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1.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(4): 368-375, ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407938

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: El sistema linfático del estómago es complejo y multidireccional, siendo difícil predecir el patrón de diseminación linfática en el adenocarcinoma (ADC) gástrico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son determinar si el analizar los grupos ganglionares de la pieza quirúrgica por separado tiene implicaciones en el estadiaje, además estudiar la afectación de diferentes grupos ganglionares. Materials y Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes intervenidos de gastrectomía y linfadenectomía con intención curativa por ADC en un hospital de referencia (2017-2021).,_Se han comparado aquellos pacientes cuya pieza quirúrgica se estudió en su totalidad (grupo A) con aquellos en los que se separaron los grupos ganglionares para su análisis (grupo B). En el grupo B, se ha analizado la afectación ganglionar de diferentes grupos ganglionares en base a la localización tumoral y el estadio pT. Resultados: Se incluyeron 150 pacientes. La media de ganglios analizados fue significativamente mayor cuando se separaron los grupos ganglionares (grupo B) (24,01 respecto a 20,49). La afectación ganglionar fue del 45,8%, 58,3% y 55,5% en los tumores de tercio superior, medio e inferior respectivamente, y los grupos difirieron en base a la localización tumoral. El riesgo de afectación ganglionar fue significativamente mayor y hubo más grupos ganglionares perigástricos afectos cuanto mayor era el estadio pT. Conclusiones: Separar los grupos ganglionares previo a su análisis aumenta el número de ganglios analizados mejorando el estadiaje ganglionar. Existen diferentes rutas de drenaje linfático dependiendo de la localización tumoral y la afectación ganglionar aumenta de forma paralela al estadio pT.


Objectives: The lymphatic system of the stomach is complex and multidirectional, making it difficult to predict the pattern of lymphatic spread in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The aim of this paper is to determine if analyzing the lymph node groups of the surgical specimen separately has implications in the pathological staging, as well as to study the involvement rate of different lymph node groups. Material and Method: Retrospective observational study of patients who underwent curative intent gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy for GAC in a reference hospital (2017-2021). Those patients whose surgical specimen was studied as a whole (group A) were compared with those in whom the lymph node groups were separated by surgeons before analysis (group B). In group B, the involvement of different lymph node groups was analyzed based on tumor location and pT stage. Results: 150 patients were included. The mean number of lymph nodes analyzed was significantly higher when the lymph node groups were separately analyzed (group B) (24.01 compared to 20.49). Lymph node involvement was 45.8%, 58.3%, and 55.5% in tumors of the upper, middle, and lower third, respectively, and the involved groups differed depending on the tumor location. The higher the pT stage was, the risk of lymph node involvement was significantly higher and there were more perigastric lymph node groups affected. Conclusions: Separating lymph node groups prior to their analysis increases the number of lymph nodes analyzed and therefore improves lymph node staging. There are different lymphatic drainage routes depending on the tumor location and lymph node involvement increases in parallel with the pT stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 209-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927318

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in urology. Urothelial carcinoma accounts for about 90% of all bladder malignancies. According to whether the tumor invades the bladder muscle, it can be divided into non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and muscle invasive bladder cancer. Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer patients and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients who have failed Bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment. Due to the comorbidity of bladder cancer and the potential deterioration of the quality of life after surgery, many patients were not suitable or refused for radical cystectomy. Therefore, it is vital to find a bladder-preserving treatment that can achieve cure other than radical cystectomy. Bladder-preserving therapy that balances tumor control and quality of life serves as an alternative and supplement to radical cystectomy. This consensus is based on contemporary evidence-based medicine, combined with the native clinical practice of bladder preservation in a multidisciplinary treatment manner. To some extent, this consensus serves as a guidance for bladder-preservation therapy of bladder cancer in China. Several issues are extensively discussed here, including organizational structure and workflow of multidisciplinary treatment, the selection of patients for bladder-preserving therapy, treatment options and regimens, follow-up, as well as regimen choices of recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Consensus , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 266-271, May 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137827

