Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.960
Filter
1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 126-132, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514430

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to few sufficient data regarding the comparison between endoscopic and surgical resection of malignant colorectal polyps regarding outcomes and survival benefits, there are no clear guidelines of management strategies of malignant colorectal polyps. The aims of the present study were to compare endoscopic resection alone and surgical resection in patients with malignant polyps in the colon (T1N0M0) readings advantages, disadvantages, recurrence risks, survival benefits, and long-term prognosis to detect how management strategy affects outcome. Patients and methods: we included 350 patients. All included patients were divided into 2 groups; the first group included 100 patients who underwent only endoscopic polypectomy and the second group included 250 patients who underwent endoscopic polypectomy followed by definitive surgical resection after histopathological diagnosis. We followed all patients for about 5 years, ranging from 18 to 55 months. The primarily evaluated parameters are surgical consequences and patients' morbidity. The secondary evaluated parameters are recurrence risks, recurrence free survival, and overall survival rates. Results: The age of patients who underwent polypectomy is usually younger than the surgical group, males have more liability to polypectomy in comparison with females. Patients with tumors in the left colon have more liability to polypectomy in comparison with the right colon (p< 0.0001). Tumor factors associated with more liability to surgical resection are presence of lymphovascular invasion, high grade, and poor tumor differentiation (p< 0.0001). The management strategy was the most significant predictor of overall and recurrence free survival rates in patients with malignant colon polyps (p< 0.001). Conclusions: We found that survival benefits and lower incidence of recurrence are detected in the surgical resection group more than in the polypectomy group. (AU)


Subject(s)
Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Colonic Polyps/surgery , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Laparoscopy , Endoscopy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 465-471, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984645

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in patients with hematological malignancies who had relapsed after the first allo-HSCT. Methods: Between April 2018 and June 2021, 44 patients with hematological malignancies (B-ALL 23, T-ALL/T-LBL 4, AML15, and MDS 2) were enrolled and retrospectively examined. Unrelated donors (n=12) or haploidentical donors (n=32) were used. Donors were replaced in all patients for the second allo-HSCT. Hematological and immunological germline predisposition genes and hematopoietic and immune function tests were used to select the best-related donor. Total body irradiation (TBI) /fludarabine (FLU) -based (n=38), busulfan (BU) /FLU-based (n=4), total marrow irradiation (TMI) /FLU-based (n=1), and BU/cladribine-based (n=1) were the RIC regimens used. For graft versus host disease (GVHD) prevention, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, short-term methotrexate, and ATG were used. Eighteen (40.9%) of 44 patients with gene variations for which targeted medications are available underwent post-transplant maintenance therapy. Results: The median age was 25 years old (range: 7-55). The median interval between the first and second HSCT was 19.5 months (range: 6-77). Before the second allo-HSCT, 33 (75%) of the patients were in complete remission (CR), whereas 11 (25%) were not. All patients had long-term engraftment. The grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ GVHD and severe acute GVHD rates were 20.5% and 9.1%, respectively. Chronic GVHD was found in 20.5% of limited patterns and 22.7% of severe patterns. CMV and EBV reactivation rates were 29.5% and 6.8%, respectively. Hemorrhage cystitis occurred in 15.9% of cases, grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ. The 1-yr disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative recurrence incidence (RI) rates of all patients were 72.5% (95% CI, 54.5%-84.3%), 80.6% (95% CI, 63.4%-90.3%), and 25.1% (95% CI, 13.7%-43.2%), respectively, with a median follow-up of 14 (2-39) months. There were eight deaths (seven relapses and one infection). The rate of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was only 2.3%. The CR patients' 1-yr RI rate was significantly lower than the NR patients (16.8% vs 48.1%, P=0.026). The DFS rate in CR patients was greater than in NR patients, although there was no statistical difference (79.9% vs 51.9%, P=0.072). Univariate analysis revealed that CR before the second allo-HSCT was an important prognostic factor. Conclusion: With our RIC regimens, donor change, and post-transplant maintenance therapy, the second allo-HSCT in relapsed hematological malignancies after the first allo-HSCT is a safe and effective treatment with high OS and DFS and low NRM and relapse rate. The most important factor influencing the prognosis of the second allo-HSCT is the patient's illness condition before the transplant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Busulfan/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Unrelated Donors , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplantation, Homologous , Transplantation Conditioning
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 8-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation of the potential functional microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA regulatory network with recurrence of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) and its biological significance.@*METHODS@#This study was performed based on the data of 354 patients with HGSOC from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. In these patients, HGSOC was divided into different subtypes based on the pathways identified by GO analysis, and the correlations of the subtypes with HGSOC recurrence and differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were assessed. Two relapse-related datasets were identified using the Gene Set Enrichment (GSE) database, from which the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by intersection with the TCGA data. The target genes of these miRNAs were predicted using miRWalk 2.0 database, and these common differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were used to construct the key miRNA-mRNA network associated with HGSOC recurrence. The expression of miR-506-3p and SNAI2 in two ovarian cancer cell lines was detected using RT-qPCR and Western blotting, and their targeted binding was verified using a double luciferase assay. The effect of miR-506-3p expression modulation on ovarian cancer cell migration was detected using scratch assay and Transwell assay.@*RESULTS@#We screened 303 GO terms of HGSOC-related pathways and identified two HGSOC subtypes (C1 and C2). The subtype C1 was associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate than C2. The differentially expressed genes between C1 and C2 subtypes were mainly enriched in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Five miRNAs were identified as potential regulators of EMT, and a total of 41 target genes were found to be involved in the differential expressions of EMT pathway between C1 and C2 subtypes. The key miRNA-mRNA network associated with HGSOC recurrence was constructed based on these 5 miRNAs and 41 mRNAs. MiR-506-3p was confirmed to bind to SNAI2, and up-regulation of miR-506-3p significantly inhibited SNAI2 expression and reduced migration and invasion of SKOV3 and CAOV3 cells (P < 0.05), while miR-506-3p knockdown produced the opposite effects (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-506-3p and SNAI2 are the key molecules associated with HGSOC recurrence. MiR-506-3p may affect EMT of ovarian cancer cells by regulating cell migration and invasion via SNAI2, and its expression level has predictive value for HGSOC recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Computational Biology
4.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 218-224, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971437

