the Adolfo Lutz Institute ­ Santo André Regional Laboratory Center until 2011 was the ounterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), then it was replaced by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which is more sensitivity. Objective: this study aimed to compare both methodologies from 2009 to 2018 to evaluate the impact of the introduction of qPCR in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in the 7 cities of the ABC region of São Paulo State. Methodology: the total number of tests performed, the month average, the positivity in the period, the requesting cities and the prevalence of bacteria causing meningitis were evaluated from April/2009 to December/2018. Results: there were 377 CIE exams and 1305 qPCR exams, with an annual average of 230 exams in 2010-2013 and 130 exams in 2014-2018. There was an increase in positivity between the performed techniques, 17.8% for CIE and 33.8% for qPCR. N. meningitidis accounted for most cases of bacterial meningitis between 2011 and 2013, about 61% of positive cases, whereas between 2014 and 2018 it was S. pneumoniae, with about 53%. Conclusion: the results indicated that qPCR was more efficient in detecting the agents that cause bacterial meningitis in the region than the CIE technique. Finally, this work supports the implementation of qPCR methodology for diagnosis of meningitis in replacement of less sensitive techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Counterimmunoelectrophoresis , Haemophilus influenzae , Meningitis, Bacterial , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neisseria meningitidis , Database
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019103, July-Sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016864

ABSTRACT

The effective value of microbiological post-mortem examinations stands as fundamental in forensic cases involving microbiology. We ran these analyses on five victims, who suddenly died after showing persistent fever. The examinations were conducted between 48 hours and 10 days after death, and adrenal gland apoplexy was detected in all the cases. Microbiological examinations identified Neisseria meningitidis, which was accountable for Waterhouse­Friderichsen syndrome. Diplococci were isolated from three cadavers that underwent forensic dissection between 2 and 3 days after death. The remaining two cadavers showed polymicrobial contamination, and a polymerase chain reaction technique was necessary to identify the pathogen. We assumed that the microbial overlap could lead to diagnostic mistakes and conceal the identification of the lethal pathogen. Therefore, we suggest using molecular techniques for a postmortem interval (PMI) longer than 72 hours. Classical microbiological examination should be performed for PMI within 72 hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autopsy/methods , Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome/pathology , Microbiological Techniques , Fatal Outcome , Neisseria meningitidis
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 254-267, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is a bacterium that colonizes the human nasopharynx and is transmitted by respiratory droplets from asymptomatic or symptomatic carriers. Occasionally, the pathogen invades the mucosa and enters the bloodstream, causing invasive meningococcal disease, a life-threatening infection. While meningococcal colonization is the first step in the development of invasive disease, the risk factors that predict progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic status are not well-known. The present report aimed to describe the prevalence of N. meningitidis carriers throughout the Americas, emphasizing the risk factors associated with carrier status, as well as the most prevalent serogroups in each studied population. We conducted a systematic review by searching for original studies in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, LILACS and SciELO databases, published between 2001 and 2018. Exclusion criteria were articles published in a review format, case studies, case control studies, investigations involving animal models, and techniques or publications that did not address the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an American country. A total of 784 articles were identified, of which 23 were selected. The results indicate that the highest prevalence rates are concentrated in Cuba (31.9%), the United States (24%), and Brazil (21.5%), with increased prevalence found among adolescents and young adults, specifically university students and males. The present systematic review was designed to support epidemiological surveillance and prevention measures to aid in the formulation of strategies designed to control the transmission of meningococci in a variety of populations and countries throughout the Americas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Meningitis, Meningococcal/epidemiology , Neisseria meningitidis , Americas/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Immunization Programs , Meningitis, Meningococcal/prevention & control
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae share between 80% and 90% of their genetic sequence. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles—such as VA-MENGOC-BC—could cross-protect against gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence rates of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases with respect to the use of the VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Health statistics between 1970 and 2017 were reviewed and the incidence of meningococcal disease and sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, condyloma acuminatum, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection) were analyzed during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. Gonorrhea incidence was also analyzed by age groups. RESULTS: VA-MENGOC-BC was successfully used to control a meningococcal epidemic in Cuba. The strategy to combat the epidemic was carried out in two stages. The first one was a nationwide mass-vaccination campaign from 1989 to 1990, targeting the population at highest-risk aged 3 months to 24 years. During the second stage, begun in 1991, it was included in the Expanded Immunization Program. Gonorrhea incidence increased from 1970 to 1989. However, after the VA-MENGOC-BC massive vaccination campaign a sharp decrease of gonorrhea incidence was observed. It lasted between 1989 and 1993. A second incidence peak was detected in 1995, but it dropped again. Data clearly show a decline in the incidence of gonorrhea following massive vaccination, in contrast with other sexually transmitted diseases. Incidence rates in unvaccinated age groups also decreased, probably due to herd immunity. CONCLUSION: There is evidence that VA-MENGOC-BC could induce a moderate protection against gonorrhea.


