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1.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(2): 153-161, 14 de agosto del 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451571

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La biopsia selectiva del ganglio centinela (BSGC) en cáncer de mama es el método estándar para estadificación axilar en pacientes con axila clínicamente negativa. Estudios indican evitar linfadenectomía axilar en pacientes con BSGC negativas incluyendo aquellos que recibieron previamente quimioterapia neoadyuvante (QTN). El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la eficacia de la BSGC en detectar ganglios centinela posterior QTN en un instituto oncológico de referencia en Ecuador. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo, realizado en Hospital SOLCA Guayaquil, durante el período enero 2015 a diciembre 2020. Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con cáncer de mama con axila clínicamente negativa que recibieron QTN previo a cirugía. Las variables son biopsia de ganglio centinela, quimioterapia neoadyuvante, precisión diagnóstica y estadificación axilar. Se consideró el Odds Ratio del 95%, con una P<0.05. Resultados: De 81 pacientes operados, 52 pacientes recibieron BSGC con muestreo detectándose ganglio centinela en 92.3% de los casos. El porcentaje de falsos negativos es 21.7% posterior a QTN. Los 29 pacientes restantes recibieron linfadenectomía axilar. Conclusión: La BSGC es efectiva para detectar el ganglio centinela en pacientes con cáncer de mama y axila clínicamente negativa, incluso después de la quimioterapia neoadyuvante. Sin embargo, existe un riesgo significativo de falsos negativos después de la QTN, lo que puede llevar a la necesidad de realizar una linfadenectomía axilar adicional para una evaluación más precisa de la estadificación axilar.


Introduction: Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer is the standard method for axillary staging in patients with clinically negative axilla. Studies indicate avoiding axillary lymphadenectomy in patients with negative SLNB, including those who previously received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NQT). This study aims to determine the efficacy of SLNB in detecting sentinel lymph nodes after QTN in a reference cancer institute in Ecuador. Materials and Methods: An observational, analytical, and retrospective study was conducted at Hospital SOLCA Guayaquil from January 2015 to December 2020. Eighty-one clinically negative axillary breast cancer patients who received CTN before surgery were evaluated. The variables are sentinel node biopsy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, diagnostic accuracy, and axillary staging. An odds ratio of 95% was considered, with P <0.05. Results: Of 81 operated patients, 52 received SLNB, with sampling detecting sentinel nodes in 92.3% of the cases. The percentage of false negatives is 21.7% after QTN. The remaining 29 patients received axillary lymphadenectomy. Conclusion: SLNB effectively detects the sentinel node in patients with clinically negative breast and axillary cancer, even after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is a significant risk of false negatives after CTN, which may lead to the need to perform additional axillary lymphadenectomy for a more accurate assessment of axillary staging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Biopsy , Sentinel Lymph Node , Lymph Node Excision , General Surgery , Breast Neoplasms , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Observational Study
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 208-214, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521142

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the complete response (CR) rate and surgeries performed in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant therapy (NT) at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo and at Hospital São Paulo, in Ribeirão Preto, from January 2007 to December 2017. Methods: We evaluated 166 medical records of patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (T3, T4 or N+) who underwent NT. The regimen consisted of performing conventional (2D) or conformational (three-dimensional-3D/ radiotherapy with modulated intensity - IMRT) at a dose of 45-50.4Gy associated with capecitabine 1650mg/m2 or 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (LV). The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, pretreatment stage, radiotherapy, CR index, local and distant recurrence rates. Surgical treatment and complications were also evaluated. Results: The CR index was 28.3%. Patients treated with 3D/IMRT radiotherapy had a higher rate of CR (36.3% x 4.8%; p < 0.001), higher rates of clinical follow-up (21% x 0%; p < 0.001), lower surgery rates (79% x 100%; p < 0.001), higher rates of transanal resection (37.1% x 9.5%; p = 0.001), lower rates of abdominal rectosigmoidectomy (25.8% x 50%; p = 0.007) and lower rates of abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (16.1% x 40.5%; p = 0.002), when compared to patients treated with 2D radiotherapy. Conclusion Modern radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal and IMRT, by offering greater adequacy and precision of treatment, could result in better local control and less toxicity in organs at risk, enabling organ preservation strategies and less invasive approaches in selected cases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging
3.
FEMINA ; 51(5): 292-296, 20230530.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512407