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To observe if the histopathological result of a conization performed after cervical adenocarcinoma in situ diagnosis is compatible with the histopathological analysis of a subsequent hysterectomy. Methods The present descriptive and observational research consisted of the analysis of the medical records of 42 patients who were diagnosed with in situ adenocarcinoma postconization. The analysis consisted of whether there was compatibility between the histopathological reports of conization and hysterectomy and if there was an association between adenocarcinoma in situ and another neoplasia (squamous disease). Interpretation of any immunohistochemistry reports obtained was also performed. In addition, clinical and epidemiological data were also analyzed. Results A total of 42 conizations were performed, 33 (79%) were cold knife conizations and 9 (21%) were loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEPs). Of the patients analyzed, 5 (10%) chose not to undergo subsequent hysterectomy to preserve fertility or were < 25 years old. Out of the 37 patients with adenocarcinoma in situ who underwent subsequent hysterectomy, 6 (16%) presented with residual disease. This findingprovedincompatiblewiththe finding of the conizations, which had ruled out invasive cancer. Conclusion The prevalence of adenocarcinoma in situ increased in the past years. There is still a large part of the medical literature that advocates the use of conservative treatment for this disease, even though it is common knowledge that it is a multifocal disease. However, the majority of studies advocate that hysterectomy should remain the preferred treatment for women who have already completed their reproductive purpose.


Resumo Objetivo Observar se o resultado proveniente de uma conização realizada após o diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma cervical in situ é compatível com a análise histopatológica da histerectomia. Métodos A pesquisa foi descritiva e observacional e consistiu na análise de prontuário de 42 pacientes que tiveram o diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma in situ obtidas por conização. Foram analisados se havia compatibilidade entre os laudos de conização e histerectomia, margens do cone, se havia associação com outra patologia (doença escamosa) e interpretação de eventuais laudos histoquímicos obtidos. Além disso, também foram analisados dados clínico-epidemiológicos. Resultados Foram realizadas 42 conizações, sendo 33 (79%) por cone clássico e 9 (21%) por cirurgia de alta frequência. Das pacientes analisadas, 5 (10%) não foram submetidas a histerectomia por desejarem manter a fertilidade ou por terem idade < 25 anos. Das 37 pacientes com adenocarcinoma in situ no exame prévio realizado e que foram submetidas à histerectomia posteriormente, 6 (16%) apresentaram doença residual após o procedimento cirúrgico, apresentando laudos do anatomopatológico pós-histerectomia incompatíveis com o achado na conização que atestava margens livres. Conclusão A prevalência do adenocarcinoma in situ vemaumentando cada vez mais. Ainda há uma grande parte da literatura que defende o uso do tratamento conservador para esta doença, mesmo sabendo que ela é uma doença multifocal e que pode estar presente mesmo em situações nas quais o anatomopatológico evidencie margens livres. Tendo em vista essas características, a maioria preconiza que a histerectomia continua a ser o tratamento preferencial nas mulheres que já completaram o seu intuito reprodutivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Conization , Neoplasm Invasiveness/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Medical Records , Predictive Value of Tests , Hysterectomy , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
4.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 31(1): 2-7, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100300

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El budding tumor (BT) es la presencia de células tumorales aisladas o en pequeños grupos situadas en el frente de invasión del tumor. Su hallazgo en alto grado es un factor de mal pronóstico independiente del cáncer colorrectal. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar si el grado de BT está asociado con otros factores pronósticos del cáncer rectal. Material y métodos: Se incluyen las resecciones oncológicas de recto en el período 2013-2017. Los casos se agruparon según la densidad en la formación de los BT en 3 grupos, los de grado bajo, intermedio y alto. Se utilizó como valor estadístico el cálculo del odds ratio (OR). Resultados: Se analizaron las piezas de resección de 27 pacientes (15 mujeres y 12 hombres) con una media de edad de 68,4 años (40-86). Se calculó el OR para invasión ganglionar, vascular y recidiva en función del grado de budding tumoral. Discusión: Se observó una tendencia a la presencia de factores histológicos de mal pronóstico en relación al budding de alto grado, si bien el bajo número de casos no permitió demostrarlo en este estudio. Conclusiones: El análisis del grado de tumor budding es reproducible y podría ayudar a identificar pacientes con cáncer rectal de peor pronóstico. (AU)


