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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943030


Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) in the comprehensive treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: Literatures were screened from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM, Wanfang Data, VIP and CNKI from the inception date to May 2021 to collect the randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of TNT followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCRT) followed by TME in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. The data of overall survival, disease-free survival, R0 radical resection rate, pathological complete response (pCR) rate, T downstaging rate, the incidence of adverse events ≥ grade III, including neutropenia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, radiation dermatitis and nervous system toxicity, and the morbidity of complications within postoperative 30 days of the two groups were extracted from the included literatures. Review Manager 5.3 software was utilized for statistical meta-analysis. Results: Nine RCTs were finally enrolled including 2430 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with nCRT group, patients in TNT group had longer overall survival (HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.97, P=0.03) and higher pCR rate (RR=1.73, 95%CI: 1.44-2.08, P<0.01) with significant differences. Besides, there were no significant differences between two groups in disease-free survival (HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.71-1.05, P=0.14), R0 radical resection rate (RR=1.02, 95%CI: 0.99-1.06, P=0.17) and T downstaging rate (RR=1.04, 95%CI: 0.89-1.22, P=0.58) between two groups. In terms of treatment safety, the incidence of adverse events ≥ grade III (RR=1.09, 95%CI: 0.70-1.70, P=0.70) and morbidity of complications within postoperative 30 days (RR=1.07, 95%CI: 0.97-1.18, P=0.19) did not significantly differ between two groups. Conclusions: In the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, TNT may bring more survival benefits than nCRT and does not increase the incidence of adverse events and postoperative complications. Therefore, TNT could be used as a recommended treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Second Primary/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/pathology , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936069


Objective: To construct a prediction model of pathologic complete response (pCR) in locally advanced rectal cancer patients who received programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibody and total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy by using radiomics based on MR imaging data and to investigate its predictive value. Methods: A clinical diagnostic test study was carried out. Clinicopathalogical and radiological data of 38 patients with middle-low rectal cancer who received PD-1 antibody combined with total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and underwent TME surgery from January 2019 to September 2021 in our hospital were retrospectively collected. Among 38 patients, 23 were males and 15 were females with a median age of 68 (47-79) years and 13 (34.2%) a chieved pCR. These 38 patients were stratified and randomly divided into the training group (n=26) and test group (n=12) for modeling. All the patients underwent rectal MRI before treatment. The clinical, imaging and radiomics features of all the patients were collected, and the clinical feature model and radiomics model were constructed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of each model were drawn, and the constructed model was evaluated through the area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, primary location of tumor and postoperative pathology between the two groups (all P>0.05). Forty-one features were extracted from region of interest in each modality, including 9 first-order features, 24 gray level co-occurrence matrix features and 8 shape features. From 38 patients, 41 features were extracted from each imaging modality of baseline and preoperative DWI and T2WI images, totally 164 features. Only 4 features were preserved after correlation analysis between each pair of features and t-test between pCR and non-pCR subjects. After LASSO cross validation, only the first-order skewness of the baseline DWI image before treatment and the volume in the baseline T2WI image before treatment were retained. The area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the prediction model established by applying these two features in the training group and the test group were 0.856 and 0.844, 77.8% and 100.0%, 88.2% and 75.0%, 77.8% and 66.7%, 88.2% and 100.0%, respectively. The decision curve analysis of the radiomics model showed that the strategy of this model in predicting pCR was better than that in treating all the patients as pCR and that in treating all the patients as non-pCR. Conclusion: The pCR prediction model for rectal cancer patients receiving PD-1 antibody combined with total neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy based on MRI radiomics has the potential to be used in clinical screening or rectal cancer patients who can be spared from radical surgery.

Aged , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 180-185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928549


Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has shown promising results in patients with locally advanced penile cancer. However, no consensus exists on its applications for locally advanced penile cancer. Thus, it is unclear which kind of chemotherapy regimen is the best choice. Consequently, a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE was performed in March 2021 to assess the efficacy and safety of NAC for the treatment of patients with locally advanced penile cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the risk of bias in each study. This study synthesized 14 published studies. The study revealed that patients who achieved an objective response to NAC obtained a better survival outcome compared with those who did not achieve an objective response. In addition, the objective response rates (ORRs) and pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 0.57 and 0.11, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥3 toxicity was 0.36. Subgroup analysis found that the ORR and pCR of the taxane-platinum (TP) regimen group performed better than those of the nontaxane-platinum (NTP) regimen group (0.57 vs 0.54 and 0.14 vs 0.07, respectively). Moreover, the TP regimen group had more frequent toxicity than the NTP regimen group (0.41 vs 0.26). However, further studies were warranted to confirm the findings.

