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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248032, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278557

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new species of nematode parasite of the subfamily Pudicinae (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae) is described from the small intestine of Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) from the locality of Nova Cintra in the municpality of Rodrigues Alves, Acre state, Brazil. The genus Pudica includes 15 species parasites of Neotropical rodents of the families Caviidae, Ctenomyidae, Dasyproctidae, Echimyidae, Erethizontidae, and Myocastoridae. Four species of this nematode were found parasitizing three different species rodents of the genus Proechimys in the Amazon biome. Pudica wandiquei n. sp. can be differentiated from all other Pudica species by the distance between the ends of rays 6 and 8 and the 1-3-1 pattern of the caudal bursa in both lobes.


Resumo Uma nova espécie de nematódeo da subfamília Pudicinae (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae) é descrito parasitando o intestino delgado de Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) em Nova Cintra, município de Rodrigues Alves, Estado do Acre, Brasil. O gênero Pudica inclui 15 espécies parasitas de roedores Neotropicais das famílias: Caviidae, Ctenomyidae, Dasyproctidae, Echimyidae, Erethizontidae e Myocastoridae. Destas, quatro espécies de nematódeos foram encontradas parasitando três diferentes espécies do roedor Proechimys no bioma Amazônia. Pudica wandiquei n. sp. é diferente das outras espécies de Pudica pela distância entre os raios 6 e 8 e pelo tipo da bolsa caudal, que é 1-3-1 em ambos os lados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Trichostrongyloidea , Nematoda , Rodentia , Brazil
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247913, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278555

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Nematoda , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Rivers
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242614, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Resumo Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados ​​pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis ​​estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parasites , Vegetables/parasitology , Food Contamination/analysis , Nematoda , Pakistan , Public Health , Food Parasitology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246116, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249222

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Nematoda , Sewage , Tunisia , Environmental Monitoring , Geologic Sediments , Industry
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 885-892, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285284

ABSTRACT

The Muscovy duck is a commercially important bird on the island of Marajó usually raised in a peculiar system that includes supplying fish viscera to the birds under semi-extensive farming conditions. This enables a risk of contamination and losses in the production of these birds, resulting from injuries caused by helminth infections, especially nematodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes caused by nematodes of the genera: Eucoleus, Anisakis and Contracaecum. Thirty-three ducks with lesions in the esophagus and ventricle were analyzed. Histopathological exams showed a mild inflammatory infiltrate in the submucosa of the esophagus caused by the fixation of E. contortus and third stage larvae of Anisakis sp., and we recorded third stage larvae of Contracaecum sp. parasitizing the ventricle, this being the first record of this parasite in ducks in Brazil.(AU)


O pato doméstico é uma ave amplamente comercializada na Ilha de Marajó, com um peculiar manejo que inclui a oferta de vísceras de peixes aos animais em criações semiextensivas, propiciando, assim, risco de contaminação e perdas na produção dessas aves decorrentes de lesões oriundas de infecções por helmintos, especialmente os nematódeos. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar as alterações histopatológicas causadas por nematódeos dos gêneros: Eucoleus, Anisakis e Contracaecum. Foram analisados 33 patos, e três exemplares apresentaram lesões no esôfago e no ventrículo. Exames histopatológicos demonstraram discreto infiltrado inflamatório na submucosa do esôfago ocasionado pela fixação de E. contortus e larvas de terceiro estágio de Anisakis sp., bem como foram registradas larvas de terceiro estágio de Contracaecum sp. parasitando o ventrículo, sendo esse o primeiro registro desse parasito em patos no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ducks/injuries , Ducks/parasitology , Esophagus/injuries , Helminths/isolation & purification , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Parasitic Diseases/complications , Brazil
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 35-46, mayo 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285448