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE • A incidência de câncer durante a gestação tem aumentado devido à tendência das mulheres em postergar a gravidez. O câncer de colo de útero é a terceira neoplasia mais comumente diagnosticada durante o período gestacional. • O rastreamento e o diagnóstico devem se dar como nas pacientes não gestantes; a citologia oncótica cervical é o exame obrigatório do pré-natal, e a colposcopia com biópsia pode ser realizada em qualquer período da gestação. • A gestação complicada pelo diagnóstico de um câncer deve sempre ser conduzida em centro de referência e por equipe multidisciplinar. • A interrupção da gestação em situações específicas, para tratamento-padrão, é respaldada por lei. • A quimioterapia neoadjuvante é uma alternativa segura de tratamento durante a gestação, para permitir alcançar a maturidade fetal. Apresenta altas taxas de resposta, sendo relatada progressão neoplásica durante a gestação em apenas 2,9% dos casos. O risco de malformações fetais decorrentes da quimioterapia é semelhante ao da população geral. Contudo, a quimioterapia está associada a restrição de crescimento intraútero, baixo peso ao nascer e mielotoxicidade neonatal. • Na ausência de progressão de doença, deve-se levar a gestação até o termo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Women's Health , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/prevention & control , Prenatal Diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Congenital Abnormalities/embryology , Bone Marrow/abnormalities , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Colposcopy/methods , Conization/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Fetal Growth Retardation , Watchful Waiting/methods , Trachelectomy/methods , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging
4.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 546-549, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985806

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor. About 75% of patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent radical surgical resection will still experience postoperative recurrence. Neoadjuvant therapy could improve outcomes in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer,has become a consensus;however it is still controversial in resectable pancreatic cancer. Limited high-quality randomized controlled trial studies support the routine initiation of neoadjuvant therapy in resectable pancreatic cancer. With the development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, liquid biopsy, imaging omics, and organoids, patients are expected to benefit from the precision screening of potential candidates for neoadjuvant therapy and individualized treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 540-545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985805

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of nonsurgical treatment in pancreatic cancer, the increasing accuracy of subclassification of anatomy, and the continuous refinement of surgical resection techniques, more and more locally advanced pancreatic cancer(LAPC) patients have the opportunity to undergo conversion surgery and achieve survival benefits,which has attracted the attention of scholars in this field. Despite the numerous prospective clinical studies conducted, there is still a lack of high-level evidence-based medical evidence in terms of conversion treatment strategies, efficacy evaluation, surgical timing and survival prognosis, and there are not yet specific quantitative standards and guiding principles for conversion treatment for these patients in clinical practice, and the indications for surgical resection rely more on the experience of each center or surgeon, lacking consistency. Therefore,the indicators for the evaluation of the efficacy of conversion treatment in patients with LAPC were summarized to reflect on the different modes of conversion treatment and clinical outcomes currently being explored, expecting to provide more accurate recommendations and guidance for the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prospective Studies , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(1): 062759, jan.-mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1452187

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de mama representa 24,5% dos novos casos de neoplasias em mulheres no mundo. A quimioterapia neoadjuvante é uma importante ferramenta no tratamento dessa patologia, possibilita cirurgias menos agressivas na mama e axila, além de minimizar sequelas. Objetivo: Analisar a possibilidade de se evitar a realização da biópsia do linfonodo sentinela em pacientes com câncer de mama submetidas à quimioterapia neoadjuvante que apresentem resposta patológica completa no tumor primário e na axila, tratadas em uma instituição de referência no Nordeste brasileiro. Método: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, de coorte em pacientes com câncer de mama submetidas à quimioterapia neoadjuvante e operadas no Hospital Haroldo Juaçaba, no período de março de 2019 a julho de 2021. Resultados: Foram incluídas no estudo 45 pacientes, com média de idade de 52,6 anos, sendo todas do sexo feminino. Após quimioterapia neoadjuvante, nove pacientes (21,4%) apresentaram resposta patológica completa na mama e 17 (40,5%), resposta patológica completa nos linfonodos. Os pacientes com resposta completa na mama apresentaram uma prevalência de resposta completa em linfonodo 20,44 vezes superior aos pacientes que não tiveram a mesma resposta. Conclusão: A resposta patológica completa na mama à quimioterapia neoadjuvante mostra uma tendência em predizer uma resposta patológica nos linfonodos axilares, reforçando que, com essa condição, a biópsia do linfonodo sentinela poderia ser evitada sem causar prejuízos ao controle local do câncer de mama.