Introduction: Tumor budding (BT) is defined as isolated or small groups of neoplastic cells located at the invasive front of the tumor. High-grade BT is a poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Objective: To determine if the degree of BT is associated with other prognostic factors in rectal cancer. Materials and methods: Rectal oncological resections during the 2013-2017 period were included. Cases were stratified according to the density in the formation of BT in 3 groups: low, intermediate and high. The calculation of the odds ratio (OR) was used as a statistical value. Results: The resection specimens of 27 patients (15 women and 12 men) with a mean age of 68.4 years (40-86) were analyzed. OR for node metastases, vascular invasion and relapse was calculated according to tumor budding grade. Discussion: High-grade tumor budding seems to associate with the presence of poor prognostic factors. However, it was not possible to demonstrate it because of the small sample size. Conclusions: Tumor budding is a reproducible marker and could help to identify rectal cancer patients with a worse prognosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 12-15, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the importance of preoperative cytology of thyroid nodules and its relationship with mortality risk, recurrence risk, dynamic stratification, and aggressive characteristics (vascular invasion, aggressive histology, incomplete tumor resection, extrathyroidal extension of the tumor, and presence of lymph node and distant metastases). Subjects and methods: Retrospective evaluation of 153 patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and following up at the Hospital Universitário Presidente Dutra between January 1999 and December 2016. Results: In all, 96% of the patients were female, 79.7% had papillary carcinoma and the most common fine-needle aspiration (FNA) result was Bethesda II (29.4%). The mean age was 43.11 ± 12.8 years. Overall, 85% of the patients progressed without any evidence of disease. There was a statistically significant relationship between the presurgical FNA and the presence of extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: The preoperative cytology of the nodule may have an impact on the follow-up of patients with DTC. Future studies in a larger population are required to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Thyroidectomy , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 688-696, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954075

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) as a predictor of extracapsular extension (ECE) and unfavorable Gleason score (GS) in patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: Patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and had preoperative mp-MRI between May-2011 and December-2013. Mp-MRI was evaluated according to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology MRI prostate guidelines by two different readers. Histopathological RP results were the standard reference. Results: 79 patients were included; mean age was 61 and median preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 7.0. On MRI, 28% patients had ECE evidenced in the mp-MRI, 5% seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and 4% lymph node involvement (LNI). At RP, 39.2% had ECE, 26.6% SVI and 12.8% LNI. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of mp-MRI for ECE were 54.9%, 90.9%, 76%, 81% and 74.1% respectively; for SVI values were 19.1%, 100%, 77.3%, 100% and 76.1% respectively and for LNI 20%, 98.4%, 86.7%, 66.7% and 88.7%. Conclusions: Major surgical decisions are made with digital rectal exam (DRE) and ultrasound studies before the use of Mp-MRI. This imaging study contributes to rule out gross extraprostatic extension (ECE, SVI, LNI) without competing with pathological studies. The specificity and NPV are reasonable to decide surgical approach. A highly experienced radiology team is needed to provide accurate estimations of tumor extension and aggressiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Seminal Vesicles/pathology , Seminal Vesicles/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment/methods , Neoplasm Grading , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 373-376, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949874

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma has been increasing in Brazil and all over the world. Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, mortality remains unchanged. OBJECTIVE: To associate clinical and histopathological aspects with the evolution of 136 cases of cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study that analyzed all patients diagnosed with melanoma during the period from 2003 to 2011, with at least 4 years follow up. Archived slides were analyzed to study histopathological variables (Breslow, ulceration, mitoses and histological regression). Medical records were used to retrieve clinical variables (age, sex, localization, time of appearance, diameter) and progression (metastases or death). Association measures were assessed by statistical analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups according to age. Superficial spreading subtype showed lower Breslow (0.5mm) than acral lentiginous and nodular subtypes (2 and 4.6mm respectively), less ulceration and metastases (9.4% against 50 and 70.6%). Nodular subtype had higher mitoses' median (5.0/mm2) than superficial spreading and lentigo maligna (0.0/mm2, for both). Regression was more frequent in superficial spreading and lentigo maligna subtypes. There were only deaths by melanoma in the acral group, however, there were deaths for other reasons in groups superficial spreading one, acral lentiginous one and lentigo maligna two. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Use of medical records as a source of data to the study. CONCLUSIONS: Superficial spreading subtype presents better prognosis indicators. Histological subtype should be considered in follow-up and treatment protocols of patients with cutaneous melanoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/mortality , Melanoma/mortality , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7046, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889094