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Penile Neoplasms/drug therapy , Platinum , Treatment Outcome
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(3): 189-194, jul.-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381667


Quimioterapia neoadyuvante (NAC) en cáncer de mama permite conocer la sensibilidad del tumor al tratamiento, alcanzar respuesta patológica completa (pRC), está asociada a mejor supervivencia en cáncer de mama localmente avanzado. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el impacto de la pRC en la supervivencia en una cohorte de pacientes tratadas con NAC y cirugía. Se realizo un estudio de diseño observacional de tipo retrospectivo, correlacional, con un seguimiento promedio de 90 meses, de una cohorte de pacientes tratadas con NAC y cirugía desde enero del 2009 a diciembre del 2011. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante el software estadístico SPSS v22.0, para el análisis de supervivencia se utilizó el método de Kaplan Meier, para comparar supervivencias se consideró significativa una p<0,05. Entre las características principales de 199 pacientes, se destacan: edad joven a la presentación, elevado índice de proliferación y alta frecuencia del tipo inflamatorio. pRC ocurrió en el 14,1% de pacientes y la supervivencia global (SG) de acuerdo con la respuesta patológica se comparó entre aquellas pacientes que obtuvieron pRC, con las que tuvieron enfermedad residual, con una SG del 71,4% vs 45% respectivamente, con una diferencia significativa (p:0.009). En esta cohorte de pacientes la pRC impactó en la supervivencia en todos los subtipos clínico-patológicos, sobre todo en el subtipo triple negativo. Evaluar los datos en el entorno real es importante para definir estrategias y mejorar los resultados.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer allows knowing the sensitivity of the tumor to treatment, achieving pathological response complete (pRC), and is associated with better survival in locally advanced breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of pRC on survival in a cohort of patients treated with NAC and surgery. A retrospective, correlational observational design study was carried out, with an average follow-up of 90 months, of a cohort of patients treated with NAC and surgery from January 2009 to December 2011. Data analysis was performed using the software SPSS v22.0 statistic, for the survival analysis the Kaplan Meier method was used, to compare survivals a p <0.05 was considered significant. Among the main characteristics of 199 patients, the following stand out: young age at presentation, high proliferation index and high frequency of the inflammatory type. pRC occurred in 14.1% of patients and overall survival (OS) according to the pathological response was compared between those patients who obtained pRC, with those who had residual disease, with an OS of 71.4% vs 45% respectively, with a significant difference (p: 0.009). In this cohort of patients, pRC impacted on survival in all clinicopathological subtypes, especially in the triple negative subtype. Evaluating data in the real environment is important to define strategies and improve results.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Correlation of Data
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC4990, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090070


ABSTRACT Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium-90 microspheres is a palliative locoregional treatment, minimally invasive for liver tumors. The neoadjuvant aim of this treatment is still controversial, however, selected cases with lesions initially considered unresectable have been enframed as candidates for curative therapy after hepatic transarterial radioembolization. We report three cases in which the hepatic transarterial radioembolization was used as neoadjuvant therapy in an effective way, allowing posterior potentially curative therapies.

RESUMO A radioembolização transarterial hepática com microesferas de ítrio-90 é uma modalidade paliativa de tratamento locorregional minimamente invasiva. O objetivo neoadjuvante deste tratamento ainda é controverso, mas casos selecionados de lesões consideradas inicialmente irressecáveis reenquadram-se como candidatos à terapia curativa após a radioembolização transarterial hepática. Relatamos três casos em que a radioembolização transarterial hepática foi utilizada como terapia neoadjuvante de forma efetiva possibilitando aplicação posterior de terapias potencialmente curativas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Bile Duct Neoplasms/therapy , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/methods , Cholangiocarcinoma/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Yttrium Radioisotopes , Treatment Outcome , Disease Progression , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Middle Aged
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(1): eAO3434, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975108


ABSTRACT Objective To define a predictive factor for pathologic complete response, compare the oncologic outcomes associated with the degree of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to analyze pathologic complete response as a prognostic factor for overall survival and progression-free survival. Methods A retrospective study of patients admitted to Hospital Estadual Mário Covas and Hospital Anchieta from 2008 to 2012, with locally advanced breast cancer. Hormone receptor status, HER2 status, histologic and nuclear grade, age upon diagnosis and histological type of the tumor were analyzed. Pathologic evaluation of the tumor was subdivided into pathologic complete response, defined by the absence of tumor; intermediate response, considered as a favorable stage; and poor response, considering low-responder patients. Data obtained were submitted to statistical analysis. Results The study included 243 patients. There was an association of pathologic complete response with HER-2 negative, histological grade 3, stage III, hormone receptor negative, positive lymph node, older age and more advanced tumors. However, after multivariate analysis the only predictor of pathologic complete response was the presence of negative hormone receptor. By analyzing the prognostic factors, hormone receptor negative was considered as an independent risk factor, and pathologic complete response was considered as an independent protective factor. Conclusion Hormone receptor negative is predictive of pathologic complete response and is an isolated risk factor for lower progression-free survival and overall survival. Pathologic complete response is a protective factor for these same survival analyses.

RESUMO Objetivo Definir um fator preditivo para resposta patológica completa, comparar os resultados oncológicos associados com o grau de resposta patológica, após quimioterapia neoadjuvante, e analisar a resposta patológica completa como fator prognóstico para sobrevivência global e livre de progressão de doença. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes admitidas no Hospital Estadual Mário Covas e Hospital Anchieta, no período de 2008 a 2012, com câncer de mama localmente avançado. Foram utilizados status dos receptores hormonais, proteína HER2, grau histológico e nuclear, idade do paciente ao diagnóstico e tipo histológico do tumor. A avaliação patológica do tumor foi subdividida em resposta patológica completa, definida com ausência de tumor; resposta intermediária, considerada como um estádio favorável; e resposta ruim, considerando os pacientes pouco respondedores. As informações obtidas foram submetidas à análise estatística. Resultados Foram incluídas 243 pacientes. Verificou-se associação de resposta patológica completa entre HER-2 negativo, grau histológico 3, estadiamento III, receptor hormonal negativo, linfonodo positivo, maior idade e tumores mais avançados. Porém, após análise multivariada, o único fator preditivo de resposta patológica completa foi presença de receptor hormonal negativo. Ao analisar fatores prognósticos, receptor hormonal negativo permaneceu como variável independente de risco, e resposta patológica completa, como variável independente de proteção. Conclusão O receptor hormonal negativo é fator preditivo isolado de resposta patológica completa e fator de risco para menor sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida global. Já a resposta patológica completa é fator protetor para estas mesmas análises de sobrevivência.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Receptors, Progesterone/analysis , Receptors, Estrogen/analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Breast Neoplasms/chemistry , Carcinoma/mortality , Carcinoma/chemistry , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Disease-Free Survival , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(4): 342-349, ago. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959393