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Strongyloides venezuelensis is a nematode whose natural host is rats. It is used as a model for the investigation of human strongyloidiasis caused by S. stercoralis. The latter is a neglected tropical disease in Ecuador where there are no specific plans to mitigate this parasitic illness. Objective: To evaluate the stages of S. venezuelensis in an experimental life cycle using Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were used to replicate the natural biological cycle of S. venezuelensis and describe its morphometric characteristics, as well as its parasitic development. Furthermore, the production of eggs per gram of feces was quantified using two diagnostic techniques and assessment of parasite load: Kato-Katz and qPCR. Results: Viable larval stages (Lr L2, L3) could be obtained up to 96 hours through fecal culture. Parthenogenetic females were established in the duodenum on the fifth day postinfection. Fertile eggs were observed in the intestinal tissue and fresh feces where the production peak occurred on the 8th. day post-infection. Unlike Kato-Katz, qPCR detected parasitic DNA on days not typically reported. Conclusions: The larval migration of S. venezuelensis within the murine host in an experimental environment was equivalent to that described in its natural biological cycle. The Kato-Katz quantitative technique showed to be quick and low-cost, but the qPCR had greater diagnostic precision. This experimental life cycle can be used as a tool for the study of strongyloidiasis or other similar nematodiasis.


Resumen | Introducción. Strongyloides venezuelensis es un nematodo cuyo huésped natural son las ratas. Se utiliza como modelo para la investigación de la estrongiloidiasis humana producida por S. stercoralis. Esta última es una enfermedad tropical desatendida que afecta al Ecuador, donde no existen planes específicos para mitigar esta parasitosis. Objetivo. Evaluar experimentalmente los estadios del ciclo de vida de S. venezuelensis utilizando ratas Wistar. Materiales y métodos. Se emplearon ratas Wistar macho para replicar el ciclo biológico natural de S. venezuelensis y describir sus características morfométricas y su desarrollo parasitario. Además, se cuantificó la producción de huevos por gramo de heces mediante dos técnicas de diagnóstico y valoración de carga parasitaria: Kato-Katz y qPCR. Resultados. Se obtuvieron estadios larvarios viables (L1, L2, L3) hasta las 96 horas del cultivo fecal. En el duodeno se establecieron hembras partenogenéticas a partir del quinto día de la infección. Se observaron huevos fértiles en el tejido intestinal inspeccionado y en las heces frescas, en las que el pico de producción ocurrió al octavo día de la infección. A diferencia del método Kato-Katz, la qPCR detectó ADN parasitario en días que usualmente no se reportan. Conclusiones. La migración larvaria de S. venezuelensis dentro del ratón en un ambiente experimental fue equivalente al descrito en un ciclo biológico natural. El método cuantitativo de Kato-Katz dio resultados inmediatos a más bajo costo, pero la qPCR tuvo mayor precisión diagnóstica. Este ciclo de vida experimental puede usarse como una herramienta para el estudio de la estrongiloidiasis u otras nematodiasis similares.


Subject(s)
Strongyloides , Rats, Wistar , Ecuador , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Life Cycle Stages , Nematoda
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00742019, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1146672

ABSTRACT

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a polyphagous insect of difficult control and maize is an important host crop of this insect. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are control agents of soil pests. This study aimed to verify the action of EPNs for the control of H. armigera pupae. Laboratory and greenhouse bioassays were conducted to select the concentration of nematode application and subsequently field test were conducted. It was obtained that Heterorhabditis amazonensis MC01 at the concentration of 400 infective juveniles (IJs) ·pupa-1 caused the highest mortality in a lower concentration, whereas for H. amazonensis JPM4, concentrations of both 200 and 400 IJs ·pupa-1 were similar causing pupae mortality. In the greenhouse, H. amazonensis MC01 caused mortality reached values of 80% after 10 days, at concentrations of 600 and 800 IJs ·pupa-1. The highest mortality caused by Steinernema carpocapsae was observed at eight days after the juvenile application, at a concentration of 600 IJs ·pupa-1, also reaching 80% mortality. In the field test, both forms of application were considered appropriate for H. amazonensis MC01, causing mortality rates of up to 80%.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological , Insecta , Lepidoptera , Nematoda , Pupa , Soil , Pest Control , Zea mays
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06868, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279536