ABSTRACT

Thyroid cancer is a common malignant tumor. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (lncRNA CCAT1) is highly expressed in many cancers; however, the molecular mechanism of CCAT1 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CCAT1 on human thyroid cancer cell line FTC-133. FTC-133 cells were transfected with CCAT1 expressing vector, CCAT1 shRNA, miR-143 mimic, and miR-143 inhibitor, respectively. After different treatments, cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were measured. Moreover, the regulatory relationship of CCAT1 and miR-143, as well as miR-143 and VEGF were tested using dual-luciferase reporter assay. The relative expressions of CCAT1, miR-143, and VEGF were tested by qRT-PCR. The expressions of apoptosis-related factors and corresponding proteins in PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were analyzed using western blot analysis. The results suggested that CCAT1 was up-regulated in the FTC-133 cells. CCAT1 suppression decreased FTC-133 cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion, and miR-143 expression, while it increased apoptosis and VEGF expression. CCAT1 might act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-143. Moreover, CCAT1 activated PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways through inhibition of miR-143. This study demonstrated that CCAT1 exhibited pro-proliferative and pro-metastasis functions on FTC-133 cells and activated PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways via down-regulation of miR-143. These findings will provide a possible target for clinical treatment of thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Transfection
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 318-323, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-893624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To evaluate the number of AgNORs per nucleus and the expression of Ki-67 at the tumor invasion front (TIF) in relation to clinical parameters (TNM), TIF classification and the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas in an Uruguayan population. Material and Methods This study was conducted through a retrospective survey from 2000 to 2010 at the National Institute of Cancer Montevideo, Uruguay and included 40 patients. The samples were obtained from the resection of the tumor and the TIF was defined according with Bryne, et al.5 (1992). Expression of Ki-67 was assessed by the percentage of positive tumor cells and the AgNOR was recorded as the mean AgNOR (mAgNOR) and the percentage of AgNOR per nucleus (pAgNOR). All analyzes were performed by a blinded and calibrated observer. Results No statistically significant association was observed between immunostaining of Ki-67 and AgNOR with the different types of TIF, regional metastasis and patients prognosis, however it was observed an increase in Ki-67 expression associated with worse patient's clinical staging, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that proliferation markers as AgNOR and Ki-67 are not prognostic markers at the tumor invasive front of carcinoma of oral squamous cell.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Antigens, Nuclear/analysis , Prognosis , Reference Values , Uruguay , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Tumor Burden , Cell Proliferation , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
10.
Biol. Res ; 50: 19, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibition is a new therapeutic strategy for many malignancies. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of BRD4 inhibition by JQ1 on in vitro cell growth, migration and invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). METHODS: The human normal epithelial cells and SACC cells (ACC-LM and ACC-83) were treated with JQ1 at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 µM. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by Flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence staining was used to examine the expression of BRD4 in SACC cells. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay and western blot assay were performed to examine messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in SACC cells. Wound- healing assay and transwell assay were used to evaluate the activities of migration and invasion of SACC cells. RESULTS: JQ1 exhibits no adverse effects on proliferation, cell cycle and cell apoptosis of the normal human epithelial cells, while suppressed proliferation and cell cycle, and induced apoptosis of SACC cells, down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of BRD4 in SACC cells, meanwhile reduced protein expressions of c-myc and BCL-2, two known target genes of BRD4. Moreover, JQ1 inhibited SACC cell migration and invasion by regulating key epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics including E-cadherin, Vimentin and Twist. CONCLUSIONS: BRD4 is an important transcription factor in SACC and BRD4 inhibition by JQ1 may be a new strategy for SACC treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Azepines/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nuclear Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Movement/drug effects , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/pathology , Cell Cycle Proteins , Cell Line, Tumor , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Biol. Res ; 50: 37, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regenerating gene IA (REGIA) plays an important role in tissue regeneration and tumors prognosis of epithelium origin. However, the role of REGIA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. This study aims to investigate the expression and function of REG1A in NPC. RESULTS: We have found that there was 63 patients with REGIA positive expression of 155 patients in this study (40.65%). The positive expression rate of REGIA was 30.50, 44.44 and 47.83% in stage T2, T3 