Introduction: Breast cancer represents 24.5% of new cases of cancer in women worldwide. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an important tool in the treatment of this pathology, allowing less aggressive surgeries at the breast and axilla, minimizing sequelae. Objective: Analyze the possibility of avoiding sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer who have undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy and who present complete pathological response at the primary tumor and axilla, treated at a reference institution in Brazil's Northeast. Method: Prospective, observational, cohort study in patients with breast cancer, undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and operated at the Hospital Haroldo Juaçaba, from March 2019 to July 2021. Results: Forty-five female patients were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 52.6 years. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nine patients (21.4%) had complete pathologic response at the breast and 17 (40.5%), complete pathologic response at the lymph nodes. Patients with complete response at the breast had a prevalence of complete response at lymph node 20.44 times higher than patients who did not have the same response. Conclusion: The complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy at the breast shows a tendency to predict the pathologic response at the axillary lymph nodes, raising the doubt that, with this condition, sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided without causing harm to the local control of breast cancer.


Introducción: El cáncer de mama representa el 24,5% de los nuevos casos de neoplasias en mujeres de todo el mundo. La quimioterapia neoadyuvante es una herramienta importante en el tratamiento de esta patología, permitiendo cirugías menos agresivas en la mama y la axila, minimizando las secuelas. Objetivo: Analizar la posibilidad de evitar la biopsia del ganglio centinela en pacientes con cáncer de mama, sometidas a quimioterapia neoadyuvante, con respuesta patológica completa en el tumor primario y en la axila, tratadas en una institución de referencia del nordeste del Brasil. Método: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, de cohorte en pacientes con cáncer de mama, sometidas a quimioterapia neoadyuvante y operadas en el Hospital Haroldo Juaçaba, en el período de marzo de 2019 a julio de 2021. Resultados: Se incluyeron 45 pacientes en el estudio, con una edad media de 52,6 años, y todos eran mujeres. Tras la quimioterapia neoadyuvante, nueve pacientes (21,4%) mostraron respuesta patológica completa en la mama y 17 (40,5%), respuesta patológica completa en los ganglios linfáticos. Las pacientes con respuesta completa en la mama presentaron una prevalencia de respuesta completa en el ganglio linfático 20,44 veces mayor que las pacientes que no tuvieron la misma respuesta. Conclusión: La respuesta patológica completa en la mama a la quimioterapia neoadyuvante muestra una tendencia a predecir una respuesta patológica en los ganglios linfáticos axilares, reforzando que, con esta condición, la biopsia del ganglio linfático centinela podría evitarse sin causar daño al control local del cáncer de mama.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
7.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 425-430, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986911

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in the treatment of locally advanced olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), and to explore the factors related to the efficacy of NACT. Methods: A total of 25 patients with ONB who underwent NACT in Beijing TongRen Hospital from April 2017 to July 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 16 males and 9 females, with an average age of 44.9 years (ranged 26-72 years). There were 22 cases of Kadish stage C and 3 cases of stage D. After multiple disciplinary team(MDT) discussion, all patients were treated sequentially with NACT-surgery-radiotherapy. Among them, 17 cases were treated with taxol, cis-platinum and etoposide (TEP), 4 cases with taxol, nedaplatin and ifosfamide (TPI), 3 cases with TP, while 1 case with EP. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and survival analyses were calculated based on the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The overall response rate of NACT was 32% (8/25). Subsequently, 21 patients underwent extended endoscopic surgery and 4 patients underwent combined cranial-nasal approach. Three patients with stage D disease underwent cervical lymph node dissection. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean follow-up time was 44.2 months (ranged 6-67 months). The 5-year overall survival rate was 100.0%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rates was 94.4%. Before NACT, Ki-67 index was 60% (50%, 90%), while Ki-67 index was 20% (3%, 30%) after chemotherapy [M (Q1, Q3)]. The change of Ki-67 before and after NACT was statistically significant (Z=-24.24, P<0.05). The effects of age, gender, history of surgery, Hyams grade, Ki-67 index and chemotherapy regimen to NACT were analyzed. Ki-67 index≥25% and high Hyams grade were related to the efficacy of NACT (all P<0.05). Conclusions: NACT could reduce Ki-67 index in ONBs. High Ki-67 index and Hyams grade are clinical indicators sensitive to the efficacy of NACT. NACT-surgery-radiotherapy is effective for patients with locally advanced ONB.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory/etiology , Ki-67 Antigen , Paclitaxel , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Nasal Cavity , Nose Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasm Staging
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986813