Resumen Introducción: El tratamiento de los tumores estromales gastrointestinales (GIST) de alto riesgo es quirúrgico. Su resultado podría variar al usarse neoadyuvancia. Objetivo: Evaluar si el uso de la terapia neoadyuvante con imatinib puede cambiar el abordaje quirúrgico en los tumores estromales gastrointestinales de alto riesgo. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo en el Hospital Clínic de Barcelona entre enero de 2002 y mayo de 2016. Resultados: Se obtuvo un total de 8 pacientes. La edad media fue 66,1 ± 13,3 años. La ubicación del tumor fue de 37,5% (3) en el tercio superior, el 50% (4) en el tercio medio y el 12,5% (1) en el tercio inferior. Debido a la clasificación de riesgo alto, la ubicación y/o la necesidad de resecciones multiviscerales, se indicó, previa evaluación comité oncológico, realizar terapia neoadyuvante. La mediana de tiempo de neoadyuvancia fue de 30 semanas. En el 100% (8) de los casos se logró un cambio de enfoque quirúrgico después de la utilización de imatinib. En todos los casos se realizó un resección local (7 laparoscópica y 1 endolaparoscópica) con márgenes negativos La biopsia posoperatoria mostró un promedio de 51,2% de reducción del tamaño tumoral inicial, lo que resultó en una diferencia estadística (p < 0,01) con el tamaño inicial de las lesiones. Durante el seguimiento, tanto la sobrevida relacionada al tumor como la global, fue de un 100%. Conclusión: La terapia neoadyuvante podría cambiar el abordaje quirúrgico de los pacientes con GIST gástrico de riesgo intermedio o alto mediante la reducción del tamaño tumoral, permitiendo realizar cirugías más económicas y logrando resultados oncológicos adecuados.

Introduction: The treatment of high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is surgical. Results may change when using neoadjuvant. Objetive: To evaluated if the use of neoadjuvant therapy with imatinib can change the surgical approach in high risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed from a prospective collected database in Hospital Clinic of Barcelona between January 2002 and May 2016. Results: A total of 8 patients were analyzed with a mean age of 66.1 ± 13.3 years. The tumor location was upper third 37.5% (3) cases, 50% (4) in the middle third and 12.5% (1) in lower third. Because of high risk classification, location and the need of multivisceral resections, neoadjuvant therapy was indicated. The median time of neoadjuvant therapy was 30 weeks. In 87.5% (7) cases a change of surgical approach was achieved after the use of imatinib. In 100% of our series laparoscopic wedge resection was performed achieving negative margins of resection. The postoperative biopsy showed 51.2% of reduction of initial tumor size, resulting in statistical difference (p < 0.01). All patients are alive and 100% of tumor related survival was achieved. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant therapy maybe can change the surgical approach of patients with high-intermediate risk gastric GIST by reducing tumor size. This response also eventually can achieve optimal oncological outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/surgery
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(1): 9-21, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014052


Objective: To assess whether extended time intervals (8-12, 13-20 and >20 weeks) between the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery affect overall survival, disease-free survival. Materials and methods: Retrospective study in 120 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma without evidence of metastasis (T1-4/N0-2/M0) at the time of diagnosis that underwent surgery with curative intent after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and obtained R0 or R1 resection between January 2010 to December 2014 at the National Cancer Institute of Peru. Dates were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method, log- rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results: Of the 120 patients, 70 were women (58%). The median age was 63(26-85) years. All received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. No significant difference was found between the association of the median radial (0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 cm; p=0.826) and distal edge (3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 cm; p=0.606) with time interval groups and similarly the mean resected (18.8, 19.1 and 16.0; p=0.239) and infiltrated nodules (1.05, 1.29 and 0.41); p=0.585). The median follow-up time of overall survival and desease free survival was 40 and 37 months, respectively. No significant differences were observed in overall survival (79.0%, 74.6% and 71.1%; p=0.66) and disease-free survival (73.7%, 68.1% and 73.6%; p=0.922) according to the three groups studied at the 3-year of follow-up. Conclusions: We found that widening the time intervals between the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery at 24 weeks does not affect the overall survival, disease-free survival and pathological outcomes. It allows to extend the intervals of time for future studies that finally will define the best time interval for the surgery

