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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(1): 1-14, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368924

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de mama es la principal neoplasia en mujeres y se ha reportado un aumento de la incidencia en jóvenes menores a 40 años. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir las características clínicas y patológicas, de pacientes con cáncer de mama invasor, ≤40 años, atendidas en un centro de referencia oncológico en Medellín-Colombia. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio transversal, realizado en la Clínica Vida (Fundación Colombiana de Cancerología), en el período enero del 2015 a diciembre del 2019. La muestra fue no probabilística, de pacientes con diagnóstico oncológico de cáncer de mama invasor. Se registró edad, tipo de cáncer, antecedentes familiares, recidivas y mortalidad. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva. Resultados: De 2332 casos de nuevos de cáncer de mama invasor, 261 se identificaron en mujeres ≤ 40 años, 11.19 % (IC 95 % 11.17-11.22 %), edad de 34.2 ± 4 años. 16.5 % en menores de 30 años, 40.2 % en edad de 30 a 45 años y 42.2 % en mujeres de 35 a 40 años. La presentación principal fue masa palpable auto detectada. El subtipo molecular Luminal A 16 %, Luminal B 48.3 %, Her2 enriquecido 11.2 % y Triple negativo 21.6 %. El 27 % tuvo algún antecedente familiar. La recidiva fue del 14 % y la mortalidad del 14.9 %. Conclusión: El 11 % de pacientes con cáncer de mama en esta serie corresponde a mujeres jóvenes, con una presentación en estadios más avanzados y biología molecular desfavorable, lo cual requirió un manejo más agresivo y radical. Esto resalta la importancia del diagnóstico oportuno en pacientes de lesiones mamarias en mujeres jóvenes.


Introduction: Breast cancer is the main neoplasm in women, and an increased incidence has been reported in young people under 40 years of age. The objective of the present study was to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with invasive breast cancer, ≤40 years old, treated at a reference oncology center in Medellín-Colombia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out by the Vida Clinic (Colombian Cancer Foun-dation) from January 2015 to December 2019. The sample was nonprobabilistic of patients with an oncological diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Age, type of cancer, family history, recurrence, and mortality were recorded. Descriptive statistics are used. Results: Of 2332 cases of new invasive breast cancer, 261 were identified in women ≤ 40 years, 11.19% (95% CI 11.17-11.22%), age 34.2±4 years. 16.5% in those under 30 years of age, 40.2% in women between 30 and 45 years of age, and 42.2% in women between 35 and 40 years of age. The main presentation was a self-detected palpable mass. The molecular subtypes luminal A 16%, luminal B 48.3%, Her2 enriched 11.2%, and triple-negative 21.6%. A total of 27% had a family history. Recurrence was 14%, and mortality was 14.9%. Conclusion: Eleven percent of patients with breast cancer in this series were young women, with a presentation in more advanced stages and unfavorable molecular biology, which requires more aggressive and radical management. This highlights the importance of timely diagnosis in young women with breast injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Adult , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Molecular Biology
2.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 33(1): 5-13, ene. - mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392880

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el objetivo del tratamiento de la artritis reumatoidea (AR) es la remisión o baja actividad de la enfermedad. En aquellos pacientes que no logran dicho objetivo con drogas modificadoras de la enfermedad sintéticas convencionales (DMARsc), se indican los agentes biológicos (DMARb) o sintéticos dirigidos (DMARsd). El intervalo de tiempo entre la indicación y hasta que el paciente recibe la primera dosis es variable. Objetivos: describir el tiempo de demora y los motivos relacionados entre la indicación de DMARb o DMARsd y la administración de la primera dosis. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo. Se revisaron historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de AR, a quienes se les indicó DMARb o DMARsd. Se registraron datos sociodemográficos y características de la enfermedad. Respecto de la indicación de DMARb o DMARsd, se consignó: fecha de indicación, fecha en que el paciente recibió la primera dosis en forma efectiva y motivo de la demora. Resultados: se incluyeron 102 pacientes. La mediana de demora desde la indicación de la droga hasta que el paciente recibió la primera dosis fue de 240 días (RIC 113-504). El principal motivo de demora fue de índole burocrática (47%). Los pacientes con baja actividad de la enfermedad obtuvieron la medicación en menor tiempo (113 días) respecto de aquellos con actividad moderada (242 días) y alta actividad (332 días); p=0,01. Los pacientes en los cuales la demora fue por causas burocráticas, presentaron menor nivel de educación (60% vs 17% con educación superior) y residencia en la Provincia de Buenos Aires (58% vs 31% con residencia en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires), siendo estas asociaciones estadísticamente significativas. Conclusiones: la mediana en la demora para el inicio de DMARb o DMARsd fue de aproximadamente 8 meses. El motivo principal de este retraso fue de índole burocrática, evidenciándose la misma con mayor frecuencia en aquellos con menor nivel educativo y en los residentes en la Provincia de Buenos Aires.