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma(ATC), and to explore the value of multi-modality treatment in improving overall survival(OS) of ATC patients. Methods: Medical records including clinicopathological data of patients diagnosed with ATC at Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between 2001 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort were divided into surgery-only and multi-modality subgroups, and the latter included patients treated with surgery plus radiotherapy and/or medical therapy(including chemotherapy, target therapy and immunotherapy). Univariate survival analysis was conducted through Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 47 patients were included in the study, including 24 males and 23 females, with a median age of 63 years. After a median follow-up duration of 3.37 months, 42 patients died due to tumor recurrence or progression. The median OS of the cohort was 4.33 months. Univariate survival analysis demonstrated that symptoms of recurrent laryngeal nerve(RLN) involvement, distant metastasis, leukocyte elevation, and treatment modality were significantly associated with OS (P values all<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that symptoms of RLN involvement(HR=2.49, 95%CI: 1.16-5.32, P=0.019), distant metastasis(HR=2.33, 95%CI: 1.06-5.16, P=0.036), and leukocyte elevation(HR=2.50, 95%CI: 1.16-5.40, P=0.020) were all independent risk factors for OS, while multi-modality therapy significantly prolonged OS compared with surgery alone(HR=0.22, 95%CI: 0.10-0.47, P<0.001). Conclusions: Among ATC patients, absence of symptoms of RLN invasion, normal leukocyte level and absence of distant metastasis at initial diagnosis are all independent protective factors for OS and multi-modality treatment can help to improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy
5.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 47-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971406