ABSTRACT

This study assessed microscopic morphology of protozoan and metazoan parasites, as well as parasite-associated histopathologic changes in five Brazilian free-ranging armadillos. Three armadillos had intra sarcolemmal cysts of Sarcocystis sp. in skeletal muscles without microscopic changes. One Dasypus novemcinctus was found parasitized with a nematode morphologically compatible with an oxyurid in the small intestine. One Dasypus sp. had neutrophilic enteritis associated with adult and larval stages of Strongyloides sp. and one D. novemcinctus had multiple embryonated eggs free in the lumen of the small intestine with mild neutrophilic enteritis. These findings represent a contribution for expanding our knowledge on parasitic diseases of armadillos.(AU)


Este estudo avaliou a morfologia microscópica de parasitos protozoários e metazoários, bem como lesões associadas ao parasitismo em cinco tatus de vida livre no Brasil. Três tatus tinham cistos de Sarcocystis sp. Intra-sarcolemal em músculos esqueléticos sem alterações microscópicas. Um Dasypus novemcinctus estava parasitado com um nematodo morfologicamente compatível com oxiurideo no intestino delgado. Um Dasypus sp. apresentou enterite neutrofílica associada com estágios larvais de Strongyloides sp. e um D. novemcinctus apresentou múltiplos ovos embrionados livres no lúmen do intestino delgado, associado a enterite neutrofílica discreta. Estes achados representam uma contribuição para a expansão do conhecimento sobre doenças parasitárias de tatus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Armadillos , Strongyloides , Sarcocystis , Enteritis , Nematoda , Parasitic Diseases
9.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00312020, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348973

ABSTRACT

Phytonematodes are among the main pathogens of the common bean. In general, control practices that aim to control these pathogens have not been regularly adopted in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the occurrence of phytonematodes in dry bean fields in Paraná and São Paulo states and estimate the pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to dry bean in glasshouse experiments. Root and soil were sampled for nematode extraction, identification and estimation of population density. Four glasshouse experiments with different initial population densities were carried out to evaluate the effect of P. brachyurus on the growth of dry bean plants. Six species of phytonematodes were detected, namely Helicotylenchus dihystera, P. brachyurus, Pratylenchus crenatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus sp. The spiral nematode H. dihystera was found in all samples and was the most abundant species in both states. The lesion nematode P. brachyurus was also frequent, reaching 94% in Paraná and 100% in São Paulo. The root-knot nematodes and Rotylenchulus sp. were reported only in São Paulo fields (45% and 18% frequency, respectively), and P. crenatus only in Paraná (12%). The most abundant nematode in the soil was H. dihystera, and in roots was P. crenatus. It was demonstrated that densities of 6.66 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil provoke visible and measurable root decay. In conclusion, survey data showed low phytonematode densities and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that densities above 6.67 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil cause damage to the dry bean roots.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Tylenchoidea , Agricultural Pests , Phaseolus
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00302020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348972

ABSTRACT

Plant parasitic nematodes are major threats to Brazilian and world agriculture. Among them, Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita stand out as major pests for several crops, including corn, cotton, soybean among others, which can be components of integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems (ICLFs). In this context, information about the host status of eucalypts (Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) to plant parasitic nematodes becomes more relevant in Brazil, due to the use of eucalypts in ICLFs. If tree components used on this system increase the population density of P. brachyurus and M. incognita, it is possible that these pathogens could damage shorter-cycle crops. Since information about the host status of eucalypts to plant parasitic nematodes is scarce, this study evaluated the host status of some eucalypt species to P. brachyurus and M. incognita. Two greenhouse trials were done to evaluate the reproduction of P. brachyurus and one to M. incognita, using some of the most cultivated species and hybrids of eucalypts in Brazil. The population growth of P. brachyurus increased on Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus dunnii × Eucalyptus urophylla, and E. grandis × E. urophylla after ~90 days of inoculation. Conversely, despite M. incognita reproducing well in the control plants, no individuals were recovered from C. citriodora, E. urophylla and E. grandis × E. urophylla, which were classified as resistant plants. Based on both obtained and available data, M. incognita poses no threat to eucalypt species today. However, P. brachyurus is suggested to be a threat to eucalypts.