Introduction: the goal of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment is to obtain remission or low activity of the disease. In those patients who did not achieve this objective with conventional treatment, biologic or targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARD or tsDMARD, respectively) are indicated. The period of time between the prescription of these medications and its administration is variable. Objectives: to describe the delay time between the prescription of a bDMARD or tsDMARD and the administration of the first dose, and its related reasons. Materials and methods: observational, analytical, retrospective study. Medical records of patients with a diagnosis of RA who were prescribed a bDMARD or tsDMARD were reviewed. Sociodemographic data and characteristics of the disease were recorded. Regarding the indication of bDMARDs or tsDMARs, the following data was collected: prescription date, date on which the patient received the first effective dose and reason for the delay. Results: 102 patients were included. The median delay time from the drug prescription until the patient received the first dose was 240 days (IQR 113-504). The main reason for delay was of bureaucratic nature (47%). Patients with low disease activity obtained the medication with a shorter delay (113 days) compared to those with moderate activity (242 days) and high activity (332 days); p=0.01. Patients with a delay related to bureaucratic causes, presented a lower level of education (60% vs 17% with higher education) and residence in the Province of Buenos Aires (58% vs 31% with residence in Autonomous City of Buenos Aires), and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: the median delay time to onset of bDMARDs or tsDMARDs was approximately 8 months. The main reason for this delay was of bureaucratic nature, being more frequent in those with lower educational level and residence in the Province of Buenos Aires.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Therapeutics , Biological Treatment , Neoadjuvant Therapy
3.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(1): 36-40, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388916

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Una terapia emergente para el cáncer de colon es la neoadyuvancia, en casos seleccionados. Dicha selección se basa en el análisis preoperatorio de imágenes mediante tomografía computada. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es determinar la exactitud diagnóstica del examen para estadificar el cáncer de colon y su correlación entre radiólogos expertos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de exactitud diagnóstica. Previo cálculo muestral se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 47 pacientes con adenocarcinoma colónico resecado con intención curativa e imágenes hasta 60 días previo cirugía. Se evaluó profundidad de invasión tumoral e invasión linfonodal por 2 radiólogos expertos y ciegos entre sí. Las diferencias fueron auditadas por un tercer radiólogo experto. Se compararon resultados con la biopsia, calculando la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo negativo, valor predictivo positivo y exactitud diagnóstica del examen. Se calculó la concordancia entre radiólogos mediante el índice de kappa. Resultados: La exactitud para diferenciar tumores T3-T4 de T1-T2 fue del 89,4%. En cambio, la capacidad para diferenciar tumores T4 de los T3 fue de un 65,9%. La exactitud para determinar un N (+) fue de un 66%. La concordancia entre radiólogos fue de 0,929 para identificar tumores T1-2, de 0,602 para T3, de 0,584 para T4. Para determinar un N (+), la concordancia fue de 0,521. Conclusión: La exactitud diagnóstica de la tomografía computada en cáncer de colon es adecuada para distinguir tumores avanzados. Sin embargo, su capacidad para discriminar entre T3 y T4, los N (+) y la baja concordancia entre radiólogos, sugiere la necesidad de buscar técnicas imagenológicas complementarias.


Introduction: Neoadjuvant therapy is an emerging treatment for selected cases of colon cancer. The decision is based on the analysis of preoperative images taken by computed tomography. However, its ability to discriminate those who could benefit from this therapy is unknown. Aim: Our objective is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography to evaluate the colon cancer stage and its correlation among expert radiologists. Materials and Method: Diagnostic accuracy study. After sample size calculation, we randomly selected 47 patients who underwent a colonic adenocarcinoma resection with curative intent and had available images up to 60 days after surgery. The depth of tumor and lymph nodal invasion were evaluated by two expert radiologists, blinded to each other. The differences between radiologists were audited by a third one. The results were correlated with biopsy as the gold standard. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography. The agreement between radiologists was calculated using the kappa index. Results: The accuracy to differentiate T3-T4 tumors from T1-T2 was 89.4%. In contrast, ability to differentiate T4 tumors from T3 tumors was 65.9%. The accuracy to determine an N (+) was 66%. Agreement between radiologists was 0.929 to identify T1-2, 0.602 for T3, 0.584 for T4 tumors. To determine an N (+), the concordance was 0.521. Conclusion: Diagnostic computed tomography accuracy in colon cancer is adequate to differentiate advanced tumors. However, its ability to discriminate between T3 and T4, N (+) and the low agreement between radiologists suggests the need for complementary imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943030