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of only surgical resection for nasal vestibular squamous cell carcinoma and the efficacy of perforator flap of ipsilateral nasolabial sulcus in repairing postoperative defects. Methods: The clinical data of 8 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule who admitted to Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University were analyzed, including 6 males and 2 females, aged from 38 to 75 years. The tumor of the nasal vestibule was eradicated in time after making definite diagnosis of lesions, then the perforators flap of the ipsilateral nasolabial sulcus was used for repairment, without performing further chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery. The tumor recurrence, facial appearance, nostril form, donor area scar, nasal ventilation function, and cutaneous sensation were evaluated after surgery. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: There were 2 cases of stage T1 and 6 cases of stage T2 in 8 cases. After 32 to 45 months of following-up, no recurrence accurred and all the flaps survived well. However, there was about 2 mm necrosis of the transplanted flap in the lateral foot of the alar in one case, which was healed well by carrying out wound care after 10 d. And the dark color flap was occurred in another case, showing the flap's backflow trouble, yet it was improved with addressing timely during 5 d postoperation. Pincusion-like deformity of the transplanted flap occurred in 4 cases (50%), which subsided gradually after 6 months. The morphology of the anterior nostril was altered in 4 cases (50%), but there was no ventilation trouble and no need for addressment in any case. The postoperative facial appearance was rated as excellentor good with hidden scar in the donor site, and the sensation of the transplanted flaps was indistinct from the surrounding tissue after 3 months. Conclusions: Surgical resection of nasal vestibular squamous cell carcinoma with tumor stage T1-2 is a feasible treatment. And it is the one of the best reconstructive methods of the perforator flap of the ipsilateral nasolabial sulcus to repair the deformities after the surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Cicatrix/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Skin Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 21-27, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971402

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe a technique of endoscopic transoral approach nasopharyngectomy for petroclival and jugular foramen nasopharyngeal carcinoma, based on anatomic studies and surgeries. Methods: Three dry human skulls and five fresh human cadaver heads were used for anatomic study of a endoscopic transoral approach to expose petroclival and jugular foramen. The anatomical landmarks and the extent of exposure were recorded. Six clinical cases who were treated in Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University from June 2020 to April 2022 were used to illustrate the technique and feasibility of this approach and to assess its indications and advantages, including 3 males and 3 females, aged 42 to 69 years old. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: On the basis of the preservation of the internal pterygoid muscle and the external pterygoid muscle, this approach could fully expose the parapharyngeal, petrosal and paraclival segment internal carotid arteries, and safely deal with the lesions of jugular foramen and petroclival region. The 6 patients in our study tolerated the procedure well. Postoperative enhanced MRI showed complete resection of the tumor and no postoperative masticatory dysfunction. Conclusion: Endoscopic transoral approach is a safe, minimally invasive and effective surgical treatment for petroclival and jugular foramen recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Jugular Foramina , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Endoscopy/methods , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery
7.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 544-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986925

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the diagnosis, surgical management and outcome of jugular foramen chondrosarcoma (CSA). Methods: Fifteen patients with jugular foramen CSA hospitalized in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery of Chinese PLA General Hospital from December 2002 to February 2020 were retrospectively collected,of whom 2 were male and 13 were female, aging from 22 to 61 years old. The clinical symptoms and signs, imaging features, differential diagnosis, surgical approaches, function of facial nerve and cranial nerves IX to XII, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Patients with jugular foramen CSA mainly presented with facial paralysis, hearing loss, hoarseness, cough, tinnitus and local mass. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) could provide important information for diagnosis. CT showed irregular destruction on bone margin of the jugular foramen. MR demonstrated iso or hypointense on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI and heterogeneous contrast-enhancement. Surgical approaches were chosen upon the sizes and scopes of the tumors. Inferior temporal fossa A approach was adopted in 12 cases, inferior temporal fossa B approach in 2 cases and mastoid combined parotid approach in 1 case. Five patients with facial nerve involved received great auricular nerve graft. The House Brackmann (H-B) grading scale was used to evaluate the facial nerve function. Preoperative facial nerve function ranked grade Ⅴ in 4 cases and grade Ⅵ in 1 case. Postoperative facial nerve function improved to grade Ⅲ in 2 cases and grade Ⅵ in 3 cases. Five patients presented with cranial nerves Ⅸ and Ⅹ palsies. Hoarseness and cough of 2 cases improved after operation, while the other 3 cases did not. All the patients were diagnosed CSA by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, with immunohistochemical staining showing vimentin and S-100 positive, but cytokeratin negative in tumor cells. All patients survived during 28 to 234 months' follow-up. Two patients suffered from tumor recurrence 7 years after surgery and received revision surgery. No complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage and intracranial infection occurred after operation. Conclusions: Jugular foramen CSA lacks characteristic symptoms or signs. Imaging is helpful to differential diagnosis. Surgery is the primary treatment of jugular foramen CSA. Patients with facial paralysis should receive surgery in time as to restore the facial nerve. Long-term follow-up is necessary after surgery in case of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Jugular Foramina , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Hoarseness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Chondrosarcoma/surgery
8.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 486-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986917