Objetivo: Evaluar si los intervalos de tiempo extendidos (8-12, 13-20 y >20 semanas) entre el fin de la quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante y la cirugía afectan la sobrevida global, y la sobrevida libre de enfermedad. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 120 pacientes con adenocarcinoma rectal sin evidencia de metástasis (T1-4/N0-2/M0) al momento del diagnóstico que se sometieron a cirugía con intención curativa luego de quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante con capecitabina y tuvieron resección R0 o R1 entre enero 2010 y diciembre 2014 en el Instituto Nacioanal de Enfermedades Neoplásicas de Perú. El análisis se hizo con el método de Kaplan-Meier, la prueba log-rank y la regresión de Cox. Resultados: De 120 pacientes, 70 fueron mujeres (58%). La mediana de la edad fue 63 años (26-85 años). Todos recibieron quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la asociación de las medianas de los bordes radial (0,6, 0.7 y 0,8 cm; p=0,826) y distal (3,0, 3,5 y 4,0 cm; p=0,606) con los intervalos de tiempo de los grupos y similarmente con la media de los ganglios resecados (18,8, 19,1 y 16,0; p=0,239) e infiltrados (1,05, 1,29 y 0,41; p=0,585). No se observaron diferencias significativas en sobrevida global (79,0%, 74,6% y 71,1%; p=0,66) y sobrevida libre de enfermedad (73,7%, 68,1% y 73,6%; p=0,922), en los tres grupos estudiados a 3 años de seguimiento. Conclusiones: Encontramos que aumentar los intervalos de tiempo entre el fin de la quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante y la cirugía hasta 24 semanas no afecta la sobrevida global, sobrevida libre de enfermedad ni los desenlaces patológicos. Esto permitiría extender los intervalos de tiempo en estudios futuros para definir el mejor intervalo de tiempo para la cirugía

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Capecitabine/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(2): 119-126, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896427


Summary Introduction: The standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) consists of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical surgery. Regardless the extensive use of SUVmax in 18F-FDG PET tumor uptake as representation of tumor glycolytic consumption, there is a trend to apply metabolic volume instead. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a noninvasive method for tumor segmentation using the 18F-FDG PET imaging in order to predict response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with rectal cancer. Method: The sample consisted of stage II and III rectal cancer patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examination before and eight weeks after neoadjuvant therapy. An individualized tumor segmentation methodology was applied to generate tumor volumes (SUV2SD) and compare with standard SUVmax and fixed threshold (SUV40%, SUV50% and SUV60%) pre- and post-therapy. Therapeutic response was assessed in the resected specimens using Dworak's protocol recommendations. Several variables were generated and compared with the histopathological results. Results: Seventeen (17) patients were included and analyzed. Significant differences were observed between responders (Dworak 3 and 4) and non-responders for SUVmax-2 (p<0.01), SUV2SD-2 (p<0.05), SUV40%-2 (p<0.05), SUV50%-2 (p<0.05) and SUV60%-2 (p<0.05). ROC analyses showed significant areas under the curve (p<0.01) for the proposed methodology with sensitivity and specificity varying from 60% to 83% and 73% to 82%, respectively. Conclusion: The present study confirmed the predictive power of the variables using a noninvasive individualized methodology for tumor segmentation based on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for response evaluation in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.

Resumo Introdução: O câncer retal (RC) é uma doença de importância global, e o tratamento padrão para o câncer retal localmente avançado compreende quimiorradiação neoadjuvante seguida de cirurgia radical. Independentemente do uso extensivo da captação tumoral mais intensa do 18F-FDG (conhecida como SUVmax) como representativo do consumo glicolítico do tumor nas imagens de PET, há uma tendência para aplicar volume metabólico. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar um método não invasivo de segmentação tumoral utilizando a 18F-FDG PET para predizer a resposta à quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante em pacientes com câncer de reto. Método: A amostra consistiu em pacientes com câncer retal em estádios II e III submetidos ao exame de 18F-FDG PET/CT antes e oito semanas após a terapia neoadjuvante. Foi aplicada uma metodologia de segmentação tumoral individualizada para gerar volumes tumorais (SUV2SD). A resposta terapêutica foi avaliada nos espécimes ressecados utilizando as recomendações do protocolo de Dworak. Várias variáveis foram geradas e comparadas com os resultados histopatológicos. Resultados: Dezessete (17) pacientes foram incluídos e analisados. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os respondedores (Dworak 3 e 4) e não respondedores para SUVmax-2 (p<0,01), SUV2SD-2 (p<0,05), SUV40%-2 (p<0,05), SUV50%-2 (p<0,05) e SUV60%-2 (p< 0,05). As análises ROC mostraram áreas significativas sob a curva (p<0,01) para a metodologia proposta, com sensibilidade e especificidade variando de 60% a 83% e 73% a 82%, respectivamente. Conclusão: O presente estudo confirmou o poder preditivo das variáveis utilizando uma metodologia não invasiva individualizada para segmentação tumoral baseada em imagens 18F-FDG PET/CT para avaliação da resposta em pacientes com câncer retal após tratamento com quimiorradiação neoadjuvante.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Radiopharmaceuticals/administration & dosage , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/administration & dosage , Tumor Burden , Middle Aged
Clinics ; 73: e363, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952807