Subject(s)
Tylenchoidea , Eucalyptus , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Soybeans , Forestry , Agricultural Pests , Zea mays , Gossypium
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e0772019, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348964

ABSTRACT

Nematode control strategies are limited and alternative control is demanded. The main aim was to evaluate control potential of Hohenbuehelia spp. (Hohenbuehelia mastrucata, Hohenbuehelia barbatula, Hohenbuehelia bullulifera, Hohenbuehelia portegna, Hohenbuehelia petaloides and Hohenbuehelia paraguayensis) and Trichoderma koningiopsis against Meloidogyne javanica in bean plants in greenhouse. The parameters evaluated were the number of galls and egg masses which were evaluated in three root regions: basal, intermediate and tip; nematode reproduction factor; vegetal growth parameters (plants height on V1, V2, V4, and R5 growth stages, root length, dry weight of root and aerial part dry weight); Treatments were composed by individual interactions of each fungal isolate with 4,000 eggs of M. javanica, having a total control (bean) and a partial control (bean + nematode) arranged in completely randomized design with four repetitions. Data were tested by Scott­Knott (5%). For vegetal growth parameters, there was only significance for dry weight of roots. All species were able to control nematodes.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma , Fabaceae , Nematoda , Tylenchoidea , Pest Control
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e007021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347270

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study attempted to evaluate the practical experience and methods employed by Brazilian veterinary practitioners for control of parasites. Twenty-one questions were asked of 403 veterinary practitioners based in different climatic zones with reference to parasite epidemiology from the country. Administration of a combination of drugs at three-month intervals was the most common regime recommended for prophylaxis against gastrointestinal helminths, with a single treatment repeated after 15 days. Routine prophylaxis against dog ectoparasites was recommended by 82.4% veterinary practitioners, and 46.6% changed the drug compound used. Monthly prophylaxic treatments for ectoparasites, using systemic, topical and/or collar-impregnated drugs, was recommended by 21.5% veterinary practitioners. Side-effects of ectoparasiticide-impregnated collars were suspected by 58% of the veterinary practitioners. Isoxazolines were the most frequently used chemical group to treat ectoparasites in dogs. Poor efficacy of fipronil in controlling ticks was suspected by 79.5% of the veterinary practitioners. The isoxazolines and combination of anthelmintic compounds are the most common drugs to prevent or treat ectoparasites and gastrointestinal nematodes, respectively. The suspect of the inefficacy of antiparasitic drugs is shared among the veterinary practitioners from part of Brazil. Guidelines are needed, specifically for the control of gastrointestinal helminths and ectoparasites in Brazilian dogs.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou os métodos de controle empregados por médicos veterinários clínicos para o controle de parasitos de cães no Brasil. Vinte e uma perguntas foram feitas a 403 veterinários de diferentes regiões do país. O uso de associações de compostos ativos em intervalos de três meses foi o mais recomendado para profilaxia de helmintos gastrointestinais, repetido após 15 dias. A profilaxia de rotina contra ectoparasitos foi recomendada por 82,4% dos veterinários, e 46,6% mudam rotineiramente o composto indicado. Tratamentos profiláticos mensais para ectoparasitos, com produtos sistêmicos, tópicos e / ou impregnados com colar, foram recomendados por 21,5% dos veterinários. Os efeitos colaterais das coleiras impregnadas com ectoparasiticidas foram relatados por 58% dos médicos veterinários. As isoxazolinas foram o grupo químico mais utilizado para tratar ectoparasitos em cães. A baixa eficácia do fipronil no controle de carrapatos foi suspeitada por 79,5% dos médicos veterinários. As isoxazolinas e a associação de compostos anti-helmínticos são os medicamentos mais comuns para prevenir ou tratar ectoparasitos e nematoides gastrointestinais, respectivamente. A suspeita da ineficácia dos antiparasitários é compartilhada entre os médicos veterinários de algumas regiões do Brasil. Orientações são necessárias, especificamente para o controle de helmintos e ectoparasitos gastrointestinais em cães no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasites , Ticks , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Insecticides , Nematoda
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026620, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251374

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) is a fungal formulation indicated for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and horses, which has recently been authorized for commercialization in Brazil. The objective was to determine the efficiency of Bioverm® against larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Twelve animals were used, divided into two groups. In the treated group, a single dose of 1 g of Bioverm® per 10 kg of live weight (containing 105 chlamydospores of D. flagrans) was provided for each animal. Fecal samples were obtained from the animals in each group at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours after administration. In assay A, 2 g of feces were added to Petri dishes containing 2% agar-water medium. In assay B, coprocultures were performed. In both assays, the peak of larval predation occurred within 48 hours after administration of Bioverm®. In assay A, a significant larval reduction (P < 0.05) was seen at 48 h (88.2%). In assay B, significant reductions (P < 0.05) were seen at 36 h (43.7%) and 48 h (82.3%). Bioverm® showed high predatory capacity after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and was effective for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes.