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of supraclavicular fasciocutaneous island flap (SIF) for repairing the defect of parotid or auricle regions after tumor resection. Methods: From February 2019 to June 2021, 12 patients (11 males and 1 female, aged 54-77 years old), of whom 4 with parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma and 8 with auricular basal cell carcinoma underwent reconstruction surgery for postoperative defects in the parotid gland area and auricular area with SIF in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Size of the SIF, time for harvesting SIF, neck lymph node dissection and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: The flap areas were (6-9) cm × (8-13) cm, and the harvesting time for SIF ranged from 40 to 80 min, averaging 51.7 min. The donor sites were directly closed. All patients underwent ipsilateral levels Ⅰ-Ⅲ neck dissection, with 4 cases undergoing additional level Ⅳ neck dissection and 2 cases undergoing level Ⅳ-Ⅴ neck dissection. Of the 12 SIF, 10 were completely survival and 2 had flap arterial crisis with partial flap necrosis, in addition, 1 had donor site wound dehiscence. With follow-up of 10-42 months, there were no tumor recurrences in 10 patients, 1 patient was lost to follow-up at 10 months postoperatively, and 1 patient experienced local tumor recurrence at 11 months after surgery and died 15 months later. Conclusion: SIF is an easily harvested flap with good skin features matching the skin in parotid and auricle regions and less damage to donor site, and this flap has no need for microvascular anastomosis technique. SIF is feasible and effective for repairing defects in parotid and auricle area.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Parotid Gland/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Skin Transplantation/methods , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome
9.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 351-356, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986860