OBJECTIVES: To compare imprint cytology and paraffin section histology for sentinel lymph node detection in women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHOD: A cross-sectional study and report of the sentinel lymph node statuses of 64 patients with breast cancer who underwent intraoperative imprint cytology and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a referral cancer institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: The mean age was 51 years. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (93.75%), and the most common differentiation grade was 2 (62.5%). Overall, 153 lymph nodes were identified, with a mean of 2.39/case. Thirty-four lymph nodes tested positive for malignancy by imprint cytology, and 55 tested positive by histology. Of the 55 positive lymph nodes, 41 (74.5%) involved macrometastases, and 14 (25.5%) involved micrometastases. There were 21 false negatives with imprint cytology, namely, 7 for macrometastases and 14 for micrometastases, resulting in a rate of 17.6%. The sensitivity of imprint cytology was 61.8%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 82.4% and an accuracy of 86.3%. The method presented null sensitivity for the identification of micrometastases. CONCLUSIONS: The false-negative rate with imprint cytology was associated with the number of sentinel lymph nodes obtained. The rate found for complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was comparable to the rates reported in the literature. The accuracy of imprint cytology was good, and its specificity was excellent for sentinel lymph node detection; however, the method was unable to detect lymph node micrometastases.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Reference Values , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Paraffin Embedding/methods , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/diagnosis , False Negative Reactions , Neoplasm Micrometastasis , Neoplasm Grading , Intraoperative Period , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
Clinics ; 72(3): 134-142, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840053


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after breast-conserving surgery for locally advanced breast cancer. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed in patients with locally advanced breast cancer submitted to breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on an adriamycin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel regimen. We evaluated the clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemistry, and surgical factors that contribute to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and locoregional recurrence. A Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox model were used to evaluate the main factors related to disease-free survival. RESULTS: Of the 449 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 98 underwent breast-conserving surgery. The average diameter of the tumors was 5.3 cm, and 87.2% reached a size of up to 3 cm. Moreover, 86.7% were classified as clinical stage III, 74.5% had T3-T4 tumors, 80.5% had N1-N2 axilla, and 89.8% had invasive ductal carcinoma. A pathologic complete response was observed in 27.6% of the tumors, and 100.0% of samples had free margins. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 81.2%, and the mean follow-up was 72.8 months. The rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and locoregional recurrence were 11.2% and 15.3%, respectively. Multifocal morphology response was the only factor related to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence disease-free survival (p=0.04). A multivariate analysis showed that the pathologic response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST)-breast cutoff was the only factor related to locoregional recurrence disease-free survival (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conserving surgery is a safe and effective therapy for selected locally advanced breast tumors.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/etiology , Time Factors , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Survival Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Tumor Burden
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(12): 615-622, Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843883


ABSTRACT Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Hormone receptor-positive (HRþ) tumors represent the most common form of this disease, with more than 70% of breast cancers expressing these receptors. Response and benefit to neoadjuvant chemo-therapy (NCT) varies according to HR expression, with lower responses in luminal tumors as compared with hormone receptor-negative (HR-) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2þ) tumors. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) is an option for selected patients with HRþ locally advanced breast cancer. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy has a favorable toxicity profile, and is associated with benefits such as having low cost and being more easily available even for cancer care professionals outside major urban areas or tertiary centers. These factors are particularly relevant, as 70% of breast cancer deaths occur in women from low-income and middle-income countries. Additionally, NET is being increasingly explored, not simply to allow for less extensive surgery, but also as a scientific tool, with the use of biomarkers to predict outcomes in adjuvant trials and for the individual patient. This review details the current and most relevant evidence about NET for breast cancer as well as the future directions of this field.

RESUMO O câncer de mama é o mais comum, e a principal causa de mortalidade por câncer em mulheres de todo o mundo. Os tumores com receptor hormonal (RH) positivo representam o tipo mais comum desta doença. O benefício e as taxas de resposta à quimioterapia neoadjuvante variam de acordo com a expressão de RH, sendo mais baixa nos tumores luminais em comparação com tumores HER2 positivos ou triplo-negativos. A hormonioterapia neoadjuvante, uma opção para pacientes selecionados com tumores RH positivo localmente avançados, apresenta melhor perfil de tolerabilidade e segurança, e está associada com benefícios adicionais, como baixo custo e fácil acesso. Estes fatores são relevantes, uma vez que 70% das mortes por câncer de mama acontecem em mulheres de países pobres ou em desenvolvimento. Além disso, a hormonioterapia neoadjuvante vem sendo explorada como uma ferramenta científica, ao possibilitar o estudo de biomarcadores que podem predizer desfechos tanto para pacientes individuais quanto para ensaios clínicos em adjuvância. Este artigo de revisão detalha o conhecimento atual e as evidências mais relevantes sobre hormonioterapia neoadjuvante em câncer de mama, assim como perspectivas futuras nesta área.

Humans , Female , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(3): 163-168, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787355