Resumo O Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) é uma formulação fúngica indicada para o controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais de ruminantes e equídeos, recentemente autorizado para a comercialização no Brasil. Objetivou-se determinar a eficiência do Bioverm® contra larvas de nematódeos gastrintestinais após a passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal de bovinos. Foram utilizados doze bovinos divididos em dois grupos. No grupo tratado, foi fornecida, por animal, a dose única de 1g (105 clamidósporos de D. flagrans) do Bioverm® para cada 10 kg de peso vivo. Foram obtidas amostras fecais dos animais de cada grupo a partir de 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas após a administração. No ensaio A, 2g de fezes foram adicionadas em placas de Petri contendo meio ágar-água 2%. No ensaio B, foram realizadas coproculturas. Em ambos os ensaios, o pico de predação larval ocorreu em 48 horas após a administração do Bioverm®. No ensaio A, houve redução larval significativa (P<0,05) em 48h (88,2%). No ensaio B, as reduções significativas (P<0,05) ocorreram em 36h (43,7%) e 48h (82,3%). O Bioverm® apresentou elevada capacidade predatória após a passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal de bovinos, sendo eficaz no controle dos nematódeos gastrintestinais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Duddingtonia , Nematoda , Ascomycota , Brazil , Cattle , Pest Control, Biological , Gastrointestinal Tract , Feces , Larva
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e023920, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish consumption plays an important role in human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, commonly known as traíra, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and frequently infected by Eustrongylides sp. fourth-instar larvae (L4). The aim of the present study was to evaluate allergenic potential of Eustrongylides sp. L4 crude extract (CEE). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (IP) by 10 μg CEE with 2 mg of aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 35. Specific IgG and IgE antibody levels were determined after immunization and cellular immunity was evaluated by assessing intradermal reaction in ear pavilion. Epicutaneous sensitization was performed in dorsal region by antigen exposure using a Finn-type chamber containing 50 μg of CEE or saline solution, followed by evaluation of specific antibody levels. IP immunization resulted in a gradual increase in IgG antibody levels and transitory IgE production. Significant increase in ear thickness was observed in cellular hypersensitivity reaction. In case of antigen exposure by epicutaneous route, CEE was able to induce meaningfully increased levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies as well as heightened cellular immunity. Both intraperitoneal immunization and epicutaneous contact with Eustrongylides sp. larval antigens were observed for first time to be capable of inducing immunological sensitization in mice.


Resumo Consumir peixe constitui papel importante na dieta humana. Hoplias malabaricus, comumente chamado de traíra, peixe de água doce largamente apreciado no Brasil, é frequentemente infectado com larvas de quarto estágio (L4) de Eustrongylides sp. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial alergênico do Extrato Bruto de L4 de Eustrongylides sp. (EBE). Camundongos BALB/c foram imunizados intraperitonealmente (IP) por 10 μg de EBE com 2 mg de hidróxido de alumínio nos dias 0 e 35. Após imunização, determinaram-se níveis específicos de anticorpos IgG e IgE e avaliou-se a imunidade celular pela reação intradérmica no pavilhão auricular. Realizou-se sensibilização epicutânea na região dorsal pela exposição ao antígeno, utilizando-se câmara tipo Finn, contendo 50 μg de CEE ou solução salina. Após exposições, foram avaliados níveis específicos de anticorpos. Na imunização via IP, houve aumento gradual nos níveis de anticorpos IgG e produção de IgE transitória. Foi observado aumento significativo na espessura do pavilhão auricular na reação de hipersensibilidade celular. Na exposição ao antígeno pela via epicutânea, o EBE induziu aumento significante nos níveis de anticorpos IgG e IgE específicos e induziu imunidade celular. Pela primeira vez, observou-se que a imunização intraperitoneal e contato epicutâneo com antígenos larvares de Eustrongylides sp. são capazes de induzir sensibilização imunológica em camundongos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rodent Diseases , Nematoda , Brazil , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2175-2185, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142321