ABSTRACT

We explored clinicopathological features and treatment strategies for thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT). Thoracic SMARCA4-UT is a new entity recently acknowledged in the 2021 edition of World Health Organization Classification of Thoracic Tumors, and doctors are relatively unfamiliar with its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Taking a case of SMARCA4-UT treated in Peking University First Hospital as an example, this multi-disciplinary discussion covered several hot issues on diagnosing and treating thoracic SMARCA4-UT, including histological features, immu- nohistochemical and molecular phenotype, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, and pathological assessment of neoadjuvant therapy response. The patient was an older man with a long history of smoking and was admitted due to a rapidly progressing solid tumor in the lower lobe of the right lung. Histologically, tumor cells were epithelioid, undifferentiated, diffusely positive for CD34, and partially positive for SALL4.The expression of BRG1 protein encoded by SMARCA4 gene was lost in all of tumor cells, and next-generation sequencing(NGS)confirmed SMARCA4 gene mutation (c.2196T>G, p.Y732Ter). The pathological diagnosis reached as thoracic SMARCA4-UT, and the preoperative TNM stage was T1N2M0 (ⅢA). Tumor proportion score (TPS) detected by immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone SP263) was 2%. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) detected by NGS of 1 021 genes was 16. 3/Mb. Microsatellite detection showed the tumor was microsatellite stable (MSS). Neo-adjuvant therapy was implemented with the combined regimen of chemotherapy and ICI. Right lower lobectomy was performed through thoracoscopy after the two weeks' neoadjuvant. The pathologic assessment of lung tumor specimens after neoadjuvant therapy revealed a complete pathological response (CPR). The post-neoadjuvant tumor TNM stage was ypT0N0M0. Then, five cycles of adjuvant therapy were completed. Until October 2022, neither tumor recurrence nor metastasis was detected, and minimal residual disease (MRD) detection was negative. At present, it is believed that if BRG1 immunohistochemical staining is negative, regardless of whether SMARCA4 gene mutation is detected, it should be classified as SMARCA4-deficient tumors. SMARCA4-deficient tumors include a variety of carcinomas and sarcomas. The essential criteria for diagnosing SMARCA4-UT includes loss of BRG1 expression, speci-fic histological morphology, and exclude other common thoracic malignant tumors with SMARCA4-deficiency, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. SMARCA4-UT is a very aggressive malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. It has almost no targeted therapy mutations, and little response to chemotherapy, but ICI is currently the only effective drug. The successful diagnosis and treatment for this case of SMARCA4-UT should enlighten significance for various kinds of SMARCA4-deficient tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1977-1989, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cells in tumors that exhibit self-renewal and differentiation properties. CSCs play a vital role in tumor formation, progression, relapse, and therapeutic resistance. B7-H3, an immunoregulatory protein, has many protumor functions. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the role of B7-H3 in regulating gastric cancer (GC) stemness. Our study aimed to explore the impacts of B7-H3 on GC stemness and its underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#GC stemness influenced by B7-H3 was detected both in vitro and in vivo . The expression of stemness-related markers was examined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. Sphere formation assay was used to detect the sphere-forming ability. The underlying regulatory mechanism of B7-H3 on the stemness of GC was investigated by mass spectrometry and subsequent validation experiments. The signaling pathway (Protein kinase B [Akt]/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2] pathway) of B7-H3 on the regulation of glutathione (GSH) metabolism was examined by Western blotting assay. Multi-color immunohistochemistry (mIHC) was used to detect the expression of B7-H3, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), and Nrf2 on human GC tissues. Student's t -test was used to compare the difference between two groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between two molecules. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis.@*RESULTS@#B7-H3 knockdown suppressed the stemness of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo . Mass spectrometric analysis showed the downregulation of GSH metabolism in short hairpin B7-H3 GC cells, which was further confirmed by the experimental results. Meanwhile, stemness characteristics in B7-H3 overexpressing cells were suppressed after the inhibition of GSH metabolism. Furthermore, Western blotting suggested that B7-H3-induced activation of GSH metabolism occurred through the AKT/Nrf2 pathway, and inhibition of AKT signaling pathway could suppress not only GSH metabolism but also GC stemness. mIHC showed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in GC tissues and was positively correlated with the expression of CD44 and Nrf2. Importantly, GC patients with high expression of B7-H3, CD44, and Nrf2 had worse prognosis ( P = 0.02).@*CONCLUSIONS@#B7-H3 has a regulatory effect on GC stemness and the regulatory effect is achieved through the AKT/Nrf2/GSH pathway. Inhibiting B7-H3 expression may be a new therapeutic strategy against GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 133-138, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the safety and efficacy of reinforced radiculoplasty in the treatment of symptomatic sacral Tarlov cysts (TCs).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data and follow-up data of 71 patients with symptomatic sacral TCs who underwent reinforced radiculoplasty in the Neurosurgery Department of Peking University Third Hospital from June 2018 to March 2021. All the operations were performed under neuroelectrophysiological monitoring. Intraoperative cyst exploration, partial resection of the cyst wall, narrowing of the leak, nerve root sleeve radiculoplasty and artificial dural reinforcement were performed. The incidence of postoperative complications and new neurological dysfunction was analyzed. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the changes of pain before and after surgery. The Japanese Orthopedics Association (JOA) low back pain score was used to evaluate the changes in nerve function before and after surgery.@*RESULTS@#In the study, 71 patients had 101 TCs, 19 (18.8%) TCs originated from the left S1 nerve, 26 (25.7%) originated from the left S2 nerve, 3 (3.0%) originated from the left S3 nerve, 14 (13.9%) originated from the right S1 nerve, 33 (32.7%) originated from the right S2 nerve, 6 (5.9%) originated from the right S3 nerve, all the TCs underwent reinforced radiculoplasty. Deep infection (1 case), subcutaneous effusion (1 case), fat li-quefaction (1 case) and urinary tract infection (4 cases) were recorded postoperatively. The patients were followed up for 12-43 months (median, 26 months). Two cases had new urinary retention after operation, and the catheter was removed at the end of the first and second months respectively. One case had new fecal weakness, which improved after 3 months. Compared with preoperation, VAS decreased significantly at the last follow-up [median, 6 (4-9) vs. 1 (0-5), Z=-7.272, P < 0.001], JOA score increased significantly [median, 20 (16-25) vs. 27 (18-29), Z=-7.265, P < 0.001]. There were 18 cured cases (25.4%), 41 excellent cases (57.7%), 8 effective cases (11.3%), and 4 invalid cases (5.6%). The total efficiency was 94.4% (67/71). Two (1.98%) cysts recurred.@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with symptomatic sacral TCs, reinforced radiculoplasty can significantly improve the pain and nerve function, which is safe and reliable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tarlov Cysts/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/complications , Cysts/surgery , Pain
12.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 290-294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971264