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) in the comprehensive treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: Literatures were screened from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM, Wanfang Data, VIP and CNKI from the inception date to May 2021 to collect the randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of TNT followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCRT) followed by TME in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. The data of overall survival, disease-free survival, R0 radical resection rate, pathological complete response (pCR) rate, T downstaging rate, the incidence of adverse events ≥ grade III, including neutropenia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, radiation dermatitis and nervous system toxicity, and the morbidity of complications within postoperative 30 days of the two groups were extracted from the included literatures. Review Manager 5.3 software was utilized for statistical meta-analysis. Results: Nine RCTs were finally enrolled including 2430 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with nCRT group, patients in TNT group had longer overall survival (HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.97, P=0.03) and higher pCR rate (RR=1.73, 95%CI: 1.44-2.08, P<0.01) with significant differences. Besides, there were no significant differences between two groups in disease-free survival (HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.71-1.05, P=0.14), R0 radical resection rate (RR=1.02, 95%CI: 0.99-1.06, P=0.17) and T downstaging rate (RR=1.04, 95%CI: 0.89-1.22, P=0.58) between two groups. In terms of treatment safety, the incidence of adverse events ≥ grade III (RR=1.09, 95%CI: 0.70-1.70, P=0.70) and morbidity of complications within postoperative 30 days (RR=1.07, 95%CI: 0.97-1.18, P=0.19) did not significantly differ between two groups. Conclusions: In the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, TNT may bring more survival benefits than nCRT and does not increase the incidence of adverse events and postoperative complications. Therefore, TNT could be used as a recommended treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Second Primary/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/pathology , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 524-533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939742

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy, including neoadjuvant single- or dual-drug immunotherapy or combined immunotherapy with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, has witnessed a rapid development in non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials exhibited the encouraging pathological responses and certain clinical benefits in selected patients, with tolerable toxicity. Nivolumab with chemotherapy has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first immunotherapy-based treatment for non-small cell lung cancer in the neoadjuvant treatment setting. There is the need for further evaluation of long-term efficacy, side effects or surgical issues for neoadjuvant immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.
.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nivolumab/therapeutic use
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936087

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate quality of life (QoL) of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who underwent low anterior resection with protective stoma under neoadjuvant therapy mode, and to explore the changes of QoL of patients from before neoadjuvant therapy to 12 months after stoma reversal. Methods: A descriptive case series study was carried out. A retrospective study was performed on patients with mid and low LARC who received complete neoadjuvant long course radiotherapy and chemotherapy, followed by radical low anterior resection (LAR) combined with protective stoma at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2017 to January 2020. Inclusion criteria: (1) patients with rectal MRI assessment of mT3-4b or mN1-2 without distant metastasis (M0) before neoadjuvant therapy; (2) distance from tumor lower margin to the anal verge <12 cm; (3) rectal adenocarcinoma confirmed by biopsy before neoadjuvant therapy; (4) complete cycle of neoadjuvant therapy; (5) patients undergoing radical LAR with sphincter preservation and protective ostomy; (6) patients receiving follow-up for more than 12 months after stoma reversal. Exclusion criteria: (1) patients as grade Ⅳ to Ⅴclassified by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA); (2) patients with multiple primary colorectal cancer; (3) patients with history of other malignant tumors in the past 5 years; (4) patients of emergency surgery; (5) pregnant or lactating women; (6) patients with history of severe mental illness; (7) patients with contraindication of MRI, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgical treatment. A total of 83 patients were enrolled, including 51 males and 28 females with median age of 59 years and mean BMI of (24.4±3.1) kg/m(2). EORTC QLQ-CR29, international erectile function index (IIEF), Wexner constipation score and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score were applied to investigate the QoL of the patients before neoadjuvant therapy, 3 and 12 months after ostomy reversal, including rectal anal function and sexual function. M (P25, P75) was used for the scores of the scale. Results: (1) EORTC QLQ-CR29 score showed that before neoadjuvant therapy, before surgery, 3 months and 12 months after ostomy reversal, anxiety [64.4 (52, 0, 82.5), 75.3 (66.0, 89.5), 82.6 (78.5, 90.0), 83.6 (78.0, 91.0)] and concern about body image [76.8 (66.0, 92.0), 81.1 (76.5, 91.5), 85.5 (82.5, 94.0), 86.1 (82.0, 92.0)] were improved (all P<0.01); pelvic pain [5.4 (2.0, 8.0), 5, 0 (2.0, 7.8), 3.9 (1.0, 5.0), 3.0 (1.0, 5.0)], urinary incontinence [15.7 (7.0, 22.0), 11.1 (0, 17.5), 10.0 (0, 17.0), 9.9 (0, 16.0)], impotence [14.3 (4.2, 19.0), 12.2 (0, 16.8), 5.6 (0, 10.0), 5.2 (0.2, 8.0)], urinate [26.4 (13.0, 38.5), 13.9 (0, 20.0), 13.4 (2.5, 21.5), 13.2 (2.0, 20.0)] and mucous bloody stool [4.7 (3.0, 6.0), 2.6 (0, 5.0), 2.2 (0, 5.0), 1.9 (0, 4.0)] were improved as well (all P<0.01). The scores fluctuated in the improvement of male sexual function, abdominal pain, dry mouth, worry about body mass change, skin pain and dyspareunia, but the symptoms were significantly improved after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all P<0.05). There were no significant changes in female sexual function, dysuria, dysgeusia and fecal incontinence after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all P>0.05). (2) IIEF scale showed that all scores were similar before and after neoadjuvant therapy (all P>0.05). (3) Rectal and anal function scale revealed that before neoadjuvant therapy, before operation, 3 months and 12 months after stoma reversal, gas incontinence [3.1 (0, 4.0), 2.3 (0, 4.0), 1.8 (0, 4.0), 1.2 (0, 3.0)] and urgent defecation [7.2 (0, 11.0), 5.2 (0, 11.0), 2.9 (0, 9.0), 1.7 (0, 0)] were improved (all P<0.001). In terms of improving incomplete emptying sensation, the symptoms fluctuated, but the symptoms improved significantly after ostomy reversal compared with before neoadjuvant therapy (all P<0.05). While the symptoms of assistance with defecation [0 (0, 0), 0.7 (0, 1.0), 0.6 (0, 1.0), 0.7 (0, 1.0)] and defecation failure [0.2 (0, 0), 1.0 (0, 2.0), 0.8 (0, 1.5), 0.8 (0, 1.0)] showed a worsening trend (all P<0.001). Stratified analysis was performed on patients with different efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy to compare the changes in QoL before and after neoadjuvant therapy. Patients with less sensitive and more sensitive neoadjuvant therapy showed similar changes in function and symptoms. Patients with less sensitive therapy showed significant improvement in dysuria, urinary incontinence, skin pain and dyspareunia (all P<0.05), and the symptom of defecation frequency in more sensitive patients was significantly improved (P<0.05). Conclusions: For patients with LARC, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with radical LAR and protective stoma can improve QoL in many aspects. It is noted that patients show a worsening trend in the need for assistance with defecation and in defecation failure.