ABSTRACT

O tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) e o tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla) são mamíferos xenartros amplamente distribuídos no território nacional. Apesar disso, suas populações estão em constante ameaça, principalmente o primeiro, categorizado como vulnerável de acordo com classificação da União Internacional para Conservação da Natureza. Diante disso e da escassez de estudos com endoparasitas nesses animais, objetivou-se descrever a helmintofauna dessas duas espécies de tamanduá, utilizando espécimes atropelados nas rodovias BR-050 e BR-455, região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os animais foram submetidos à necropsia, tendo seus órgãos e conteúdo intestinal e estomacal examinados para recuperação de helmintos. Os parasitos coletados foram identificados com base em suas características morfológicas e morfométricas. As espécies/os gêneros caracterizados para M. tridactyla e T. tetradactyla, suas respectivas prevalências, bem como órgãos de origem, foram: Gaphidiops dissimilis (33,33% e 0%) no estômago; Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (25% e 66,66%) no intestino delgado; Physaloptera magnipapilla (50% e 66,6%) no estômago; e Mathevotaenia spp. (25% e 66,66%) no intestino delgado. Physaloptera magnipapilla foi a espécie com os maiores índices de infecção, e novo registro de localização foi registrado para o nematódeo Graphidiops dissimilis. Detectou-se uma provável sobreposição da área de vida dos tamanduás estudados, bem como uma helmintofauna característica da região.(AU)


Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant anteater and Tamandua tetradactyla, collared anteater are nationally widespread mammals. Despite that, their populations are in danger, especially the first one, categorized as vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This study reports the occurrence of helminths in these two anteater species using road killed specimens from BR-050 and BR-455 highways, Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The species were necropsied, and their gastrointestinal organs and contents were opened and examined for parasite recovery. The identification was based on morphological and morphometric features. The species/ genera found for M. tridactyla and T. tetradactyla, their prevalence, as well the organs, were: Gaphidiops dissimilis (33.33% and 0%) in stomach; Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (25% and 66.66%) in small intestine; Physaloptera magnipapilla (50% and 66.6%) in stomach and Mathevotaenia spp. (25% and 66.66%) in small intestine. Physaloptera magnipapilla was the most common species and a new location was reported for Graphidiops dissimilis. There is a probable overlap in the home range of these animals and a local helminth diversity was described on the study site.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spirurina , Eutheria/parasitology , Helminths/isolation & purification , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Autopsy/veterinary , Brazil
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1845-1857, 01-11-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147946

ABSTRACT

Systems of soil cultivation and use directly influence crop yield by interfering with the soil chemical, physical, and biological attributes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maize grain yield, soil chemical and biological attributes, and the occurrence of nematodes in maize crops grown in the off-season, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Soil samples from 21 off-season maize crops were collected in 2015. The samples were used to identify and quantify nematodes, determine biomass carbon and microbial activity, and for chemical analysis. The attributes were clustered based on the variables evaluated using the mean Euclidean distance and Ward's clustering method. The interrelationship between the variables was analyzed by correlations, and its unfolding in the cause and effect investigations was evaluated by the path analysis. Organic matter and microbial biomass carbon positively influence grain yield. Magnesium negatively influences the population of Pratylenchulus spp. in maize crops. The potential acidity and organic matter are related to the presence of Rotylenchulus spp.