ABSTRACT

Locally advanced tumor with involvement of surrounding tissues and organs is a common situation in pelvic malignancies. Up to 10% of newly diagnosed rectal cancer cases infiltrate to adjacent tissues and organs. Satisfactory resection margins obtained by pelvic exenteration can achieve a 5-year survival rate similar to cases that without adjacent tissue invasion. The 5-year survival rate of patients with locally recurrent pelvic malignancies is almost zero if they are treated only with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To obtain negative margins through pelvic exenteration is the only chance for a long-term survival of these patients. However, pelvic exenteration is a complicated procedure with higher morbidity and mortality. The development of fascia anatomy enables surgeons to have a deeper understanding and comprehensive application of pelvic fasciae. Meanwhile, the improvement of laparoscopic technology provides a clearer view for surgeons and enables the application of minimally invasive techniques in complex pelvic exenteration. The fascial space priority approach is based on the fascia anatomy of pelvis and giving priority to the separation of the pelvic avascular fascial spaces, which provides a reproducible surgical approach for complex pelvic exenteration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Pelvic Neoplasms , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/pathology , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 277-282, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971262

ABSTRACT

Objective: To propose a new staging system for presacral recurrence of rectal cancer and explore the factors influencing radical resection of such recurrences based on this staging system. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, clinical data of 51 patients with presacral recurrence of rectal cancer who had undergone surgical treatment in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital between January 2008 and September 2022 were collected. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) primary rectal cancer without distant metastasis that had been radically resected; (2) pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer confirmed by multi-disciplinary team assessment based on CT, MRI, positron emission tomography, physical examination, surgical exploration, and pathological examination of biopsy tissue in some cases; and (3) complete inpatient, outpatient and follow-up data. The patients were allocated to radical resection and non-radical resection groups according to postoperative pathological findings. The study included: (1) classification of pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer according to its anatomical characteristics as follows: Type I: no involvement of the sacrum; Type II: involvement of the low sacrum, but no other sites; Type III: involvement of the high sacrum, but no other sites; and Type IV: involvement of the sacrum and other sites. (2) Assessment of postoperative presacral recurrence, overall survival from surgery to recurrence, and duration of disease-free survival. (3) Analysis of factors affecting radical resection of pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer. Non-normally distributed measures are expressed as median (range). The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison between groups. Results: The median follow-up was 25 (2-96) months with a 100% follow-up rate. The rate of metachronic distant metastasis was significantly lower in the radical resection than in the non-radical resection group (24.1% [7/29] vs. 54.5% [12/22], χ2=8.333, P=0.026). Postoperative disease-free survival was longer in the radical resection group (32.7 months [3.0-63.0] vs. 16.1 [1.0-41.0], Z=8.907, P=0.005). Overall survival was longer in the radical resection group (39.2 [3.0-66.0] months vs. 28.1 [1.0-52.0] months, Z=1.042, P=0.354). According to univariate analysis, age, sex, distance between the tumor and anal verge, primary tumor pT stage, and primary tumor grading were not associated with achieving R0 resection of presacral recurrences of rectal cancer (all P>0.05), whereas primary tumor pN stage, anatomic staging of presacral recurrence, and procedure for managing presacral recurrence were associated with rate of R0 resection (all P<0.05). According to multifactorial analysis, the pathological stage of the primary tumor pN1-2 (OR=3.506, 95% CI: 1.089-11.291, P=0.035), type of procedure (transabdominal resection: OR=29.250, 95% CI: 2.789 - 306.811, P=0.005; combined abdominal perineal resection: OR=26.000, 95% CI: 2.219-304.702, P=0.009), and anatomical stage of presacral recurrence (Type III: OR=16.000, 95% CI: 1.542 - 166.305, P = 0.020; type IV: OR= 36.667, 95% CI: 3.261 - 412.258, P = 0.004) were all independent risk factors for achieving radical resection of anterior sacral recurrence after rectal cancer surgery. Conclusion: Stage of presacral recurrences of rectal cancer is an independent predictor of achieving R0 resection. It is possible to predict whether radical resection can be achieved on the basis of the patient's medical history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Pelvis/pathology , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
14.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 268-276, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971261