ABSTRACT

Objective: Total neoadjuvant therapy has been used to improve tumor responses and prevent distant metastases in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Patients with complete clinical responses (cCR) then have the option of choosing a watch and wait (W&W) strategy and organ preservation. It has recently been shown that hypofractionated radiotherapy has better synergistic effects with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors than does conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, increasing the sensitivity of microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer to immunotherapy. Thus, in this trial we aimed to determine whether total neoadjuvant therapy comprising short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) combined with a PD-1 inhibitor improves the degree of tumor regression in patients with LARC. Methods: TORCH is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, phase II trial (TORCH Registration No. NCT04518280). Patients with LARC (T3-4/N+M0, distance from anus ≤10 cm) are eligible and are randomly assigned to consolidation or induction arms. Those in the consolidation arm receive SCRT (25Gy/5 Fx), followed by six cycles of toripalimab plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin (ToriCAPOX). Those in the induction arm receive two cycles of ToriCAPOX, then undergo SCRT, followed by four cycles of ToriCAPOX. Patients in both groups undergo total mesorectal excision (TME) or can choose a W&W strategy if cCR has been achieved. The primary endpoint is the complete response rate (CR, pathological complete response [pCR] plus continuous cCR for more than 1 year). The secondary endpoints include rates of Grade 3-4 acute adverse effects (AEs) etc. Results: Up to 30 September 2022, 62 patients attending our center were enrolled (Consolidation arm: 34, Induction arm:28). Their median age was 53 (27-69) years. Fifty-nine of them had MSS/pMMR type cancer (95.2%), and only three MSI-H/dMMR. Additionally, 55 patients (88.7%) had Stage III disease. The following important characteristics were distributed as follows: lower location (≤5 cm from anus, 48/62, 77.4%), deeper invasion by primary lesion (cT4 7/62, 11.3%; mesorectal fascia involved 17/62, 27.4%), and high risk of distant metastasis (cN2 26/62, 41.9%; EMVI+ 11/62, 17.7%). All 62 patients completed the SCRT and at least five cycles of ToriCAPOX, 52/62 (83.9%) completing six cycles of ToriCAPOX. Finally, 29 patients achieved cCR (46.8%, 29/62), 18 of whom decided to adopt a W&W strategy. TME was performed on 32 patients. Pathological examination showed 18 had achieved pCR, four TRG 1, and 10 TRG 2-3. The three patients with MSI-H disease all achieved cCR. One of these patients was found to have pCR after surgery whereas the other two adopted a W&W strategy. Thus, the pCR and CR rates were 56.2% (18/32) and 58.1% (36/62), respectively. The TRG 0-1 rate was 68.8% (22/32). The most common non-hematologic AEs were poor appetite (49/60, 81.7%), numbness (49/60, 81.7%), nausea (47/60, 78.3%) and asthenia (43/60, 71.7%); two patients did not complete this survey. The most common hematologic AEs were thrombocytopenia (48/62, 77.4%), anemia (47/62, 75.8%), leukopenia/neutropenia (44/62, 71.0%) and high transaminase (39/62, 62.9%). The main Grade III-IV AE was thrombocytopenia (22/62, 35.5%), with three patients (3/62, 4.8%) having Grade IV thrombocytopenia. No Grade V AEs were noted. Conclusions: SCRT-based total neoadjuvant therapy combined with toripalimab can achieve a surprisingly good CR rate in patients with LARC and thus has the potential to offer new treatment options for organ preservation in patients with MSS and lower-location rectal cancer. Meanwhile, the preliminary findings of a single center show good tolerability, the main Grade III-IV AE being thrombocytopenia. The significant efficacy and long-term prognostic benefit need to be determined by further follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 312-318, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986791

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of surgery alone for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is limited. In-depth studies concerning combined therapy for ESCC have been carried out worldwide, especially the neoadjuvant treatment model, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (nICT), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy combined with immunotherapy (nICRT), etc. With the advent of the immunity era, nICT and nICRT have attracted much attention from researchers. An attempt was thus made to take an overview of the evidence-based research advance regarding the neoadjuvant therapy of ESCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Chemoradiotherapy , Esophagectomy
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 307-311, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986790