Subject(s)
Cuba , Gonorrhea , Hepatitis B , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Membranes , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Neisseria meningitidis , Serogroup , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Vaccination , Vaccines
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 107 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-987581

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O estado de portador assintomático ocorre quando o hospedeiro alberga o agente etiológico sem apresentar doença. Os fatores associados ao estado de portador de Neisseria não patogênica (NNP) e Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) diferem entre si, no entanto, as características epidemiológicas de ambas ainda são pouco exploradas. Objetivos - Estimar a prevalência, analisar possíveis diferenças em distintos estratos sociais, identificar o genótipo das cepas isoladas, assim como, investigar fatores associados ao estado de portador de Nm e de NNP em núcleos familiares residentes em Cuiabá-MT. Método - Estudo transversal de base populacional, desenvolvido de 07/2016 a 07/2017, incluindo todos os moradores de uma amostra probabilística estratificada composta de 243 núcleos familiares (domicílios) de área urbana, em bairros de alta e baixa renda do município de Cuiabá. Foram incluídos os domicílios com ao menos uma criança de 12 e 60 meses de idade. Todos os residentes nos domicílios selecionados foram submetidos a coleta de swab de orofaringe para o isolamento de Neisseria spp. Para a comparação de proporções utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado. Foram estimadas as razões de prevalências (RP) com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança 95% (IC95%) e para a investigação de fatores associados ao estado de portador de Nm e de NNP foram utilizados modelos de regressão de Poisson. O ajuste das variáveis no modelo final foi avaliado pelo teste de Hosmer e Lemeshow. Resultados: Foram estudados 1.050 indivíduos residentes em 233 núcleos familiares. A prevalência de portadores de Neisseria spp. foi de 10,6% (111/1.050), a de Nm de 2,4% (25/1.050) e de NNP de 8,2% (86/1.050). Dentre 111 portadores, 62 (56,0%) foram por N. lactamica, 25 (22,0%) por Nm, 21 (19,0%) por N. subflava., duas (2,0%) por N. mucosa e uma (1,0%) por N. polysaccharea. Das Nm, 76% (19/25) eram não grupáveis, 16% (4/25) eram do sorogrupo B, 4% (1/25) do sorogrupo C e 4% (1/25) do sorogrupo W. A prevalência de Nm em bairros de baixa renda foi de 2,8% (23/816) e nos de alta renda de 0,8% (2/234) (p=0,058), com uma razão de prevalência (RP) de 3,3 (IC95%:0,8-13,9). A prevalência de NNP em bairros de baixa renda foi de 8,2% (67/816) e em bairros de alta renda de 8,1% (19/234), com uma RP de 1,0 (IC95%:0,6-1,6). Permaneceram independentemente associados ao estado de portador de Nm após ajuste para conviver com tabagista no domicílio e por número de pessoas por dormitório: i) residir em bairro de baixa renda (RPajustada=2,6); ii) faixa etária de 5 a 14 anos (RPajustada=2,7); iii) faixa etária de 15 a 29 anos (RPajustada=2,4) e faixa etária de 30 e anos e mais (RPajustada=1,4). Após o ajuste para a infecção respiratória nos últimos cinco dias, apresentar asma, três ou mais pessoas por dormitório e sexo masculino, mostraram-se independentemente associados ao estado de portador de NNP: i) pertencer a faixa etária de cinco a 14 anos de idade (RPajustada=2,8) e de menores de cinco anos de idade (RPajustada=7,2); ii) residir em casa precária/quitinete (RPajustada=2,1). Conclusões - O contexto social influencia o estado de portador de Nm e NNP. As vacinas conjugadas meningocócicas podem prevenir doenças direta e indiretamente e tais resultados podem subsidiar a elaboração de estratégias de intervenção, especialmente para a identificação de grupos alvo de programas de vacinação


Introduction - The asymptomatic carrier state occurs when the host harbors the etiologic agent without presenting disease. The associated factors with the carrier state of non-pathogenic Neisseria (NNP) and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) differ among them, however, the epidemiological characteristics of both are still poorly explored. Objectives - To estimate the prevalence, to analyze possible differences in different social strata, to identify the genotype of the isolated strains, as well as to investigate associated factors with the Nm and NNP carrier state in family\'s households living in Cuiabá-MT. Methods - A cross-sectional study was conducted in 07/2016 a 07/2017, in the city of Cuiabá, including all residents of a stratified probabilistic sample which was composed by 243 urban households (families nucleus) with high and low income neighborhoods of the city of Cuiabá. Households with at least one child between 12 and 60 months age were included. All residents in the selected households were submitted to oropharynx swab collection for the isolation of Neisseria spp. To compare proportions the chi-square test was used. For the estimates of prevalence ratios (PR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), for the analysis of the associated factors with Nm and NNP carrier state Poisson regression models were used. The adjustment of the variables in the final model was evaluated by the Hosmer e Lemeshow test. Results - A total of 1,050 individuals residing in 233 families nucleus were studied. The prevalence of Neisseria spp. was of 10.6% (111/1,050), Nm of 2.4% (25/1,050) and NNP of 8.2% (86/1,050). Among 111 carriers, 62 (56.0%) were by N. lactamica, 25 (22.0%) by Nm, 21 (19.0%) by N. subflava, two (2.0%) by N. mucosa and one (1.0%) by N. polysaccharea. Of the Nm, 76% (19/25) were non-grouping, 16% (4/25) were serogroup B, 4% (1/25) serogroup C and 4% (1/25) serogroup W. Prevalence of Nm in low-income neighborhoods was 2.8% (23/816) and high-income (0.8%) (2/234) (p=0.058), with a prevalence ratio of 3.3 (95% CI:0.8-13.9). The prevalence of NNP in low-income neighborhoods was 8.2% (67/816) and in high-income neighborhoods of 8.1% (19/234), with a PR of 1.0 (95% CI:0,6-1,6). They remained independently associated with Nm state after adjusting to live with a smoker at home and by number of people per dormitory: i) living in a low-income neighborhood (PRadjusted=2.6); ii) age group of 5 to 14 years (PRadjusted=2.7); iii) age range of 15 to 29 years (PRadjusted=2.4) and age group of 30 years and over (PRadjusted=1.4). After adjusting for respiratory infection in the last five days, presenting asthma, three or more people per dormitory and male sex, were independently associated with NNP status: i) belonging to the age group of five to 14 years of age (PRadjusted=2.8) and of children under five years of age (RPadjusted=7.2); ii) residing in a precarious home/kitchenette (PRadjusted= 2.1). Conclusions - The social context influences the carrier state of Nm and NNP. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent diseases directly and indirectly and such results may support the development of intervention strategies, especially for the identification of target groups of vaccination programs