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of reconstruction of pelvic floor with biological products to prevent and treat empty pelvic syndrome after pelvic exenteration (PE) for locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data of 56 patients with locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer without or with limited extra-pelvic metastases who had undergone PE and pelvic floor reconstruction using basement membrane biologic products to separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities in the Department of Anorectal Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Naval Military Medical University from November 2021 to May 2022. The extent of surgery was divided into two categories: mainly inside the pelvis (41 patients) and including pelvic wall resection (15 patients). In all procedures, basement membrane biologic products were used to reconstruct the pelvic floor and separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The procedures included a transperitoneal approach, in which biologic products were used to cover the retroperitoneal defect and the pelvic entrance from the Treitz ligament to the sacral promontory and sutured to the lateral peritoneum, the peritoneal margin of the retained organs in the anterior pelvis, or the pubic arch and pubic symphysis; and a sacrococcygeal approach in which biologic products were used to reconstruct the defect in the pelvic muscle-sacral plane. Variables assessed included patients' baseline information (including sex, age, history of preoperative radiotherapy, recurrence or primary, and extra-pelvic metastases), surgery-related variables (including extent of organ resection, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, and tissue restoration), post-operative recovery (time to recovery of bowel function and time to recovery from empty pelvic syndrome), complications, and findings on follow-up. Postoperative complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: The median age of the 41 patients whose surgery was mainly inside the pelvis was 57 (31-82) years. The patients comprised 25 men and 16 women. Of these 41 patients, 23 had locally advanced disease and 18 had locally recurrent disease; 32 had a history of chemotherapy/immunotherapy/targeted therapy and 24 of radiation therapy. Among these patients, the median operative time, median intraoperative bleeding, median time to recovery of bowel function, and median time to resolution of empty pelvic syndrome were 440 (240-1020) minutes, 650 (200-4000) ml, 3 (1-9) days, and 14 (5-105) days, respectively. As for postoperative complications, 37 patients had Clavien-Dindo < grade III and four had ≥ grade III complications. One patient died of multiple organ failure 7 days after surgery, two underwent second surgeries because of massive bleeding from their pelvic floor wounds, and one was successfully resuscitated from respiratory failure. In contrast, the median age of the 15 patients whose procedure included combined pelvic and pelvic wall resection was 61 (43-76) years, they comprised eight men and seven women, four had locally advanced disease and 11 had locally recurrent disease. All had a history of chemotherapy/ immunotherapy and 13 had a history of radiation therapy. The median operative time, median intraoperative bleeding, median time to recovery of bowel function, and median time to relief of empty pelvic syndrome were 600 (360-960) minutes, 1600 (400-4000) ml, 3 (2-7) days, and 68 (7-120) days, respectively, in this subgroup of patients. Twelve of these patients had Clavien-Dindo < grade III and three had ≥ grade III postoperative complications. Follow-up was until 31 October 2022 or death; the median follow-up time was 9 (5-12) months. One patient in this group died 3 months after surgery because of rapid tumor progression. The remaining 54 patients have survived to date and no local recurrences have been detected at the surgical site. Conclusion: The use of basement membrane biologic products for pelvic floor reconstruction and separation of the abdominal and pelvic cavities during PE for locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer is safe, effective, and feasible. It improves the perioperative safety of PE and warrants more implementation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pelvic Exenteration , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Pelvic Floor/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
15.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 260-267, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971260