Subject(s)
Dyspareunia , Dysuria , Female , Humans , Lactation , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Pain , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Incontinence
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936069

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct a prediction model of pathologic complete response (pCR) in locally advanced rectal cancer patients who received programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibody and total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy by using radiomics based on MR imaging data and to investigate its predictive value. Methods: A clinical diagnostic test study was carried out. Clinicopathalogical and radiological data of 38 patients with middle-low rectal cancer who received PD-1 antibody combined with total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and underwent TME surgery from January 2019 to September 2021 in our hospital were retrospectively collected. Among 38 patients, 23 were males and 15 were females with a median age of 68 (47-79) years and 13 (34.2%) a chieved pCR. These 38 patients were stratified and randomly divided into the training group (n=26) and test group (n=12) for modeling. All the patients underwent rectal MRI before treatment. The clinical, imaging and radiomics features of all the patients were collected, and the clinical feature model and radiomics model were constructed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of each model were drawn, and the constructed model was evaluated through the area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, primary location of tumor and postoperative pathology between the two groups (all P>0.05). Forty-one features were extracted from region of interest in each modality, including 9 first-order features, 24 gray level co-occurrence matrix features and 8 shape features. From 38 patients, 41 features were extracted from each imaging modality of baseline and preoperative DWI and T2WI images, totally 164 features. Only 4 features were preserved after correlation analysis between each pair of features and t-test between pCR and non-pCR subjects. After LASSO cross validation, only the first-order skewness of the baseline DWI image before treatment and the volume in the baseline T2WI image before treatment were retained. The area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the prediction model established by applying these two features in the training group and the test group were 0.856 and 0.844, 77.8% and 100.0%, 88.2% and 75.0%, 77.8% and 66.7%, 88.2% and 100.0%, respectively. The decision curve analysis of the radiomics model showed that the strategy of this model in predicting pCR was better than that in treating all the patients as pCR and that in treating all the patients as non-pCR. Conclusion: The pCR prediction model for rectal cancer patients receiving PD-1 antibody combined with total neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy based on MRI radiomics has the potential to be used in clinical screening or rectal cancer patients who can be spared from radical surgery.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936068