Subject(s)
Genotype , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neisseria meningitidis/classification , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e10, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985755

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Describir las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de cepas de Neisseria meningitidis aisladas de enfermedad meningocócica en Paraguay entre 1996 y 2015. Métodos Se estudiaron por métodos microbiológicos convencionales y técnicas moleculares 114 aislamientos de N. meningitidis y 12 muestras clínicas sin aislamiento confirmadas por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) que fueron remitidas por los diferentes centros centinelas y centros colaboradores de Paraguay. Resultados El grupo de edad más afectado fue el de menores de 1 año (19,0%), seguido por el de 1 a 5 años (17,5%). Un mayor porcentaje de las cepas se aisló de casos de meningitis (81,7%) y el serogrupo B se encontró en 60,3% de los casos. Los fenotipos más frecuentes fueron B:4:P1.14 (16,0%), B:15:P1.5, C:NT:NST y W:NT:P1.2 (10,5%), respectivamente. Los complejos clonales prevalentes fueron ST-11/ET37 complex 29,6% (8/27) con predominio del serogrupo W (6/8), ST-35 complex 18,5% (5/27) en el serogrupo B (4/4), y ST-32/ET5 complex 14,8% (4/16) en el serogrupo B (5/5). Conclusiones En Paraguay la enfermedad meningocócica es relativamente infrecuente. Los análisis de distribución de serogrupo muestran que el más frecuente es el B y en los últimos dos años aumentaron los casos de enfermedad meningocócica por C y W. Los complejos clonales encontrados se correlacionan con los hallados en la región del Cono Sur. Debido al alto nivel de virulencia de N. meningitidis, su vigilancia debe constituir una prioridad estratégica de los sistemas de salud pública nacionales y regionales para prevenir brotes epidémicos y apoyar la toma de decisiones en salud pública.


ABSTRACT Objective Describe the phenotypical and genotypical characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from cases of meningococcal disease in Paraguay between 1996 and 2015. Methods Conventional microbiological methods and molecular techniques were used to study 114 isolates of N. meningitidis and 12 clinical samples without isolation (confirmed by polymerase chain reaction), provided by various sentinel centers and collaborating centers in Paraguay. Results The most affected age group was children under 1 year (19.0%), followed by 1-5-year-olds (17.5%). The highest percentage of strains was isolated in meningitis cases (81.7%) and serogroup B was found in 60.3% of cases. The most frequent phenotypes were B:4:p1.14 (16.0%), B:15:p1.5, C:nt:nst, and W:nt:p1.2 (10.5%), respectively. The prevalent clonal complexes were: ST-11/ET37 complex, 29.6% (8/27), predominantly serogroup W (6/8); ST-35 complex, 18.5% (5/27), in serogroup B (4/4); and ST-32/ET5 complex, 14.8% (4/16), in serogroup B (5/5). Conclusions Meningococcal meningitis is relatively uncommon in Paraguay. Distribution analysis showed that serogroup B is the most common and that the number of cases of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups C and W increased in the last two years. The identified clonal complexes were correlated with those found in the Southern Cone region. Due to the high virulence of N. meningitidis, its surveillance should be a strategic priority of national and regional public health systems to prevent epidemic outbreaks and support public health decision-making.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever as características fenotípicas e genotípicas de cepas de Neisseria meningitidis isoladas de casos de doença meningocócica no Paraguai entre 1996 e 2015. Métodos Foram estudados por métodos microbiológicos convencionais e técnicas moleculares 114 isolados de N. meningitidis e 12 amostras clínicas sem isolamento confirmadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) enviados por diferentes centros-sentinela e centros colaboradores do Paraguai. Resultados A faixa etária mais afetada foi a de crianças menores de 1 ano (19,0%) e crianças de 1 a 5 anos (17,5%). Uma maior porcentagem de cepas foi isolada de casos de meningite (81,7%) e o sorogrupo B foi identificado em 60,3% dos casos. Os fenótipos mais comuns foram B:4:P1.14 (16,0%), B:15:P1.5, C:NT:NST e W:NT:P1.2 (10,5%), respectivamente. Os complexos clonais mais prevalentes foram o complexo ST-11/ET37 (29,6%, 8/27) com predomínio no sorogrupo W (6/8), complexo ST-35 (18,5%, 5/27) no sorogrupo B (4/4) e complexo ST-32/ET5 (14,8%, 4/16) no sorogrupo B (5/5). Conclusões A doença meningocócica é relativamente pouco comum no Paraguai. A análise da distribuição dos sorogrupos demonstrou que o sorogrupo B é o mais prevalente e, nos últimos dois anos, ouve um aumento nos casos de doença meningocócica pelos sorogrupos C e W. Os complexos clonais encontrados se correlacionam com os achados na região do Cone Sul. Devido à alta virulência da N. meningitidis, a vigilância deste agente deve ser uma prioridade estratégica dos sistemas de saúde pública nacionais e regionais para prevenir surtos epidêmicos e subsidiar a tomada de decisão em saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Paraguay/epidemiology , Meningitis/genetics , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 33: 29-35, May. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022834