Sistemas de cultivo e uso do solo influenciam diretamente o rendimento das culturas, interferindo nos atributos químicos, físicos e biológicos do solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a correlação entre a produtividade de grãos de milho, os atributos químicos e biológicos do solo e a ocorrência de nematoides em milho cultivado no período de entressafra, no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Amostras de solo de 21 safras de milho fora de temporada foram coletadas em 2015. As amostras foram usadas para identificar e quantificar os nematóides, determinar a atividade microbiana e o carbono da biomassa, e para análises químicas. Os atributos foram agrupados com base nas variáveis avaliadas usando a distância euclidiana média e o método de agrupamento de Ward. A inter-relação entre as variáveis foi analisada por meio de correlações, e seu desdobramento nas investigações de causa e efeito foi avaliado pela análise de trilha. A matéria orgânica e o carbono da biomassa microbiana influenciam positivamente o rendimento de grãos. O magnésio influencia negativamente a população de Pratylenchulus spp. nas culturas de milho. A acidez potencial e a matéria orgânica estão relacionadas à presença de Rotylenchulus spp.


Subject(s)
Soil , Zea mays , Nematoda
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(4): 204-206, out./dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369964

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os dados de um estudo retrospectivo nos registros de 34 anos atividade de um laboratório de diagnóstico sobre as causas de diarreia em bezerros na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais desta espécie encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Foram diagnosticados 94 casos de bezerros com diarreia, destes, 44,7% foram de causas parasitárias e 34,0% de causas bacterianas. Diarreia de causa parasitária foi a mais importante na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul e afetou bezerros de três a 12 meses de idade. A ocorrência de diarreia em animais mesmo lactentes pode estar associada a fatores ambientais e a forma de manejo no qual esses animais são mantidos. As enfermidades bacterianas foram, também, importantes causas de diarreia em bezerros de até três meses de idade na região.


The objective of this work was to describe the data from a retrospective study in the records of 34 years of activity in a diagnostic laboratory on the diarrhea causes of in calves in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. All necropsy protocols and materials received in the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Veterinary School of the Federal University of Pelotas were reviewed. Ninety-four cases of calves with diarrhea were diagnosed, of these, 44.7% were caused by parasitic infections and 34.0% by bacterial infections. Parasites as cause of diarrhea was the most important diagnostic in southern Rio Grande do Sul and affected calves from three to 12 months of age. The occurrence of diarrhea in animals even infants may be associated with environmental factors and the form of management that these animals are kept. Bacterial diseases are also important causes of diarrhea in calves up to three months of age in the region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Cattle/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Retrospective Studies , Nematoda/parasitology
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1705-1712, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131561

ABSTRACT

Seiscentos primatas neotropicais foram submetidos a exames post mortem para avaliação da prevalência parasitária de helmintos gastrointestinais. Foram examinados 556 calitriquídeos (Callithrix spp.), 23 bugios (Alouatta guariba), 19 macacos-pregos (Sapajus nigritus), um mico-leão-dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia) e um mico-leão-da-cara-dourada (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Do total de 600 animais, foram encontrados espécimes parasitos pertencentes aos filos Acanthocephala, Nemathelmintes e Platyhelminthes (classes Trematoda e Cestoda) em 110 primatas. A prevalência de primatas positivos para, pelo menos, uma espécie de helminto foi de 18,3% (110/600), sendo destes 83,6% (92/110) calitriquídeos, 8,2% (9/110) bugios, 6,4% (7/110) macacos-pregos, 0,9% (1/110) mico-leão-dourado e 0,9% (1/110) mico-leão-da-cara dourada. Em 80,4% (74/92) dos calitriquídeos foram encontrados nematoides Primasubulura sp. e em 1,1% (1/92) nematoides Trypanoxyuris callithrix, em 26,1% (24/92) acantocéfalos (Pachysentis sp.) e em 5,4% (5/92) digenéticos (Platynosomum sp.); em 77,8% (7/9) dos bugios foram encontrados nematoides (Trypanoxyuris minutus), em 11,1% (1/9) acantocéfalos (Pachysentis sp.) e em 11,1% (1/9) cestoides (Bertiella sp.); em 14,3% (1/7) dos macacos-pregos foram encontrados nematoides (Physaloptera sp.), em 28,6% (2/7) acantocéfalos (Prostenorchis sp.) e em 14,3% (1/7) digenéticos (Platynosomum sp.) e no mico-leão-da-cara-dourada foram encontrados acantocéfalos (Prostenorchis sp.). Foi realizado o georreferenciamento dos pontos de encontro dos cadáveres para pontuar a distribuição dos helmintos por região.(AU)