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is a malignant tumor with a high incidence in China. At pesent, advanced esophageal cancer patients are still frequently encountered. The primary treatment for resectable advanced esophageal cancer is surgery-based multimodality therapy, including preoperative neoadjuvant therapy, such as chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy plus immunotherapy, followed by radical esophagectomy with thoraco-abdominal two-field or cervico-thoraco-abdominal three-field lymphadenectomy via minimally invasive approach or thoracotomy. In addition, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy, or immunotherapy may also be administered if suggested by postoperative pathological results. Although the treatment outcome of esophageal cancer has improved significantly in China, many clinical issues remain controversial. In this article, we summarize the current hotspots and important issues of esophageal cancer in China, including prevention and early diagnosis, treatment selection for early esophageal cancer, surgical approach selection, lymphadenectomy method, preoperative neoadjuvant therapy, postoperative adjuvant therapy, and nutritional support treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophagectomy/methods
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1067-1073, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Studies have classified muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) into primary (initially muscle-invasive, PMIBC) and secondary subtypes (initially non-muscle-invasive but progresses, SMIBC), for which controversial survival outcomes were demonstrated. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes between PMIBC and SMIBC patients in China.@*METHODS@#Patients diagnosed with PMIBC or SMIBC at West China Hospital from January 2009 to June 2019 were retrospectively included. Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher tests were employed to compare clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox competing proportional risk model were used to compare survival outcomes. Propensity score matching (PSM) was employed to reduce the bias and subgroup analysis was used to confirm the outcomes.@*RESULTS@#A total of 405 MIBC patients were enrolled, including 286 PMIBC and 119 SMIBC, with a mean follow-up of 27.54 and 53.30 months, respectively. The SMIBC group had a higher proportion of older patients (17.65% [21/119] vs. 9.09% [26/286]), chronic disease (32.77% [39/119] vs . 22.38% [64/286]), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (19.33% [23/119] vs . 8.04% [23/286]). Before matching, SMIBC had a lower risk of overall mortality (OM) (hazard ratios [HR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.85, P  = 0.005) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94, P  = 0.022) after the initial diagnosis. However, higher risks of OM (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.10, P  = 0.038) and CSM (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09-2.29, P  = 0.016) were observed for SMIBC once it became muscle-invasive. After PSM, the baseline characteristics of 146 patients (73 for each group) were well matched, and SMIBC was confirmed to have an increased CSM risk (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.09-3.06, P  = 0.021) than PMIBC after muscle invasion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with PMIBC, SMIBC had worse survival outcomes once it became muscle-invasive. Specific attention should be paid to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with a high progression risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Cystectomy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy
12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 231-239, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982562