ABSTRACT

Background: P64k is a Neisseria meningitidis high molecular weight protein present in meningococcal vaccine preparations. The lpdA gene, which encodes for this protein, was cloned in Escherichia coli and the P64k recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli K12 GC366 cells under the control of a tryptophan promoter. P64k was expressed as an intracellular soluble protein about 28% of the total cellular protein. Several scale-up criteria of fermentation processes were studied to obtain the recombinant P64k protein at the pilot production scale. Results: The best operational conditions at a larger scale production of P64k recombinant protein were studied and compared using the four following criteria: Constant Reynold's number (Re constant), Constant impeller tip speed (n di constant), Constant power consumption per unit liquid volume (P/V constant) and Constant volumetric oxygen transfer coefficients (KLa/k constant). The highest production of the recombinant protein was achieved based on the constant KLa/k scale-up fermentation criterion, calculating the aeration rate (Q) and the impeller agitation speed (n) by iterative process, keeping constant the KLa/k value from bench scale. The P64k protein total production at the 50 l culture scale was 546 mg l -1 in comparison with the 284 mg l -1 obtained at 1.5 l bench scale. Conclusions: The methodology described herein, for the KLa/k scale-up fermentation criterion, allowed us to obtain the P64k protein at 50 l scale. A fermentation process for the production of P64k protein from N. meningitidis was established, a protein to be used in future vaccine formulations in humans.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Neisseria meningitidis/metabolism , Tryptophan , Meningococcal Vaccines , Fermentation , Molecular Weight
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(2): 249-253, feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961384

ABSTRACT

Few cases of bacteremic pneumonia by Neisseria meningitidis (NM) have been described worldwide; mostly in elderly patients or those with comorbidities. They appear clinically indistinguishable from other acute infectious pneumoniae, that do not develope the syndrome of meningococcemia. We report a 17-years-old male, without prior medical history, consulting in the emergency department with a 7-day history of productive cough, right pleural pain, fever and dyspnea. He was admitted to the ICU due to septic shock and respiratory distress. He was managed with vasoactive drugs and prone positioning ventilation for 48 hours. Chest radiography showed a right superior lobe condensation. The electrocardiogram and echocardiogram suggested septic myocarditis. Blood cultures demonstrated the presence of serogroup W135-NM. A lumbar puncture ruled out meningitis, and a 10-day ceftriaxone therapy was completed favorably.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Chile , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018058-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the emergence of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) W135 in Côte d'Ivoire and its characteristics compared to NmA. METHODS: Data on Nm samples isolated at the National Reference Center for meningitis in Côte d'Ivoire between 2007 and 2012 were analyzed. Socio-demographic data and biological information on the samples were extracted from the database. Categorical variables, such as sex and the serotype of the bacteria, were compared using the Fisher exact test, while the distribution of continuous variables, such as age, was compared using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Among the 175 Nm samples, 57 were NmA, 4 were NmB, 13 were NmC, and 99 were NmW135. The geographical distribution of NmA and NmW135 did not show a significant difference according to age or sex. NmW135 was more common than NmA in the northern health districts of Cote d'Ivoire (85.9 vs. 45.5%; p < 0.001). No sample of NmA has been isolated since 2009, while 95% of the type W135 samples were isolated between 2010 and 2012. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the emergence of NmW135 in Côte d'Ivoire, as well as the simultaneous disappearance of NmA. It is important to improve laboratory-based surveillance of meningitis to assess trends in the circulation of bacteria and to detect the emergence of new serogroups earlier.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Cote d'Ivoire , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Neisseria meningitidis , Neisseria , Public Health Surveillance , Serogroup
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741860

ABSTRACT

Sepsis and meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis are rare in neonates, but neonatal sepsis and meningitis are associated with a high rate of mortality. Meningococcal disease is commonly reported in older children and adolescents and is known to be more prevalent in community settings. In this study, a 16-day-old neonate was diagnosed with serogroup B meningococcal sepsis and meningitis. The baby was treated with antibiotics at the early stages of the infection and was discharged in good condition without any complications. This case report can serve to raise awareness of the incidence and importance of meningococcal infection in neonates, especially serogroup B.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis , Meningococcal Infections , Mortality , Neisseria meningitidis , Neisseria , Sepsis , Serogroup
12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018058-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the emergence of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) W135 in Côte d'Ivoire and its characteristics compared to NmA.METHODS: Data on Nm samples isolated at the National Reference Center for meningitis in Côte d'Ivoire between 2007 and 2012 were analyzed. Socio-demographic data and biological information on the samples were extracted from the database. Categorical variables, such as sex and the serotype of the bacteria, were compared using the Fisher exact test, while the distribution of continuous variables, such as age, was compared using the Wilcoxon test.RESULTS: Among the 175 Nm samples, 57 were NmA, 4 were NmB, 13 were NmC, and 99 were NmW135. The geographical distribution of NmA and NmW135 did not show a significant difference according to age or sex. NmW135 was more common than NmA in the northern health districts of Cote d'Ivoire (85.9 vs. 45.5%; p < 0.001). No sample of NmA has been isolated since 2009, while 95% of the type W135 samples were isolated between 2010 and 2012.CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the emergence of NmW135 in Côte d'Ivoire, as well as the simultaneous disappearance of NmA. It is important to improve laboratory-based surveillance of meningitis to assess trends in the circulation of bacteria and to detect the emergence of new serogroups earlier.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Cote d'Ivoire , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Neisseria meningitidis , Neisseria , Public Health Surveillance , Serogroup
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 117 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-905922