and T4 patients, respectively. The REGIA expression was significantly difference in T2 and T4 stage tumors or T2 and T3-T4 stage. The positive expression rate of REGIA was found to be higher in patients with cervical lymph node persistence than those with cervical lymph node complete regression. Patients with negative REGIA expression had a better overall survival and free survival than those with REGIA positive expression. In addition, according to the univariate and multivariate analysis, the REGIA expression was an independent adverse prognostic factor for NPC patients. CONCLUSION: REGIA expression was a useful biomarker in NPC patients for assessing T stage and survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma/genetics , Carcinoma/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Lithostathine/genetics , Prognosis , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/mortality , Carcinoma/therapy , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/mortality , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Multivariate Analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease Progression , Lithostathine/physiology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
12.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-8, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zinc finger RNA binding protein (ZFR) is involved in the regulation of growth and cancer development. However, little is known about ZFR function in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Herein, to investigate whether ZFR is involved in tumor growth, Oncomine microarray data was firstly used to evaluate ZFR gene expression in human pancreatic tumors. Then short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting ZFR was designed and delivered into PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells to knock down ZFR expression. Cell viability, cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis after ZFR knockdown were determined by MTT, colony forming and FACS, respectively. In addition, cell migration and invasion were assessed using the Transwell system. RESULTS: The expression of ZFR was significantly higher in pancreatic tumors than normal pancreas tissues by Oncomine database analysis. Knockdown of ZFR by shRNA-expressing lentivirus significantly decreased the viability and invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, FACS analysis showed that knockdown of ZFR in PANC-1 cells caused a significant cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, knockdown of ZFR decreased the levels of CDK2, CDK4, CyclinA and CyclinD1 and enhanced the expression of p27, which has evidenced by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Knockdown of ZFR might provide a novel alternative to targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer and deserves further investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Gene Knockdown Techniques/methods , Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Lentivirus/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry/methods , Formazans , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
13.
Clinics ; 70(12): 797-803, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the flow of retrobulbar vessels in retinoblastoma by color Doppler imaging. METHODS: A prospective study of monocular retinoblastoma treated by enucleation between 2010 and 2014. The examination comprised fundoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging. The peak blood velocities in the central retinal artery and central retinal vein of tumor-containing eyes (tuCRAv and tuCRVv, respectively) were assessed. The velocities were compared with those for normal eyes (nlCRAv and nlCRVv) and correlated with clinical and pathological findings. Tumor dimensions in the pathological sections were compared with those in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography and were correlated with tuCRAv and tuCRVv. In tumor-containing eyes, the resistivity index in the central retinal artery and the pulse index in the central retinal vein were studied in relation to all variables. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included. Comparisons between tuCRAv and nlCRAv and between tuCRVv and nlCRVv revealed higher velocities in tumor-containing eyes (p <0.001 for both), with a greater effect in the central retinal artery than in the central retinal vein (p =0.024). Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements were as reliable as pathology assessments (p =0.675 and p =0.375, respectively). A positive relationship was found between tuCRAv and the tumor volume (p =0.027). The pulse index in the central retinal vein was lower in male patients (p =0.017) and in eyes with optic nerve invasion (p =0.0088). CONCLUSIONS: TuCRAv and tuCRVv are higher in tumor-containing eyes than in normal eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements are reliable. The tumor volume is correlated with a higher tuCRAv and a reduced pulse in the central retinal vein is correlated with male sex and optic nerve invasion.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Retinal Artery/physiopathology , Retinal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Retinal Vein/physiopathology , Retinoblastoma/physiopathology , Blood Flow Velocity , Eye Enucleation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/physiopathology , Optic Nerve Neoplasms/blood supply , Optic Nerve Neoplasms/pathology , Optic Nerve Neoplasms/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Retinal Artery/pathology , Retinal Artery , Retinal Neoplasms/blood supply , Retinal Neoplasms/pathology , Retinal Vein/pathology , Retinal Vein , Retinoblastoma/blood supply , Retinoblastoma/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Burden , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 764-769, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757396