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of neoadjuvant radiohormonal therapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer (OMPC), we conducted a 3 + 3 dose escalation, prospective, phase I/II, single-arm clinical trial (CHiCTR1900025743), in which long-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation was adopted 1 month before radiotherapy, comprising intensity modulated radiotherapy to the pelvis, and stereotactic body radiation therapy to all extra-pelvic bone metastases for 4-7 weeks, at 39.6, 45, 50.4, and 54 Gy. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy was performed after 5-14 weeks. The primary outcome was treatment-related toxicities and adverse events; secondary outcomes were radiological treatment response, positive surgical margin (pSM), postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), pathological down-grading and tumor regression grade, and survival parameters. Twelve patients were recruited from March 2019 to February 2020, aging 66.2 years in average (range, 52-80). Median baseline PSA was 62.0 ng/mL. All underwent RARP successfully without open conversions. Ten patients recorded pathological tumor down-staging (83.3%), and 5 (41.7%) with cN1 recorded negative regional lymph nodes on final pathology. 66.7% (8/12) recorded tumor regression grading (TRG) -I and 25% (3/12) recorded TRG-II. Median follow-up was 16.5 months. Mean radiological progression-free survival (RPFS) was 21.3 months, with 2-year RPFS of 83.3%. In all, neoadjuvant radiohormonal therapy is well tolerated for oligometastatic prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Prostate-Specific Antigen/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 461-466, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) combined with platinum containing dual drug chemotherapy is a new adjuvant treatment option for operable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the quality assurance of clinical trials of related drugs plays a crucial role in the results of the clinical trials. This study aims to explore the impact of adverse events (AEs) supervision on reducing treatment-related AEs in patients.@*METHODS@#66 NSCLC patients admitted to Shanghai Chest Hospital from July 2020 to October 2021 were prospectively collected. All the patients received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant treatment of Camrelizumab in combination with Docetaxel and Cisplatin. 4 weeks-6 weeks after neoadjuvant therapy, the patients accepted surgical treatment. One cycle of postoperative adjuvant treatment was given within 30 days after surgery, and 3 weeks after the completion of postoperative adjuvant treatment, Camrelizumab consolidation treatment was intiated, with a total of 13 cycles. The quality of life-C30 (QoL-C30) was used to measure patients' quality of life and the occurrence of AEs was monitored.@*RESULTS@#The overall safety is good, with a total of 300 AEs occurring in 66 patients, including 282 cases of grade 1-2 AEs and 18 cases of grades 3-4 AEs. The most common grades 3-4 AEs associated with PD-1 antibodies occurred in 6 cases (9.1%). Neoadjuvant therapy supervision can lead to a decrease in patients' QOL-C30 scores (P<0.05) and an improvement in their quality of life.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Camrelizumab combined with Docetaxel and Cisplatin can be used as a new adjuvant treatment for operable stage III NSCLC. Through the observation and control of AEs, treatment measures can be taken in time to reduce further complications, ensure patient' safety, and ensure the authenticity, scientificity and reliability of clinical trial data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , China , Cisplatin , Docetaxel , Lung Neoplasms , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Prospective Studies
14.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 27(Supl. 1): [6-25], 2023. tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1515975

ABSTRACT

La adición de la terapia dirigida a la quimioterapia citotóxica en pacientes con cáncer de mama ha mejorado significativamente los desenlaces oncológicos en las pacientes con tumores HER2 positivo. El uso de pertuzumab durante el manejo neoadyuvante incrementa significativamente la respuesta patológica completa y en la actualidad permite emplear regímenes libres de antraciclinas con una eficacia similar y menores efectos cardiovasculares (en especial sobre la fracción de eyección). El beneficio en supervivencia libre de enfermedad invasiva, de adicionar pertuzumab en el escenario adyuvante en las pacientes sin tratamiento anti HER2 previo, está limitado a aquellas con ganglios positivos. La implementación de esquemas con bloqueo dual anti HER2, durante el tratamiento inicial del cáncer de mama HER2 positivo, mejora significativamente el pronóstico oncológico en este grupo de pacientes.


The addition of targeted therapy to cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer has significantly improved oncologic outcomes in patients with HER2-positive tumors. The use of pertuzumab during neoadjuvant management significantly increases the complete pathological response and currently allows the use of anthracycline-free regimens with similar efficacy and fewer cardiovascular effects (especially on ejection fraction). The benefit of pertuzumab in disease-free survival in the adjuvant setting for patients without prior anti-HER2 treatment is limited to those with positive nodes. The implementation of schemes with dual anti-HER2 blockade during the initial treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer significantly improves the oncological outcomes in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Neoplasm, Residual , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Trastuzumab
15.
Mastology (Online) ; 332023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433826

ABSTRACT

:Breast cancer is the object of thousands of studies worldwide. Nevertheless, few tools are available to corroborate prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Artificial intelligence is being researched for its potential utility in several fields of knowledge, including oncology. The development of a standardized Artificial intelligence-based predictive model for patients with breast cancer may help make clinical management more personalized and effective. We aimed to apply Artificial intelligence models to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based solely on clinical and pathological data. Methods: Medical records of 130 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were reviewed and divided into two groups: 90 samples to train the network and 40 samples to perform prospective testingand validate the results obtained by the Artificial intelligence method. Results: Using clinicopathologic data alone, the artificial neural network was able to correctly predict pathologic complete response in 83.3% of the cases. It also correctly predicted 95.6% of locoregional recurrence, as well as correctly determined whether patients were alive or dead at a given time point in 90% of the time. To date, no published research has used clinicopathologic data to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer, thus highlighting the importance of the present study. Conclusions: Artificial neural network may become an interesting tool for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, locoregional recurrence, systemic disease progression, and survival in patients with breast cancer (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Artificial Intelligence , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Progesterone/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Neural Networks, Computer , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 302-306, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971266