ABSTRACT Background The approach of locally advanced extra-peritoneal rectal adenocarcinoma implies a treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy associated with total mesorectal excision surgery. However, the tumors respond variably to this neoadjuvant therapy, and the mechanisms for response are not completely understood. Objective Evaluate the variables related to the complete tumor response and the outcomes of patients who underwent surgery, comparing those with partial tumor regression and those with total remission of rectal lesion, at the pathological examination. Methods Retrospective analysis of medical records of 212 patients operated between 2000 and 2010, in which 182 (85.9%) obtained partial remission at neoadjuvant therapy (Group 1) and 30 (14.1%), total remission (Group 2). Results No difference was found between the groups in relation to gender, ethnicity, age, tumor distance from the anal verge, occurrence of metastases and synchronous lesions on preoperative staging, dose of radiotherapy and performed surgery. In Group 2, was verified high rate of complete remission when the time to surgery after neoadjuvant therapy was equal or less than 8 weeks (P=0.027), and a tendency of lower levels of pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (P=0.067). In pathological analysis, the Group 1 presented in relation to Group 2, more affected lymph nodes (average 1.9 and 0.5 respectively; P=0.003), more angiolymphatic (19.2% and 3.3%; P=0.032) and perineural involvement (15.4% and 0%; P=0.017) and greater number of lymph nodes examined (16.3 and 13.6; P=0.023). In the late follow-up, Group 1 also had lower overall survival than Group 2 (94.1 months and 136.4 months respectively; P=0.02) and disease-free survival (85.5 months and 134.6 months; P=0.004). There was no statistical difference between Group 2 and Group 1 in local recurrence (15% and 3.4%, respectively) and distant metastasis (28% and 13.8%, respectively). Conclusion In this study, the only factor associated with complete remission of rectal adenocarcinoma was the time between neoadjuvant therapy and surgery. This group of patients had less affected lymph nodes, less angiolymphatic and perineural involvement, a longer overall and disease-free survival, but no significant statistical difference was observed in local recurrence and distant metastasis. Although the complete pathologic remission was associated with better prognosis, this not implied in the cure of the disease for all patients.

RESUMO Contexto A abordagem do câncer retal extra-peritoneal localmente avançado implica em um tratamento com quimio e radioterapia neoadjuvante associada com a cirurgia de excisão total do mesorreto. Entretanto, os tumores respondem de maneiras variadas a esta terapia neoadjuvante, não se conhecendo completamente os mecanismos envolvidos nesta resposta. Objetivo Avaliar os fatores relacionados à resposta tumoral completa e o seguimento de pacientes operados, comparando o grupo com regressão parcial com aqueles em que se evidenciou remissão total da lesão no reto, pelo estudo anatomopatológico. Métodos Análise retrospectiva de prontuários médicos de 212 pacientes operados entre 2000 e 2010, sendo que 182 (85,9%) apresentaram remissão parcial a neoadjuvância (Grupo 1) e 30 (14,1%), remissão total (Grupo 2). Resultados Não foi encontrada diferença entre os grupos em relação a gênero, etnia, idade, distância do tumor a margem anal, ocorrência de metástases e lesões sincrônicas no estadiamento pré-operatório, dose de radioterapia e tipo de cirurgia realizada. No Grupo 2, foi verificada alta taxa de remissão completa quando o paciente foi operado com intervalo menor ou igual a 8 semanas após a terapia neoadjuvante (P=0,027), e uma tendência a menor valor de antígeno carcinoembrionário pré-tratamento (P=0,067). Na análise patológica, o Grupo 1 apresentou em relação ao Grupo 2, mais linfonodos acometidos (média de 1,9 e 0,5 respectivamente; P=0,003), mais invasão angiolinfática (19,2% e 3,3%; P=0,032) e perineural (15,4% e 0%; P=0,017), e maior número de linfonodos examinados (16,3 e 13,6; P=0,023). No seguimento tardio, o Grupo 1 também apresentou menor sobrevida global do que o Grupo 2 (94,1 e 136,4 meses, respectivamente; P=0,02) e sobrevida livre de doença (85,5 e 134,6 meses; P=0,004). Não houve diferença estatística entre os Grupo 1 e Grupo 2 na ocorrência de recidiva local (3,4% e 15%, respectivamente; P=0,32) e metástases à distância (13,8 e 28%; P=0,26). Conclusão Neste estudo, o único fator que foi associado à remissão completa do adenocarcimona retal, foi o tempo entre neoadjuvância e a cirurgia. Este grupo de pacientes apresentou menos linfonodos acometidos, menor invasão angiolinfática e perineural, maior sobrevida global e livre de doença, porém não apresentou diferença estatística significativa com relação à recorrência local e metástases à distância. Embora a remissão completa fosse associada com melhor prognóstico, não implicou na cura da doença em todos os pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Induction Chemotherapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/secondary , Time Factors , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Disease Progression , Neoadjuvant Therapy/mortality , Induction Chemotherapy/mortality , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality
Clinics ; 71(8): 449-454, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794628


OBJECTIVES: Pathological complete response has shown a better prognosis for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. However, correlations between post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors and pathologic complete response are not well confirmed. The aim of the current study was to identify post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors that could serve as indicators of pathologic complete response in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 544 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from December 2003 to June 2014. All patients received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors that are significant indicators of pathologic complete response. RESULTS: In this study, 126 of 544 patients (23.2%) achieved pathological complete response. In multivariate analyses, increased pathological complete response rate was significantly associated with the following factors: post-chemoradiotherapy clinical T stage 0-2 (odds ratio=2.098, 95% confidence interval=1.023-4.304, p=0.043), post-chemoradiotherapy clinical N stage 0 (odds ratio=2.011, 95% confidence interval=1.264-3.201, p=0.003), interval from completion of preoperative chemoradiotherapy to surgery of >7 weeks (odds ratio=1.795, 95% confidence interval=1.151-2.801, p=0.010) and post-chemoradiotherapy carcinoembryonic antigen ≤2 ng/ml (odds ratio=1.579, 95% confidence interval=1.026-2.432, p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Post-chemoradiotherapy clinical T stage 0-2, post-chemoradiotherapy clinical N stage 0, interval from completion of chemoradiotherapy to surgery of >7 weeks and post-chemoradiotherapy carcinoembryonic antigen ≤2 ng/ml were independent clinical indicators for pathological complete response. These findings demonstrate that post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors could be valuable for post-operative assessment of pathological complete response.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Odds Ratio , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Period , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Acta cir. bras ; 31(supl.1): 29-33, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779761