ABSTRACT

Over the past three decades, surgical series of elderly patients treated for pituitary adenomas have been published, all of which used the microscopic transsphenoidal or transcranial approach. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the surgical results of our first 25 elderly patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPM) operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). Preoperative visual loss was found in 92.8% of the cases, and 70.8% experienced visual improvement following surgery. Preoperative pituitary dysfunction was found in 69.2% of the cases and postoperative pituitary recovery occurred in 22.2% of them. Mean hospital stay was 6.7 days. The results of this study suggest that surgery remains the first line of treatment for NFPM in the elderly. Because age alone is not a barrier for surgery, patients should be selected for surgical treatment based on their symptoms and clinical condition, as defined by comorbidities.


Nas últimas três décadas, foram publicadas casuísticas de pacientes idosos operados por adenomas de hipófise, nas quais foram utilizadas as vias transcraniana ou transesfenoidal microcirúrgicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar retrospectivamente os resultados dos nossos primeiros 25 pacientes idosos com macroadenomas não secretores de hipófise, operados pela via endoscópica endonasal. O déficit visual pré-operatório foi encontrado em 92,8% dos casos e 70,8% apresentaram melhora da visão depois da cirurgia. O hipopituitarismo pré-operatório foi encontrado em 69,2% dos casos e a sua recuperação ocorreu em 22,2% destes casos. A estadia hospitalar média foi de 6,7 dias. Este estudo sugere que a cirurgia permanece como o tratamento de primeira escolha para pacientes idosos com macroadenomas não secretores de hipófise e a idade por si só não é contraindicação para cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Adenoma/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Adenoma/pathology , Adenoma , Endocrine System Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 449-454, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755877

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTObjective

Prediction of extraprostatic disease in clinically localized prostate cancer is relevant for treatment planning of the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the percentage of positive biopsy cores to predict the chance of extraprostatic cancer.

Materials and Methods

We evaluated 1787 patients with localized prostate cancer submitted to radical prostatectomy. The percentage of positive cores in prostate biopsy was correlated with the pathologic outcome of the surgical specimen. In the final analysis, a correlation was made between categorical ranges of positive cores (10% intervals) and the risk of extraprostatic extension and/or bladder neck invasion, seminal vesicles involvement or metastasis to iliac lymph nodes. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis.

Results

For each 10% of positive cores we observed a progressive higher prevalence of extraprostatic disease. The risk of cancer beyond the prostate capsule for <10% positive biopsy cores was 7.4% and it increased to 76.2% at the category 90-100% positive cores. In patients with Gleason grade 4 or 5, the risk of extraprostatic cancer prostate was higher than in those without any component 4 or 5.

Conclusion

The percentage of positive cores in prostate biopsy can predict the risk of cancer outside the prostate. Our study shows that the percentage of positive prostate biopsy fragments helps predict the chance of extraprostatic cancer and may have a relevant role in the patient's management.

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Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70183

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, tumors themselves can lead to angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as one of the most promising strategies for the blockage of tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Acer tegmentosum maxim water extract (ATME) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of ATME by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ATME strongly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as vessel sprouting in a rat aortic ring sprouting assay. Moreover, we found that the p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis by ATME. Moreover, when we performed the in vivo matrigel plug assay, VEGF-induced angiogenesis was potently reduced when compared to that for the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that ATME exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro and that these effects are regulated by the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.