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide reference and evidence for clinical application of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer through multicenter large-scale analysis based on real-world data in China. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter case series study. From January 2017 to October 2021, data of 94 patients with colorectal cancer who received neoadjuvant immunotherapy in Peking University Cancer Hospital (55 cases), Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (19 cases), Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (13 cases) and Changhai Hospital of Navy Medical University (7 cases) were retrospectively collected, including 48 males and 46 females. The median age was 58 years. Eighty-one cases were rectal cancer and 13 cases were colon cancer (2 cases of double primary colon cancer). Twelve cases were TNM staging II and 82 cases were stage III. Forty-six cases were well differentiated, 37 cases were moderately differentiated and 11 cases were poorly differentiated. Twenty-six patients (27.7%) with mismatch repair defects (dMMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI-H) were treated with immunotherapy alone, mainly programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1); sixty-eight cases (72.3%) with mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) and microsatellite stability (MSS) were treated with immune combined with neoadjuvant therapy, mainly CapeOx (capecitabine+oxaliplatin) combined with PD-1 antibody plus long- or short-course radiotherapy, or PD-1 antibody combined with cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody. Analysis and evaluation of adverse events during neoadjuvant immunotherapy were performed according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Standard version 3.0; the surgical complications were evaluated according to the Clavien-Dindo grading standard; the efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant immunotherapy included the following indicators: major pathological remission (MPR) was defined as tumor regression induced by neoadjuvant therapy in pathology residual tumor ≤10%; pathological complete response (pCR) was defined as tumor regression induced by neoadjuvant therapy without residual tumor in pathology; the tumor response rate was disease control rate (DCR), namely the proportion of complete response (CR), partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) in the whole group; the objective response rate (ORR) was CR+PR. Results: The median cycle of neoadjuvant immunotherapy was 4 (1-10) in whole group, and the incidence of immune-related adverse reactions was 37.2% (35/94), including 35 cases (37.2%) of skin-related adverse reactions, 21 cases (22.3%) of thyroid dysfunction and 8 cases (8.5%) of immune enteritis, of which grade III or above accounted for 1.1%. The median interval between completion of neoadjuvant therapy and surgery was 30 (21-55) days. There were 81 cases of radical resection of rectal cancer, 11 cases of radical resection of colon cancer, and 2 cases of colon cancer combined with other organ resection. The primary tumor resection of all the patients reached R0. The incidence of surgical-related complications was 22.3% (21/94), mainly anastomotic leakage (4 cases), pelvic infection (4 cases), abdominal effusion (3 cases), anastomotic stenosis (3 cases ) and abdominal and pelvic hemorrhage (2 cases). Grade I-II complications developed in 13 cases (13.8%), grade III and above complications developed in 8 cases (8.5%), no grade IV or above complications were found. During a median follow-up of 32 (1-46 ) months, DCR was 98.9% (93/94), ORR was 88.3 % (83/94), pCR was 41.5% (39/94), MPR was 60.6% (57/94). The pCR rate of 26 patients with dMMR and MSI-H undergoing simple immunotherapy was 57.7% (15/26), and MPR rate was 65.4% (17/26). The pCR rate of 68 pMMR and MSS patients undergoing combined immunotherapy was 35.3%(24/68), and MPR rate was 58.8% (40/68). Conclusions: Neoadjuvant immunotherapy has favorable tumor control rate and pathological remission rate for patients with initial resectable colorectal cancer. The incidences of perioperative adverse reactions and surgical complications are acceptable.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936064

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has become an important treatment option for microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer. From late-line to first-line treatment, and even in neoadjuvant setting for early stage colorectal cancer, promising efficacy was observed with immunotherapy. In microsatellite stability (MSS) or mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) colorectal cancer, the researches of neoadjuvant immunotherapy have been conducted constantly. This paper focuses on the recent researches and progress of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for MSS or pMMR colorectal cancer. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy alone led to a good pathological response in a subset of patients. Studies of induction or consolidation immunotherapy before or after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or concurrent immunotherapy during radiotherapy showed higher pathological complete remission (pCR) rates as compared to standard chemoradiotherapy. Studies on sequential dual immunotherapy after radiochemotherapy and targeted therapy combined with neoadjuvant immunotherapy are ongoing. At present, most of these are pilot studies with small sample size. More researches and long-term follow-up are needed to prove the efficacy of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in MSS or pMMR colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Humans , Immunotherapy , Microsatellite Repeats , Neoadjuvant Therapy
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936063

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer is widely used in rectal cancer, locally advanced colon cancer, and resectable metastatic and recurrent colorectal cancer. Mismatch repair deficient(dMMR) and microsatellite instablity-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer patients who benefit from the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors are expected to further improve the efficacy of traditional neoadjuvant therapy based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this paper, the current status of immunotherapy (with emphasis on immune checkpoint inhibitors) is elucidated, and the opportunities of its application in neoadjuvant therapy are analyzed, including poor sensitivity of dMMR tumors to traditional therapy, good immune response of early tumors, predictable, manageable and controllable toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Colorectal cancer patients have growing and diverse needs to be met. Current controversies and challenges are analyzed, and the future directions are pointed out, including active screening of benefit groups, exploration of efficacy prediction markers, optimization of neoadjuvant immunotherapy models, attention to efficacy evaluation and new therapeutic endpoints. Neoadjuvant therapy should be effective, moderate and accurate based on the treatment target. It is the prerequisite and basis to guarantee medical safety and improve therapeutic effect to attach importance to the standardization and safety of clinical research and to pay attention to patients' interests and legal and ethical demands.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Rectal Neoplasms
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936057