PURPOSE: In this paper we report the oncological outcomes from clinical series of patients with rectal cancer submitted to local excision after neoadjuvant therapy and discuss the indications for local excision in partial clinical responders. METHODS: We analysed a prospective database of 39 patients submitted to a transanal endoscopic operation for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation between 2006 and 2015, comparing clinical and pathological variables, perioperative complications, recurrence rate and overall survival. RESULTS: We obtained 15.4% ypT0, 17.9% ypT1, 35.9% ypT2 and 28.2% ypT3. After a median follow-up of 24 months, tumoral recurrence was observed in 4 patients, one of them with isolated pulmonary metastasis. R0 resection was achieved in 79.5%, and postoperative complications were observed in 30.2% patients and no perioperative mortality occur. Compromise surgical margins do not affect recurrence rate, and 94.9% of patients are alive nowadays. CONCLUSION: Local excision could be associated with low recurrence rate and good overall survival. Short hospitalization time and low level of serious complications observed could be an interesting option for patients who would not tolerate a radical procedure or for those who declined a total mesorectal excision. A strict long-term follow-up must be warranted to detect early tumoral recurrence.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Operative Time , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 425-434, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755863



To investigate current evidence on the optimal duration of adjuvant hormone deprivation for prostate cancer treated with radiation therapy with curative intent.

Materials and Methods:

A systematic search was performed in electronic databases. Data from randomized trials comparing different durations of hormone blockade was collected for pooled analysis. Overall survival, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival and toxicity were the outcomes of interest. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects model.


Six studies met the eligibility criteria. For overall survival, the pooled data from the studies demonstrated a statistically significant benefit for longer hormone deprivation (Hazard Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 – 0.96). A statistically significant benefit was also found for disease-free survival (Hazard Ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.62 – 0.89), and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.62 – 0.85). Studies with longer blockade duration arm demonstrated greater benefit. Toxicity was low, with no increase in cardiovascular events.


Longer duration of androgen deprivation combined to radiotherapy prolongs OS, DFS and DSS in patients with intermediate and high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer. However, this evidence is based on trials using older radiation techniques, and further research of combination of androgen deprivation and new RT technologies may be warranted.


Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 471-478, fev. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742230


No Brasil, a hipertensão e o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 são responsáveis por 60% dos casos de doença renal crônica terminal em terapia renal substitutiva. Estudos americanos identificaram agregação familiar da doença renal crônica, predominante em afrodescendentes. Um único estudo brasileiro observou agregação familiar entre portadores de doença renal crônica quando comparados a indivíduos internados com função renal normal. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar se existe agregação familiar da doença renal crônica em familiares de indivíduos em terapia renal substitutiva causada por hipertensão e/ou diabetes mellitus. Estudo caso-controle tendo como casos 336 pacientes em terapia renal substitutiva portadores de diabetes mellitus ou hipertensão há pelo menos 5 anos e controles amostra pareada de indivíduos com hipertensão ou diabetes mellitus e função renal normal (n = 389). Os indivíduos em terapia renal substitutiva (casos) apresentaram razão de chance de 2,35 (IC95% 1,42-3,89; p < 0,001) versus controles de terem familiares com doença renal crônica terminal, independente da raça ou doença de base. Existe agregação familiar da doença renal crônica na amostra estudada e esta predisposição independe da raça e da doença de base (hipertensão ou diabetes mellitus).

In Brazil hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are responsible for 60% of cases of end-stage renal disease in renal replacement therapy. In the United States studies have identified family clustering of chronic kidney disease, predominantly in African-Americans. A single Brazilian study observed family clustering among patients with chronic kidney disease when compared with hospitalized patients with normal renal function. This article aims to assess whether there is family clustering of chronic kidney disease in relatives of individuals in renal replacement therapy caused by hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A case-control study with 336 patients in renal replacement therapy with diabetes mellitus or hypertension for at least 5 years (cases) and a control matched sample group of individuals with hypertension or diabetes mellitus and normal renal function (n = 389). Individuals in renal replacement therapy (cases) had a ratio of 2.35 (95% CI 1.42-3.89, p < 0.001) versus the control group in having relatives with chronic renal disease, irrespective of race or causative illness. There is family clustering of chronic kidney disease in the sample studied, and this predisposition is irrespective of race and underlying disease (hypertension or diabetes mellitus).

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cystectomy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Vinblastine/administration & dosage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146115


This study was aimed to evaluate the ability of imaging parameters measured on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to serve as response markers in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In 20 patients with breast cancer, DCE-MRI and DWI using a 3 T scanner and PET/CT were performed before and after NAC. DCE-MRI was analyzed using an automatic computer-aided detection program (MR-CAD). The response imaging parameters were compared with the pathologic response. The areas under the curve (AUCs) for DCE-MRI using MR-CAD analysis, DWI and PET/CT were 0.77, 0.59 and 0.76, respectively. The combination of all parameters measured by MR-CAD showed the highest diagnostic performance and accuracy (AUC = 0.77, accuracy = 90%). The combined use of the parameters of PET/CT with DCE-MRI or DWI showed a trend toward improved specificity and negative predictive value (100%, 100%, accuracy = 87.5%). The use of DCE-MRI using MR-CAD parameters indicated better diagnostic performance in predicting the final pathological response compared with DWI and PET/CT, although no statistically significant difference was observed. The combined use of PET/CT with DCE-MRI or DWI may improve the specificity for predicting a pathological response.

Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Female , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mammography/methods , Middle Aged , Multimodal Imaging/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 176-179
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154332


BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and prolonged survival is achieved only by resection with macroscopic tumor clearance. There is a strong rationale for a neoadjuvant approach, since a relevant percentage of pancreatic cancer patients present with non‑metastatic but locally advanced disease. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT) on tumor response, down staging and resection, toxicity and any survival advantage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective pilot study was carried out from January 2009 to June 2011 in which 15 patients of locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer were included. All patients were treated with NACRT protocol with oral Capecitabine and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The patients were restaged 3 to 4 weeks after the completion of NACRT and explored for resection. RESULTS: Out of 15 patients, fourteen were evaluable. Four patients underwent surgery, 5 had partial response but remained unresectable, 2 patients had stable disease and 3 had progressive disease. Most of the toxicities were slight and were in grade 1 to 2. None of the patients developed grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal or hematological toxicity. The median survival was 15 months for resected patients and 8.6 months for unresected patients, respectively. The 2 year actuarial overall survival was 34.6%. CONCLUSION: All patients with locally unresectable pancreatic cancer should be offered chemoradiation therapy, in hopes of down staging the tumor for possible resection and achieving higher survival.

Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Feasibility Studies , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Pancreatic Neoplasms/mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Tertiary Care Centers
s.l; CONITEC; [2014]. tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-875347


CONSIDERAÇÕES GERAIS: Consoante norma operacional vigente no âmbito do SUS, a quimioterapia prévia ou neoadjuvante insere-se nos tratamentos clínicos em oncologia indicados "para a redução de tumores loco-regionalmente avançados que são, no momento, irressecáveis ou não. Tem a finalidade de tornar os tumores ressecáveis ou de melhorar o prognóstico do doente. Geralmente é de administração venosa (raramente oral ou arterial), tem duração limitada e é seguida por cirurgia ou radioterapia após curto intervalo (entre 15 a 30 dias). A duração do tratamento é de 03 a 06 meses, determinada pelo tipo ou localização tumoral, toxicidade, resposta objetiva à quimioterapia e pelo plano terapêutico proposto". No câncer de mama, o uso de agentes quimioterápicos tem dominado o tratamento clínico prévio à cirurgia. No entanto, os pacientes com doença neoplásica que expressam receptores hormonais (RH positivo) logram menores taxas de resposta à quimioterapia do que os doentes com tumores sem expressão de receptores hormonais (RH negativo), o que confere base racional para o uso de terapia endócrina neoadjuvante para estes pacientes. TRATAMENTO: A terapia endócrina neoadjuvante tem sido principalmente investigada em mulheres na pós-menopausa, com tumores RH positivo, que necessitaram de tratamento clínico prévio à intervenção cirúrgica, mas eram medicamente incapazes para quimioterapia convencional. Um marcador biológico de resposta à terapia endócrina neoadjuvante parece ser a expressão tumoral de Ki67, pois a redução deste marcador no tumor primário pode ser observada após 10-14 dias de tratamento e tem sido correlacionada positivamente tanto com resposta clínica como patológica. O tamoxifeno, um antagonista dos receptores de estrógeno, tem demonstrado eficácia na terapia endócrina adjuvante do câncer de mama RH positivo em estágio inicial, e vários estudos têm indicado que este agente pode também oferecer benefícios como terapia endócrina inicial no câncer de mama localmente avançado operável, particularmente em pacientes idosos. No entanto, os inibidores da aromatase (por exemplo, o anastrozol, letrozol e o exemestano) demonstraram superioridade sobre o tamoxifeno em alguns cenários do tratamento adjuvante, e vários ensaios clínicos randomizados indicam que isso também possa ser verdadeiro no tratamento prévio ou neoadjuvante. Em geral, as respostas clínicas e patológicas com inibidores da aromatase no tratamento neoadjuvante do câncer de mama variaram entre 40% e 80% ], e estes medicamentos podem mesmo substituir a quimioterapia neoadjuvante quando usados em grupos selecionados de pacientes. No tratamento de doentes na pré-menopausa, inexiste evidência científica de que a terapia endócrina seja superior ou equivalente à quimioterapia neoadjuvante, pelo que não pode ser rotineiramente recomendada. No entanto, pacientes com baixa capacidade funcional (ECOG >2) e incapazes para quimioterapia neoadjuvante podem se beneficiar de terapia endócrina dual, com supressão ovariana por análogo LH-RH associado a tamoxifeno ou inibidor de aromatase. RECOMENDAÇÃO DA CONITEC: Os membros da CONITEC presentes na 22ª reunião ordinária do plenário do dia 06/02/2014 recomendaram a incorporação do procedimento hormonioterapia prévia (pré-operatório, neoadjuvante) do carcinoma de mama no SUS. DECISÃO: PORTARIA Nº 22, de 10 de junho de 2014 - Torna pública a decisão de incorporar a hormonioterapia prévia (pré-operatório, neoadjuvante) do câncer de mama no Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS.

Humans , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Hormones/therapeutic use , Unified Health System , Brazil