Subject(s)
Acer/metabolism , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of six different approaches for assessing myometrial infiltration using ultrasound in women with carcinoma of the corpus uteri. METHODS: Myometrial infiltration was assessed by two-dimensional (2D) transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound in 169 consecutive women with well (G1) or moderately (G2) differentiated endometrioid type endometrial carcinoma. In 74 of these women three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound was also performed. Six different techniques for myometrial infiltration assessment were evaluated. The impression of examiner and Karlsson's criteria were assessed prospectively. Endometrial thickness, tumor/uterine 3D volume ratio, tumor distance to myometrial serosa (TDS), and van Holsbeke's subjective model were assessed retrospectively. All subjects underwent surgical staging within 1 week after ultrasound evaluation. Definitive histopathological data regarding myometrial infiltration was used as gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for all approaches were calculated and compared using McNemar test. RESULTS: The impression of examiner and subjective model performed similarly (sensitivity 79.5% and 80.5%, respectively; specificity 89.6% and 90.3%, respectively). Both methods had significantly better sensitivity than Karlsson's criteria (sensitivity 31.8%, p<0.05) and endometrial thickness (sensitivity 47.7%, p<0.05), and better specificity than tumor/uterine volume ratio (specificity 28.3%, p<0.05) and TDS (specificity 41.5%, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Subjective impression seems to be the best approach for assessing myometrial infiltration in G1 or G2 endometrioid type endometrial cancer by transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound. The use of mathematical models and other objective 2D and 3D measurement techniques do not improve diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Myometrium/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(6): 377-381, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726378

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Pituitary macroadenomas are rare intracranial tumors. In a few cases, they may present aggressive behavior and invade the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity, causing unusual symptoms. In this paper, we report an atypical case of pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasal mass. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 44-year-old woman who had had amenorrhea and galactorrhea for ten months, with associated nasal obstruction, macroglossia and acromegaly. Both growth hormone and prolactin levels were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass originating from the lower surface of the pituitary gland, associated with sella turcica erosion and tumor extension through the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a chromophobe pituitary adenoma with densely packed rounded epithelial cells, with some atypias and rare mitotic figures. There was no evidence of metastases. CONCLUSION: Macroadenoma invading the nasal cavity is a rare condition and few similar cases have been reported in the literature. This study contributes towards showing that tumor extension to the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx needs to be considered and investigated in order to make an early diagnosis when atypical symptoms like nasal obstruction are present. .


CONTEXTO: Macroadenomas hipofisários são tumores intracraniais raros. Em alguns casos, podem apresentar comportamento agressivo e invadir o seio esfenoidal e a cavidade nasal, causando sintomas não usuais. Neste relato de caso, descrevemos um caso atípico de adenoma hipofisário manifestando-se como uma massa nasal. RELATO DE CASO: A paciente de 44 anos, do sexo feminino, apresentava amenorreia e galactorreia por 10 meses associando-se a obstrução nasal, macroglossia e acromegalia. Os níveis do hormônio de crescimento e de prolactina apresentaram-se aumentados. Ressonância magnética mostrou uma grande massa originada da superfície inferior da glândula hipofisária associada com erosão da sela túrcica e extensão do tumor através do seio esfenoidal e cavidade nasal. Análise histopatológica demonstrou adenoma hipofisário cromófobo com células epiteliais arrendondadas densamente agrupadas com algumas atipias e escassas figuras de mitose. Não houve evidências de metástase. CONCLUSÃO: O macroadenoma invasivo para a cavidade nasal é uma condição rara e há poucos relatos similares descritos na literatura. Este trabalho contribui para mostrar que, na presença de sintomas atípicos como a obstrução nasal, a extensão para o seio esfenoidal e para a nasofaringe deve ser considerada e investigada para um diagnóstico precoce. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Adenoma/pathology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/pathology , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Sphenoid Sinus/pathology , Adenoma/surgery , Diagnosis, Differential , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/surgery , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Sphenoid Sinus/surgery
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193459

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience using radical cystectomy to treat patients with bladder cancer and to describe the associations between pathologic features and clinical outcomes. All 701 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer were evaluated. The patient population consisted of 623 men and 78 women. The overall 5 and 10 yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 61.8% and 57.7%, respectively, and the 5 and 10 yr cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were 70.8% and 65.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that factors significantly predictive of RFS and CSS included extravesical extension (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007). The 5 and 10 yr RFS rates for patients with lymph node metastasis were 25.6% and 20.8%, respectively, and the 5 and 10 yr CSS rates were 38.6% and 30.9%, respectively. Adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved RFS (P = 0.002) and CSS (P = 0.001) in patients with lymph node metastasis. Radical cystectomy provides good survival results in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Pathologic features significantly associated with prognosis include extravesical extension, node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion. Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with advanced stage disease.


Subject(s)
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cystectomy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
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