ABSTRACT

The number of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) has been increasing year by year. The key technical points such as surgical approach, lymph node dissection and GI tract reconstruction have gradually reached their maturity. With the emergence of proofs of evidence-based neoadjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for advanced AEG is also gradually accepted by most surgeons and oncologists. European scholars have previously started researches on MIS after neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer and AEG. Domestic scholars also raise practical suggestions on the application of neoadjuvant therapy for AEG via the cooperation between gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, demonstrating the trend in standardization and individualization. But there is still no consent to the indication of MIS after neoadjuvant therapy. Furthermore, there is also a lack of the standardization of technical points for MIS, GI tract reconstruction, short- and long-term outcomes. Such associated problems have been the hot controversy and exploration in recent years. This article describes current progress of neoadjuvant therapy for AEG, current status of MIS after the neoadjuvant therapy in Europe, America, East Asia, including China, and related researches plus future prospects, hoping for better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Humans , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
12.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 454-460, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935621

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effect of direct surgery or surgery after second-line chemotherapy for colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases who did not achieve objective remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: A retrospective case cohort study was used. The clinical and pathological data of 107 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases who did not achieve objective response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery,Cancer Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from December 2008 to December 2016 were retrospectively collected. There were 71 males and 36 females, median age was 57 years (range: 28 to 79 years). According to the different treatment regimens after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,107 cases were divided into a direct surgery group (direct group,n=65) and an operation after receiving second-line chemotherapy group (second-line group,n=42). The propensity score matching(PSM) of the Logistic regression model was used to match the bilobar distribution of liver metastases and the number of first-line chemotherapy cycles in the two groups of patients. The caliper value was set to 0.10 and the matching ratio was 1∶2. T test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test or Fisher's exat test was used to analyzed the data between the tuo groups, respectively. Survival analysis design was used to investigate the difference in prognosis between the two groups of patients. Results: The follow-up time(M(IQR)) was 56.3(34.3) months (range: 2.1 to 95.0 months),and all patients were followed up. After PSM,there were 28 cases in the direct group and 42 cases in the second-line group, there were no significant differences in whether R0 resection was feasible,blood loss,blood transfusion,postoperative complications and postoperative hospital stay between the two groups (all P>0.05). The 1,3,and 5-year progression-free survival(PFS) rates of the direct group were 40.0%,16.5%,and 11.0%,and the 1,3,and 5-year overall survival(OS) rates were 98.5%,61.2%,and 41.4%,respectively, the second-line group 1,3,5 years PFS rates were 35.7%,14.3%,14.3%,1,3,5-year OS rate were 95.2%,55.1%,44.4%,respectively. The median PFS time of the direct group and the second-line group was 8.5 months and 7.5 months,respectively,and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.826). The median OS time of the direct group and the second-line group were 33.8 months and 46.9 months,respectively. The difference was not statistically significant(P=0.646).The median PFS time of the direct group and second-line chemotherapy complete remission and partial remission group(CR/PR group) was 10.2 months and 9.1 months,respectively,and the difference was not statistically significant(P=0.669). The median OS time of the direct group and the second-line CR/PR group was 51.0 months and 46.9 months,respectively,and the difference was not statistically significant(P=0.427). The results of survival analysis suggested that major liver resection was an independent prognosis factor for PFS (HR=1.809,95%CI: 1.067 to 3.067,P=0.028) and OS(HR=2.751,95%CI: 1.317 to 5.747,P=0.007). Second-line chemotherapy was not an independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR=0.945, 95%CI:0.570 to 1.567,P=0.828) and OS (HR=0.866,95%CI: 0.468 to 1.602,P=0.646). Conclusions: There is no significant difference in the short-term outcome and long-term prognosis between direct surgery patients and second-line chemotherapy followed by surgery. Second-line chemotherapy is not an independent prognostic factor for colorectal cancer liver metastases patients who fail to achieve objective response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 134-139, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935591