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Analisar a tendência, descrever mudanças no comportamento da doença meningocócica invasiva (DMI) e estimar o impacto da vacina conjugada do meningococo C (VCMC) nas capitais da região Sul do Brasil, no período de 1991 a 2015, assim como, investigar as características sociodemográficas, econômicas e de intervenções tecnológicas associadas aos casos pertencentes a cluster da doença no município de Curitiba (PR), no período de 2001 a 2014. Métodos: As áreas de estudo englobaram as capitais da Região Sul do Brasil: Curitiba (PR), Florianópolis (SC) e Porto Alegre (RS), a população de estudo abrangeu os casos de DMI notificados entre 1991 a 2015 à vigilância da doença e residentes nessas capitais. A definição de caso adotada foi a padronizada pelo Ministério da Saúde. As fontes de dados foram: vigilância da DMI, o Instituto Adolfo Lutz, o Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e o Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano de Curitiba. A tendência da incidência e mortalidade da DMI foi determinada pelo modelo de regressão polinomial. A intensidade e a direção da relação linear entre a taxa de incidência e os indicadores socioeconômicos, de saúde e sorogrupo foram analisadas pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. O impacto da VCMC foi estimado pela Fração Prevenida na População, comparando as taxas de incidência de 2012 e 2015 com as de 2009. Investigou-se os potenciais fatores associados a casos pertencentes a cluster no período de 2001 a 2014 por meio das estimativas de odds ratio não ajustada e ajustadas pela regressão logística múltipla não condicional, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados: No período de estudo, a DMI apresentou três comportamentos distintos nas capitais da região sul: i) epidêmico na década de 1990, ii) declínio das taxas na década de 2000, antes da introdução da VCMC na rotina de imunização e, iii) estacionário com taxas baixas entre 2011 e 2015, sob a influência da VCMC. Observamos nesses períodos a influência de fatores biológicos, socioeconômicos e de saúde na incidência dessas capitais. No estudo mais detalhado em Curitiba, apresentou-se associado aos casos pertencentes a cluster, ajustados no tempo e pela idade, residir em bairros de baixa renda (OR: 2,3, IC95%:1,1-4,5). O sorogrupo predominante foi o B com 65,4%, seguida pelo C com 24,5% e 8,3% pelo W. Possivelmente, em virtude da baixa incidência do sorogrupo C, não se verificou a redução na incidência total da DMI, nestas capitais. Entretanto, no período posterior a VCMC, os casos pelo sorogrupo C foram raros ou zerados na faixa etária destinada a vacinação em Curitiba e Florianópolis. Em Porto Alegre foram registrados casos pelo sorogrupo C na faixa etária vacinada e o sorogrupo W se destacou. Conclusão: A partir do início desse século houve declínio expressivo da incidência da DMI nas capitais da região Sul do país, antes mesmo da introdução da vacina, aproximando-se das taxas de DMI encontradas em países de elevada renda. Tais resultados são consistentes, com trabalhos que mostram uma associação da DMI com as condições de vida e grau de desenvolvimento das populações


Objectives: To analyze the trend and describe changes in the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and to estimate the impact of the meningococcal conjugate C vaccine (MCCV) in the capitals of the southern region of Brazil, from 1991 to 2015, as well as to investigate the sociodemographic, economic and technological interventions associated to the cases belonging in cluster of the disease in the city of Curitiba (PR), from 2001 to 2014. Methods: The study areas included the capitals of the States of Southern Brazil: Curitiba (PR), Florianópolis (SC) and Porto Alegre (RS), the study population considered cases of IMD reported between 1991 and 2015 to surveillance and residents in these capitals. The IMD case definition adopted was that standardized by the Ministry of Health. The data sources were the surveillance of the IMD, the Adolfo Lutz Institute, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Institute of Research and Urban Planning of Curitiba. The trend of IMD incidence and mortality was determined by the polynomial regression model. The intensity and direction of the linear relationship between the incidence rate and socioeconomic indicators, health and serogroup were analyzed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The impact of the MCCV was estimated by the Prevented Fraction for the Population comparing the incidence rates of 2012 and 2015 with those of 2009. We investigated the potential factors associated with cases belonging in cluster between 2001 and 2014 by the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio estimates by the multiple unconditional logistic regression, with the respectives confidence intervals of 95%. Results: Between 1991 and 2015, IMD presented three distinct periods in the capitals of the southern region: i) epidemic in the 1990s, ii) decline in rates from 2000 to 2010, before the introduction of MCCV in immunization routine and (iii) stationary at low rates in 2011 to 2015, under the influence of MCCV. In this period, we observed the influence of biological, socioeconomic and health factors on the incidence of these capitals. In more detailed study in Curitiba, it was associated with cases belonging in cluster, adjusted in time and by age, to live in low-income neighborhoods (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). Serogroup B was predominant with 65,4%, followed by C with 24,5% and 8,3% by W. Possibly, due to the low incidence of serogroup C, there was no reduction in the total incidence of IMD in these capitals. However, *in the period after MCCV, serogroup C cases were rare or zero in the age group destinedfor vaccination in Curitiba and Florianópolis. In Porto Alegre, cases were registered by serogroup C in the vaccinated age group and serogroup W was relevant. Conclusion: From the beginning of this century there was a significant decline in the incidence of IMD in the capitals of the southern region of the country, even before the introduction of the vaccine, approaching IMD rates found in high income countries. These results are consistent, with studies showing an association of IMD with living conditions and the degree of population development