Six hundred neotropical primates underwent postmortem examinations to evaluate the parasitic prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths. Fifty-five callitrichids tamarins (Callithrix spp.), 23 howlers (Alouatta guariba), 19 nail monkeys (Sapajus nigritus), a golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) and a golden-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) were examined. Parasitic specimens belonging to phylums Acantocephala, Nemathelmintes and Platyhelmintes (Trematoda and Cestoda Classes) were found. The prevalence of primates positive for at least one species of helminth was 18.3% (110/600), of which 83.6% (92/110) callitrichids, 8.2% (9/110) howler monkeys, 6.4% (7/110) capuchin monkeys, 0.9% (1/110) golden lion tamarin and 0.9% (1/110) golden faced lion tamarin. In 80.4% (74/92) of callitrichids nematodes (Primasubulura sp.) were found, and in 1.1% (1/92) nematodes (Trypanoxyuris callithricis), in 26.1% (24/92) acanthocephalus (Pachysentis sp.) and 5.4% (5/92) digenetics (Platynosomum sp.); in 77.8% (7/9) of howler monkeys presented nematodes (Trypanoxyuris minutus), 11.1% (1/9) acanthocephalus (Pachysentis sp.) and 11.1% (1/9) cestoids (Bertiella sp.); in 14.3% (1/7) of capuchin monkeys presented nematodes (Physaloptera sp.), 28.6% (2/7) acanthocephalus (Prostenorchis sp.) and 14.3% (1/7) digenetics (Platynosomum sp.) and in the golden-faced lion tamarin acanthocephalus (Prostenorchis sp.) were found. Georreferencing of the meeting points of the cadavers was performed in order to punctuate the distribution of helminths by region.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Primates/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Geographic Mapping , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Helminths/isolation & purification , Platyhelminths , Brazil , Acanthocephala , Nematoda
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1645-1651, 01-09-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147845

ABSTRACT

One of the main limitations of soybean production is related to water availability and organisms found in the soil. Under the hypothesis that soil moisture may influence the nematode population, this study aimed to verify the occurrence of nematodes associated with different irrigation management in soybean crops. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design. Treatments consisted of a subplot scheme, with four replications. The plots consisted of ten irrigation managements divided into five irrigation frequencies (1,2,3,4, and 5 days) and five additional water depths (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of crop evapotranspiration ­ Etc). The subplots were composed of four different soybean cultivars (NA 5909 RR, AS 3680 IPRO, and Desafio RR ePower IPRO). The experiment analyzed the variables plant height, first pod insertion, number of plants, moisture, hundred-grain weight, yield, and occurrence of nematode eggs and adults. Nematodes influence all the production components analyzed, affecting mostly the hundred-grain weight, especially the nematode Helicotylenchus sp., although the Meloidogyne sp. population was larger. The phytonematode population reduces with the increase in soil moisture to levels close to the saturation, indirectly influencing the yield increase.


Uma das principais limitações da produção de soja está relacionada à disponibilidade de água e organismos encontrados no solo. Sob a hipótese de que a umidade do solo possa influenciar a população de nematoides, este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de nematóides associados a diferentes manejos de irrigação em lavouras de soja. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos consistiram de um esquema de subparcelas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas consistiram de dez manejos de irrigação divididos em cinco freqüências de irrigação (1,2,3,4 e 5 dias) e cinco lâminas d'água (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da evapotranspiração da cultura - Etc). As subparcelas foram compostas por quatro diferentes cultivares de soja (NA 5909 RR, AS 3680 IPRO e Desafio RR ePower IPRO). O experimento analisou as variáveis altura da planta, inserção da primeira vagem, número de plantas, umidade, peso de cem grãos, produtividade e ocorrência de ovos de nematoides e adultos. Os nematóides influenciam todos os componentes de produção analisados, afetando principalmente o peso de cem grãos, especialmente o nematódeo Helicotylenchus sp., Embora o Meloidogyne sp. população era maior. A população de fitonematóides reduz com o aumento da umidade do solo para níveis próximos à saturação, influenciando indiretamente o aumento da produtividade.


Subject(s)
Soil , Soybeans , Agricultural Irrigation , Nematoda
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