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant therapy has been widely applied in the treatment of rectal cancer, which can shrink tumor size, lower tumor staging and improve the prognosis. It has been the standard preoperative treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer patients varies between individuals, and the results of tumor regression are obviously different. Some patients with good tumor regression even achieve pathological complete response (pCR). Tumor regression is of great significance for the selection of surgical regimes and the determination of distal resection margin. However, few studies focus on tumor regression patterns. Controversies on the safe distance of distal resection margin after neoadjuvant treatment still exist. Therefore, based on the current research progress, this review summarized the main tumor regression patterns after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer, and classified them into three types: tumor shrinkage, tumor fragmentation, and mucin pool formation. And macroscopic regression and microscopic regression of tumors were compared to describe the phenomenon of non-synchronous regression. Then, the safety of non-surgical treatment for patients with clinical complete response (cCR) was analyzed to elaborate the necessity of surgical treatment. Finally, the review studied the safe surgical resection range to explore the safe distance of distal resection margin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Margins of Excision , Treatment Outcome , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 84-92, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971237

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic surgery in locally advanced gastric cancer patients with neoadjuvant SOX chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor immunotherapy. Methods: Between November 2020 and April 2021, patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who were admitted to the Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology were prospectively enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were: (1) patients who signed the informed consent form voluntarily before participating in the study; (2) age ranging from 18 to 75 years; (3) patients staged preoperatively as cT3-4N+M0 by the TNM staging system; (4) Eastern Collaborative Oncology Group score of 0-1; (5) estimated survival of more than 6 months, with the possibility of performing R0 resection for curative purposes; (6) sufficient organ and bone marrow function within 7 days before enrollment; and (7) complete gastric D2 radical surgery. Exclusion criteria were: (1) history of anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 antibody therapy and chemotherapy; (2) treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppre- ssants within 14 days before enrollment; (3) active period of autoimmune disease or interstitial pneumonia; (4) history of other malignant tumors; (5) surgery performed within 28 days before enrollment; and (6) allergy to the drug ingredients of the study. Follow-up was conducted by outpatient and telephone methods. During preoperative SOX chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor immunotherapy, follow-up was conducted every 3 weeks to understand the occurrence of adverse reactions of the patients; follow-up was conducted once after 1 month of surgical treatment to understand the adverse reactions and survival of patients. Observation indicators were: (1) condition of enrolled patients; (2) reassessment after preoperative therapy and operation received (3) postoperative conditions and pathological results. Evaluation criteria were: (1) tumor staged according to the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system; (2) tumor regression grading (TRG) of pathological results were evaluated with reference to AJCC standards; (3) treatment-related adverse reactions were evaluated according to version 5.0 of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; (4) tumor response was evaluated by CT before and after treatment with RECIST V1.1 criteria; and (5) Clavien-Dindo complication grading system was used for postoperative complications assessment. Results: A total of 30 eligible patients were included. There were 25 males and 5 females with a median age of 60.5 (35-74) years. The primary tumor was located in the gastroesophageal junction in 12 cases, in the upper stomach in 8, in the middle stomach in 7, and in the lower stomach in 3. The preoperative clinical stage of 30 cases was III. Twenty-one patients experienced adverse reactions during neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy, including four cases of CTCAE grade 3-4 adverse reactions resulting in bone marrow suppression and thoracic aortic thrombosis. All cases of adverse reactions were alleviated or disappeared after active symptomatic treatment. Among the 30 patients who underwent surgery, the time from chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy to surgery was 28 (23-49) days. All 30 patients underwent laparoscopic radical gastrectomy, of which 20 patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted radical gastric cancer resection; 10 patients underwent total gastrectomy for gastric cancer, combined with splenectomy in 1 case and cholecystectomy in 1 case. The surgery time was (239.9±67.0) min, intraoperative blood loss was 84 (10-400) ml, and the length of the incision was 7 (3-12) cm. The degree of adenocarcinoma was poorly differentiated in 18 cases, moderately differentiated in 12 cases, nerve invasion in 11 cases, and vascular invasion in 6 cases. The number lymph nodes that underwent dissection was 30 (17-58). The first of gas passage, the first postoperative defecation time, the postoperative liquid diet time, and the postoperative hospitalization time of 30 patients was 3 (2-6) d, 3 (2-13) d, 5 (3-12) d, and 10 (7-27) d, respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in 23 of 30 patients, including 7 cases of complications of Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa or above. Six patients improved after treatment and were discharged from hospital, while 1 patient died 27 days after surgery due to granulocyte deficiency, anemia, bilateral lung infection, and respiratory distress syndrome. The remaining 29 patients had no surgery-related morbidity or mortality within 30 days of discharge. Postoperative pathological examination showed TRG grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 8, 9, 4, and 9 cases, respectively, and the number of postoperative pathological TNM stages 0, I, II, and III was 8, 7, 8, and 7 cases, respectively. The pCR rate was 25.0% (8/32). Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery after neoadjuvant SOX chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor immunotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with satisfactory short-term efficacy. Early detection and timely treatment of related complications are important.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Gastrectomy/methods , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology , Laparoscopy , Immunotherapy , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 58-67, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971234