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Clinical data of 8 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from September 2019 to June 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 5 males and 3 females,aged from 47 to 72 years old. All patients underwent abdominal enhanced CT and PET-CT before operation to accurately evaluate the tumor stage and exclude distant metastasis. Results: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with AG regimen(gemcitabine 1 000 mg/m2 and albumin bound paclitaxel 125 mg/m2) was received for 2 to 6 cycles before surgery. All 8 patients successfully completed the operation,including 5 cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy,2 cases of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy(RAMPS),and 1 case of total pancreatectomy. No conversion to laparotomy or laparoscopic assisted surgery. The operation time was 240 to 450 minutes,the blood loss was 100 to 500 ml,the postoperative length of stay was 10 to 16 days. During the follow-up period up to December 31, 2020, there was 1 case suffered grade B pancreatic leakage and abdominal infection. The numbers of resected lymph nodes were 9 to 31. All patients received R0 resection. The follow-up times were 4.5 to 9.5 months. One patient underwent RAMPS was diagnosed as liver metastasis after 2 months of the operation,and the other 7 patients still survived without tumor recurrence. Conclusion: Minimally invasive surgery of pancreatic cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is safe and feasible in experienced pancreatic minimally invasive centers.


Subject(s)
Aged , China , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 79-83, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935583

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effects of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on the long-term survival of patients with radical resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Totally 1 082 patients with stage T3-4aN0-3M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited in this study who underwent radical resection at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fourth Hospital, Hebei Medical University from January 2005 to January 2015. There were 798 males and 284 females, with a median age of 61 years (range: 37 to 86 years). There were 138 patients undergoing preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 392 patients postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and 552 patients surgery alone. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was used as the benchmark group to match the propensity score with the adjuvant chemotherapy group and the surgery-only group respectively at a ratio of 1∶3. A total of 7 covariates including tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor invasion depth, tumor differentiation degree, surgical procedure, vascular tumor thrombus and nerve invasion were included, and the caliper value was taken as 0.1. After matching, a total of 699 patients were included for the analysis, including 128 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group, 267 patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group, and 304 patients in the surgery alone group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves which was tested by the Log-rank method for survival analysis. Results: After matching analysis, the 5-year overall survival rate was 41.5% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group with a median overall survival time of 43 months (95%CI: 27 to 59 months), 57.6% in the adjuvant chemotherapy group with a median overall survival time unreached, and 24.9% in the surgery alone group with a median overall survival time of 28 months (95%CI: 25 to 31 months) (χ²=60.475, P<0.01). For overall survival after matching, the adjuvant chemotherapy group was better than the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (χ²=11.384, P=0.001), the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was better than the surgery alone group (χ²=8.654, P=0.003), and the adjuvant chemotherapy group was better than surgery alone group (χ²=60.234, P<0.01). Conclusion: Both preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the long-term survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing radical resection, and the improvement effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is more obvious.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
15.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 22-26, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935574

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor with very poor prognosis. In the past decade, the surgical technique has made significant progress, but it has not brought desired effect in improving the survival outcome of pancreatic cancer patients. With the development of the concept of cancer treatment and the emergence of precision medicine, the surgical centered multidisciplinary treatment and collaborative diagnosis and treatment mode has gradually become the mainstream. Accurate preoperative assessment of pancreatic cancer has become a breakthrough for further improving the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. From the perspective of precise assessment, this paper mainly summarized the status and progress on the following four aspects: the preoperative diagnosis and staging, the resectability evaluation, the neoadjuvant therapy strategy and efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer, and also discussed the shortcomings and challenges in the field of precise assessment, finally in order to make the preoperative assessment of pancreatic cancer more precise and standard, and to provide useful reference for future research work.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 360-363, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935221

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of primary and acquired resistance to anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) on the overall survival of patients with HER-2 positive advanced breast cancer. Methods: The clinical characteristics of HER-2 positive patients with advanced breast cancer admitted to Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1998 to December 2018 were collected, and their neoadjuvant/adjuvant and advanced three-line chemotherapy were summarized. Among them, targeted drugs for HER-2 included trastuzumab, pertuzumab, T-DM1, RC48-ADC, lapatinib, pyrotinib, allitinib, sipatinib, seratinib. Based on the duration of benefit from anti HER-2 treatment, the patients were divided into two groups: primary anti HER-2 resistance group and acquired anti HER-2 resistance group. In this study, the overall survival (OS) was used as the main end point. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional risk regression model were used to analyze the effects of different drug resistance mechanisms on the overall survival. Results: The whole group of 284 patients were included. The median age of recurrence and metastasis was 48 years old, 155 (54.6%) were hormone receptor (HR) positive and 129 (45.4%) were HR negative, 128 cases (45.1%) were premenopausal and 156 cases (54.9%) were postmenopausal, 277 cases (97.5%) had a score of 0-1 in ECoG PS and 7 cases (2.5%) had a score of more than 2 in the first diagnosis of relapse and metastasis. There were 103 cases (36.3%) in the primary drug resistance group and 181 cases (63.7%) in the secondary drug resistance group. The median overall survival time of the two groups was 24.9 months and 40.4 months, respectively, with statistical significance (P<0.001). Conclusion: Primary resistance to HER-2 is one of the factors of poor prognosis in HER-2 positive breast cancer, and its mechanism needs to be further explored.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prognosis , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 178-184, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935199