Subject(s)
Epidemiological Monitoring , Meningitis, Meningococcal/embryology , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C , Brazil , Demography , Epidemiologic Factors , Meningococcal Infections , Neisseria meningitidis , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Rio de Janeiro,; s.n; 2018. xviii, 104 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050115

ABSTRACT

A doença meningocócica é causada por Neisseria meningitidis, a qual é uma bactéria de transmissão respiratória que coloniza a nasofaringe humana em cerca de 5-10% da população em geral, normalmente, de forma assintomática. O portador assintomático é o principal elemento na cadeia de transmissão e manutenção em natureza desta bactéria, mesmo durante períodos epidêmicos. Não existem estudos epidemiológicos sobre a infecção por N. meningitidis em populações indígenas no Brasil. Realizamos um estudo epidemiológico de campo do tipo transversal com o objetivo de investigar a infecção assintomática por N. meningitidis em três aldeias indígenas na região do Rio Madeira, no estado do Amazonas: mura (n = 260), Munduruku (n = 268) e mura-pirahã (n = 172).Nas três aldeias incluídas (de acordo com a proximidade e contato com pessoas de centros urbanos), foram examinados com swab da nasofaringe e entrevistados 210 (19% de perda), 268 (0,8% de perda) e 108 (37% de perda) indivíduos, respectivamente. A tipagem fenotípica e genética dos isolados de portadores foi realizada pela técnica de soroaglutinação e de multilocus sequence typing (MLST), respectivamente. O perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pelo método de E-teste. Na Aldeia São Félix, etnia Mura (bastante contato), encontramos uma prevalência de portadores de N. meningitidis de 2,4% (5/210) e de Neisseria lactamica de 6% (12/210)


Na Aldeia Fronteira, etnia Munduruku (pouco contato), encontramos uma prevalência de portadores de N. meningitidis de 1,5% (4/268), enquanto na Aldeia Pirahã do Maicí etnia mura-pirahã (quase nenhum contato), encontramos uma prevalência de portadores de N. meningitidis de 1,9% (2/108). Registro de doença meningocócica, com evolução para óbito, foi reportado apenas na aldeia São Félix, em 2014, em uma criança que estudava na escola, mas não residia na aldeia. A infecção assintomática foi associada ao deslocamento para fora da aldeia ou ao contato íntimo com quem se desloca com frequência nas três aldeias visitadas. A caracterização fenotípica identificou o sorogrupo B em todas as amostras de N. meningitidis isoladas dos portadores. A genotipagem por MLST identificou dois novos tipos sequenciados (ST): ST-13111 (complexo clonal [cc] 1136) e ST-13110 (-). Uma única cepa foi identificada como ST-11406 (-). O ST-13111 (cc1136) foi identificado nas três aldeias incluídas neste estudo. Os portadores foram tratados com azitromicina em dose única: crianças e adultos


Todas as cepas foram sensíveis à penicilina, ampicilina, ceftriaxona e cloranfenicol, as quais são utilizadas no tratamento da doença invasiva, além de rifampicina, ciprofloxacina e azitromicina, as quais são utilizadas para o tratamento dos portadores. A investigação identificou uma prevalência de portadores de N. meningitidis semelhante àquela encontrada para indivíduos que não são contatos íntimos de casos de doença meningocócica. Apenas o deslocamento para fora da aldeia como estudar, trabalhar, viajar esteve associado ao estado de portador. A prevalência de N. lactamica, uma espécie não patogênica e comensal da nasofaringe humana, também foi semelhante ao que já foi descrito anteriormente. Os STs identificados são, geralmente, isolados da nasofaringe humana e, raramente, de doença invasiva, o que pode justificar a ausência de casos de doença nas aldeias investigadas. No entanto, ficou demonstrado a introdução e circulação de N. meningitidis nas aldeias indígenas investigadas e, consequentemente, a possibilidade de introdução de cepas hiperinvasivas, as quais podem causar doença invasiva de início abrupto rapidamente progressivo e potencialmente fatal. Assim, o uso de vacinas antimeningocócicas fica justificado como a melhor forma de controle da doença meningocócica nas populações de áreas remota. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier State , Amazonian Ecosystem , Asymptomatic Infections , Indium , Meningitis, Meningococcal , Neisseria meningitidis
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 587-595, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888918

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pharynx/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Meningococcal Infections/diagnosis
16.
Med. infant ; 24(4): 320-324, dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-878278