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has been one of the hot topics in the field of colorectal cancer research in recent years. Patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) are the main beneficiaries of immunotherapy. The response rate of patients with dMMR/MSI-H colorectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant immunotherapy is nearly 100%, of which the pathological complete response rate approximately accounts for 60%-67%. The prospect of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in dMMR or MSI-H colorectal cancer patients, especially in the rectal cancer patients, lies in achieving sustainable clinical complete response so as to achieve organ preservation and avoid adverse effects on reproductive, sexual, bowel and bladder function after surgery and radiotherapy. Studies have shown that part of the colorectal cancer patients of microsatellite stability (MSS) or mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) can respond to neoadjuvant immunotherapy in combination with other treatment methods such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In pMMR or MSS colorectal cancer, optimizing neoadjuvant immunotherapy regimens and finding effective efficacy prediction biomarkers are important research directions. In neoadjuvant immunotherapy, overcoming primary and secondary resistance and identifying the pseudoprogression and hyperprogression of neoadjuvant immunotherapy are clinical challenges that require attention. This paper comprehensively reviews the research progress, controversies,challenges and future research directions of neoadjuvant immunotherapy (mainly immune checkpoint inhibitors) in colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , DNA Mismatch Repair , Microsatellite Instability
19.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 51-57, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971233

ABSTRACT

After the implementation of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision, lateral local recurrence becomes the major type of local recurrence after surgery in rectal cancer. Most lateral recurrence develops from enlarged lateral lymph nodes on an initial imaging study. Evidence is accumulating to support the combined use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and lateral lymph node dissection. The accuracy of diagnosing lateral lymph node metastasis remains poor. The size of lateral lymph nodes is still the most commonly used variable with the most consistent accuracy and the cut-off value ranging from 5 to 8 mm on short axis. The morphological features, differentiation of the primary tumor, circumferential margin, extramural venous invasion, and response to chemoradiotherapy are among other risk factors to predict lateral lymph node metastasis. Planning multiple disciplinary treatment strategies for patients with suspected nodes must consider both the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is the most promising regimen for patients with a high risk of recurrence. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy seemingly improves the local control of positive lateral nodes. However, its impact on the safety of surgery in patients with no response to the treatment or regrowth of lateral nodes remains unclear. For patients with smaller nodes below the cut-off value or shrunken nodes after treatment, a close follow-up strategy must be performed to detect the recurrence early and perform a salvage surgery. For patients with stratified lateral lymph node metastasis risks, plans containing different multiple disciplinary treatments must be carefully designed for long-term survival and better quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
20.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 7-12, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970165

ABSTRACT

With the development of modern liver surgical techniques and the progress of perioperative management,the survival rate after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma has been greatly improved,but the high recurrence and metastasis rate still limits the long-term survival after surgery. Preoperative neoadjuvant therapy has been confirmed to significantly reduce the postoperative recurrence rate and prolong survival in other types of cancer,but there has been a lack of effective systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma for a long time,so the efficacy and regimen of neoadjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma are still controversial. PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibody combined with anti-angiogenic targeted drugs has become a first-line regimen in systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. This regimen has definite efficacy and high safety,bringing hope for neoadjuvant therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently,three clinical trials of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma have been published internationally,which preliminarily suggest the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and lay a solid foundation for carrying out larger sample clinical studies in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Immunotherapy
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