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and survival outcomes of dose-dense (biweekly) carboplatin plus paclitaxel (PC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and to explore an optimal neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen for TNBC. Methods: Patients diagnosed as TNBC(cT1-4N0-3M0) in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College Between January 2008 and September 2018 who received dose-dense PC and standard 3-weekly PC as NAC were 1∶1 matched using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare the efficacy, safety and survival outcomes. Results: One hundred of TNBC patients were enrolled (50 patients were divided in dose-dense group, 50 patients in standard group). The objective response rate (ORR) of dose-dense group and standard group were both 90.0% (45/50). The grade 3-4 neutropenia in dose-dense group was less than that of standard group (32.7% vs. 68.0%, P=0.001), while the rate of ALT/AST elevation in dose-dense group was higher than that of standard group (57.1% vs. 32.0%, P=0.012). The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 34.0% (17/50) in dose-dense group and 38.0% (19/50) in standard group, without statistically significance (P=0.677). The median follow-up time was 55 months (3-150 months). The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) in dose-dense group and standard group were 83.5% and 75.2%, respectively the 5-year overall survival (OS) in dose-dense and standard group were 87.9% and 84.5% the difference were not statistically significant (P=0.322 and 0.647, respectively). Patients with residual disease (tumor size≥1 cm or lymph node positive) had poor prognosis, the 5-year RFS and OS were 59.3% and 68.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Dose-dense PC has similar efficacy with standard 3-weekly PC and has a good safety profile. Since dose-dense regimen can shorten the duration of therapy, it can be an alternative in TNBC.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carboplatin/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 160-166, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935196

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a predictive model for pathologic complete response (pCR) of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes (ISLN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and guide the local treatment. Methods: Two hundred and eleven consecutive breast cancer patients with first diagnosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis who underwent ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node dissection and treated in the Breast Department of Henan Cancer Hospital from September 2012 to May 2019 were included. One hundred and forty two cases were divided into the training set while other 69 cases into the validation set. The factors affecting ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node pCR (ispCR)of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and a nomogram prediction model of ispCR was established. Internal and external validation evaluation of the nomogram prediction model were conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and plotting calibration curves. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that Ki-67 index, number of axillary lymph node metastases, breast pCR, axillary pCR, and ISLN size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were associated with ispCR of breast cancerafter neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of axillary lymph node metastases (OR=5.035, 95%CI: 1.722-14.721, P=0.003), breast pCR (OR=4.662, 95%CI: 1.456-14.922, P=0.010) and ISLN size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR=4.231, 95%CI: 1.194-14.985, P=0.025) were independent predictors of ispCR of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A nomogram prediction model of ispCR of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was constructed using five factors: number of axillary lymph node metastases, Ki-67 index, breast pCR, axillary pCR and size of ISLN after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The areas under the ROC curve for the nomogram prediction model in the training and validation sets were 0.855 and 0.838, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.755). The 3-year disease-free survival rates of patients in the ispCR and non-ispCR groups after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were 64.3% and 54.8%, respectively, with statistically significant differences (P=0.024), the 3-year overall survival rates were 83.8% and 70.2%, respectively, without statistically significant difference (P=0.087). Conclusions: Disease free survival is significantly improved in breast cancer patients with ispCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The constructed nomogram prediction model of ispCR of breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is well fitted. Application of this prediction model can assist the development of local management strategies for the ipsilateral supraclavicular region after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and predict the long-term prognosis of breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 130-136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928790

ABSTRACT

Surgery is the standard treatment for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy have been widely used for preventing recurrence and metastasis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have brought long-term survival benefits in advanced NSCLC and showed higher downstage rates and pathological remission in the neoadjuvant setting. Predictive biomarkers are of great significance to identify the beneficiaries of neoadjuvant ICIs. At present, the biomarkers are still inconclusive. We summarized the clinical trials of neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been disclosed so far, and reviewed the progress of the biomarkers associated with those trials.
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Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 92-101, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928785

ABSTRACT

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the therapeutic outlook for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preoperative neoadjuvant immunotherapy has been paid more and more attention as an effective and safe treatment. Neoadjuvant immune therapy, however, the relevant research started late, relatively few research results and mainly focused on the small sample size of phase I and II studies, treatment itself exists many places it is not clear, also in benefit population screening, the respect such as the choice of treatment and curative effect prediction has not yet reached broad consensus. This paper reviews the important studies and recent achievements related to neoadjuvant immunotherapy, aiming to comprehensively discuss the procedures and existing problems of this kind of therapy from three aspects of beneficiary groups, treatment cycle and efficacy prediction.
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Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
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