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las meningitis bacterianas en niños son causa de importante morbimortalidad. Los principales agentes etiológicos son Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Haemophilus influenzae. En los últimos años, luego de la introducción sucesiva de vacunas conjugadas al calendario nacional de inmunizaciones, se ha visto un cambio en la epidemiología de estas infecciones. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y evolutivas de los niños hospitalizados con meningitis bacteriana confirmada microbiológicamente entre 2011 y 2016 en un hospital de tercer nivel de complejidad. Materiales y métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron niños entre 1 mes de vida y 17 años con cuadro clínico compatible con meningitis bacteriana y cultivo positivo y/o PCR en líquido cefalorraquídeo y/o hemocultivos positivos para Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Haemophilus influenzae b. Se registraron las características demográficas, clínicas y evolutivas hasta los 30 días del egreso. Se utilizó mediana y rango intercuartilo (RIC) para variables continuas y porcentaje para variables categóricas. Se utilizó Stata 10. Resultados: n=65. Edad: mediana de 9 meses (RIC 4-35). Varones: 58% (n=38). Se identificó Neisseria meningitidis en un 48% (n=31), Haemophilus influenzae b en un 26% (n=17) y Streptococcus pneumoniae en un 26% (n=17). El 26% (n=17) de los pacientes presentaba alguna comorbilidad. Tuvieron hemocultivos positivos el 62% (n = 40) de los pacientes y 86% (n=55) de los líquidos cefalorraquídeos. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento antimicrobiano con ceftriaxona tanto como tratamiento empírico como definitivo y 92% (n=60) recibieron corticoides empíricos. La mediana de días de internación fue de 11 (RIC 8-17). El 28% (n=18) requirió cuidados intensivos, y el 8% (n=5) falleció. Durante el período de estudio se observó que la frecuencia de meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae disminuyó en el final del estudio (9% en 2016 vs 60% en 2011), mientras que la frecuencia de meningitis por Neisseria meningitidis en 2016 fue mayor que al inicio del período (64% en 2016 vs. 40% en 2011). La frecuencia de identificación de Haemophilus influenzae b se mantuvo estable. Conclusiones: Las meningitis bacterianas confirmadas por Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Haemophilus influenzae b prevalecieron en niños menores de 12 meses. En esta cohorte se observó un predominio de las infecciones por Neisseria meningitidis en los últimos años, y una disminución en la frecuencia de meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae en el período post introducción de la vacuna conjugada 13 valente al calendario nacional de inmunizaciones. (AU)


Introduction: In children, bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The main etiological agents are Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Over the last years, the successive introduction of conjugated vaccines in the national immunization calendar has led to a change in the epidemiology of these infections. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features and outcome of children admitted because of microbiologically confirmed meningitis seen between 2011 and 2016 at a tertiary care hospital. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Children between 1 month of life and 17 years of age with clinical features compatible with bacterial meningitis and positive cultures and/or PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or positive blood cultures for Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae b were included. Demographic, clinical, and outcome features were recorded until 30 days after discharge. Median and interquartile range (IQR) were calculated for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. The Stata 10 program was used. Results: n=65. Age: median was 9 months (IQR 4-35). Boys: 58% (n=38). Neisseria meningitidis was identified in 48% (n=31), Haemophilus influenzae b in 26% (n=17), and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 26% (n=17). Overall, 26% (n=17) of the patients presented with comorbidities. Positive blood cultures were found in 62% (n = 40) and positive CSF cultures in 86% (n=55) of the patients. All patients received antimicrobial treatment with ceftriaxone both empirically and as final treatment and corticosteroids were empirically started in 92% (n=60). Median hospital stay was 11 days (IQR 8-17). Overall, 28% (n=18) required intensive care and 8% (n=5) of the patients died. The incidence of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was observed to diminish at the end of the study period (9% in 2016 vs 60% in 2011), while the incidence of meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis in 2016 was higher than at the end of the study period (64% in 2016 vs. 40% in 2011). The frequency of identification of Haemophilus influenzae b remained stable. Conclusions: Confirmed bacterial infections due to Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae b were prevalent in infants younger than 12 months of age in this cohort of patients. Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis predominated over the last years and the incidence of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae diminished after the introduction of the 13 valent conjugated vaccine was introduced in the national immunization calendar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/prevention & control , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae type b/pathogenicity , Neisseria meningitidis/pathogenicity
17.
Bol. Hosp. Viña del Mar ; 73(3): 94-96, sept. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad infecciosa aguda grave, que por su letalidad y costos en atención de salud genera un alto impacto en Salud Pública. Los agentes causales más frecuentes son Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae y Listeria monocytogenes, pero poco conocemos de nuestra realidad local. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo, con revisión de base de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del Hospital Carlos Van Buren, obteniendo datos de los cultivos de líquido céfalo raquídeo de pacientes mayores de 15 años entre marzo de 2013 y noviembre de 2016. RESULTADOS: 128 casos de meningitis bacteriana aguda, de los cuales 17 fueron por los microorganismos objetivos del estudio, siendo el más frecuente S. pneumoniae, clínicamente un 58% se presentó sin signos meníngeos. A 30 días del diagnóstico un 35% había fallecido, la mitad de ellos inició el tratamiento antibiótico pasadas las 24 horas desde su ingreso al hospital. En el 46% la tinción gram no evidenció bacterias. DISCUSIÓN: los microorganismos clásicamente descritos como agentes causales parecen no explicar la totalidad de los cuadros de meningitis bacteriana aguda en la población adulta estudiada, la ausencia de signos meníngeos no permite descartar la sospecha diagnóstica. La mitad de los pacientes fallecidos inició el tratamiento antibiótico pasadas las primeras 24 horas.


INTRODUCTION: bacterial meningitis is a serious acute infectious disease whose lethality and elevated health costs have a serious impact on public health. The most frequent causes are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenza and Listeria monocytogenes, but we know little of the local situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study reviewing Carlos van Buren Hospital´s microbiology laboratory data base, and obtaining the details of cerebrospinal fluid cultures of patients over the age of 15 between March 2013 and November 2016. RESULTS: 128 cases of acute bacterial meningitis of which 17% were caused by the micro-organisms of study, the most frequent being Streptococcus pneumoniae. 58% of patients had no meningeal signs. At 30 days from diagnosis 35% had died, half of these having started antibiotic treatment over 24 hours after admission. 46% of the Gram stains showed no bacteria. DISCUSSION: the classical infectious agents do not appear to account for the totality of acute bacterial meningitis in the population studied. The absence of meningeal signs should not rule out the diagnosis. Half of the patients who died started antibiotic treatment after the first 24 hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/complications , Listeriosis/complications , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Meningococcal Infections/complications , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 232-236, April.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839371

ABSTRACT

Abstract Our aim in this study is to compare the standard culture method with the multiplex PCR and the Speed-Oligo® Bacterial Meningitis Test (SO-BMT) – a hybridization-based molecular test method – during the CSF examination of the patients with the pre-diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. For the purposes of this study, patients with acute bacterial meningitis treated at the Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic between December 2009 and April 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was made based on the clinical findings, laboratory test anomalies, CSF analysis results, and the radiological images. Growth was observed in the CSF cultures of 10 out of the 57 patients included in the study (17.5%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in all of them. The CSF samples of 34 patients (59.6%) were positive according to the SO-BMT and S. pneumoniae was detected in 33 of the samples (97.05%), while Neisseria meningitidis was found in 1 sample (2.95%). In a total of 10 patients, S. pneumoniae was both isolated in the CSF culture and detected in the SO-BMT. The culture and the SO-BMT were negative in 23 of the CSF samples. There was no sample in which the CSF culture was positive although the SO-BMT was negative. While SO-BMT seems to be a more efficient method than bacterial culturing to determine the pathogens that most commonly cause bacterial meningitis in adults, further studies conducted on larger populations are needed in order to assess its efficiency and uses.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/growth & development , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Neisseria meningitidis/classification , Neisseria meningitidis/growth & development , Neisseria meningitidis/genetics
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 237-246, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Meningococcal C conjugate (MenC) vaccine was introduced as part of the Brazilian National Immunisation Program in 2010 for children < 1 year of age. OBJECTIVES The study objective was to evaluate the impact of this vaccination strategy. METHODS An observational, mixed ecological and analytical study was conducted, based on time series panel data from surveillance records (2001-2013). FINDINGS A total of 37,538 of meningococcal disease cases were recorded during the study period. Of these, 19,997 were attributed to serogroup C. A decrease in meningococcal disease serogroup C (MDC) incidence among children aged < 1 year [65.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 20.5-84.7%] and 1-4 years (46.9%; 95%CI: 14.6-79.1%) were found in the three years following vaccination introduction. Vaccination impact on the reduction of MDC incidence varied from 83.7% (95%CI: 51.1-100.0%) in the Midwest region to 56.7% (95%CI: 37.4-76.0%) in the Northeast region. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Vaccination against MDC in Brazil had a positive impact on the population of children aged < 1 year, across all regions, and on the 1-4 year-old cohort. Nevertheless, in our view there is scope for improving the vaccination strategy adopted in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Meningococcal Vaccines/immunology , Meningitis, Meningococcal/immunology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neisseria meningitidis , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunization Programs
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176885

ABSTRACT

The meningococcus carriage rate is age-dependent, with a high prevalence in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the oropharyngeal carriage rate of meningococcus among healthy Korean adolescents and its relationship with several population characteristics. The survey was conducted from April to May 2015 among 1,460 first-year high-school students in 9 high schools located in Gyeonggi province, Korea. Each student answered a short questionnaire assessing risk factors for carriage, and posterior pharyngeal wall swab samples were obtained. These samples were cultured on meningococcus-selective media, with colonies resembling meningococci identified using the Vitek® MS system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). All isolates were characterized by molecular serogrouping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Meningococci were identified from 3.4% (49/1,460) swabs. Current smokers had significantly higher carriage rates than non-smokers (8.2% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.002), and boys had significantly higher carriage rates than girls (4.4% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.004). Serogroup B was the most common serogroup, followed by serogroup C, then 29E and Y. Twenty-seven different sequence types (STs) were identified; the most common were ST-3091, ST-11278, and ST-44. These belonged to clonal complexes (CCs) 269, 32, and 41/44, respectively, known as the hypervirulent clones. Evaluating meningococcal carriage is important to understand the epidemiology of meningococcal disease; however, little data exist in Korea. Similar to western countries, meningococcal serogroup B has emerged in Korea, and hypervirulent clones were identified. It is necessary to monitor the genetic and serologic characteristics of circulating meningococci and to assess the potential strain coverage of meningococcal vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Carrier State , Clone Cells , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Korea , Meningococcal Vaccines , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Neisseria meningitidis , Neisseria , Population Characteristics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Serogroup , Young Adult
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