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the surgical indications and perioperative clinical outcomes of pelvic exenteration (PE) for locally advanced, recurrent pelvic malignancies and complex pelvic fistulas. Methods: This was a descriptive study.The indications for performing PE were: (1) locally advanced, recurrent pelvic malignancy or complex pelvic fistula diagnosed preoperatively by imaging and pathological examination of a biopsy; (2)preoperative agreement by a multi-disciplinary team that non-surgical and conventional surgical treatment had failed and PE was required; and (3) findings on intraoperative exploration confirming this conclusion.Contraindications to this surgical procedure comprised cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, poor nutritional status,and mental state too poor to tolerate the procedure.Clinical data of 141 patients who met the above criteria, had undergone PE in the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2018 to September 2022, had complete perioperative clinical data, and had given written informed consent to the procedure were collected,and the operation,relevant perioperative variables, postoperative pathological findings (curative resection), and early postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: Of the 141 included patients, 43 (30.5%) had primary malignancies, 61 (43.3%) recurrent malignancies, 28 (19.9%) complex fistulas after radical resection of malignancies,and nine (6.4%)complex fistulas caused by benign disease. There were 79 cases (56.0%) of gastrointestinal tumors, 30 cases (21.3%) of reproductive tumors, 16 cases (11.3%) of urinary tumors, and 7 cases (5.0%) of other tumors such mesenchymal tissue tumors. Among the 104 patients with primary and recurrent malignancies, 15 patients with severe complications of pelvic perineum of advanced tumors were planned to undergo palliative PE surgery for symptom relief after preoperative assessment of multidisciplinary team; the other 89 patients were evaluated for radical PE surgery. All surgeries were successfully completed. Total PE was performed on 73 patients (51.8%),anterior PE on 22 (15.6%),and posterior PE in 46 (32.6%). The median operative time was 576 (453,679) minutes, median intraoperative blood loss 500 (200, 1 200) ml, and median hospital stay 17 (13.0,30.5)days.There were no intraoperative deaths. Of the 89 patients evaluated for radical PE surgery, the radical R0 resection was achieved in 64 (71.9%) of them, R1 resection in 23 (25.8%), and R2 resection in two (2.2%). One or more postoperative complications occurred in 85 cases (60.3%), 32 (22.7%)of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III and above.One patient (0.7%)died during the perioperative period. Conclusion: PE is a valid option for treating locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies and complex pelvic fistulas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Pelvic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Postoperative Complications
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 241-247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971258

ABSTRACT

With the development of existing surgical techniques, equipment and treatment concepts, more and more medical centers begin to carry out extensive resection for recurrent pelvic malignant tumors or those with multivisceral invasion. Exenteration may facilitate curative resection and improve the outcome of the patients. Therefore, pelvic exenteration has gradually become the standard of care for locally advanced pelvic malignancies. At present, pelvic exenteration leads to high intraoperative and postoperative complications and mortality, and therefore compromise the safety and long-term quality of life. Cumulating evidences suggest remnant cavity after exenteration might trigger the pathophysiological process and cause downstream complications which can be defined as empty pelvis syndrome. The literature related to empty pelvic syndrome was summarized, the possible cause of empty pelvic syndrome was analyzed. After the pelvic exenteration, the closed pelvic residual cavity formed continuous negative pressure with the gradual absorption of air in the cavity, bacterial propagation, and accumulation of fluid, which had an impact on the distribution of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. At the same time, whether physical processes also play a role in the occurrence of empty pelvic syndrome remains to be explored. It is concluded that the diagnosis is mainly based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations and radiological findings, and the history of pelvic exenteration is the most important indicator in the diagnosis. In terms of prevention measures, we should identify the high-risk groups of the occurrence of empty pelvic syndrome, and then take accurate and individualized preventive measures. Various new biomaterials have more advantages in preventive pelvic cavity filling than traditional human tissue filling. Mesentery plays an important role in the morphology, peristalsis and arrangement of the small intestine. More attention should be paid to reducing the ectopic placement of the small intestine into the pelvic cavity by protecting the mesentery structure and restoring or rebuilding the mesentery morphology. In terms of treatment measures, there is still a lack of standard treatment pathway for empty pelvic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Pelvis/surgery , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Pelvic Neoplasms , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 235-240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971257

ABSTRACT

Pelvic radiation injury can potentially involve multiple pelvic organs, and due to its progressive and irreversible nature, its late stage can be complicated by fistulas, perforations, obstructions and other complications involved multiple pelvic organs, which seriously affect the long-term survival and the quality of life of patients. As a multidisciplinary surgical approach, pelvic exenteration has potential application in the treatment of late complications of pelvic radiation injury by completely removing the irradiated lesion, relieving symptoms and avoiding recurrence of symptoms. In clinical practice, we should advocate the concept of "pelvic radiation injury", emphasize multidisciplinary collaboration, fully evaluate the overall status of patients, primary tumor and pelvic radiation injury. We should follow the principles of "damage-control" and "extended resection", and follow the principle of enhanced recovery after surgery to achieve the goal of ensuring the surgical safety, relieving patients' symptoms and improving patients' quality of life and long-term survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Radiation Injuries/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Retrospective Studies
18.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 227-234, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971256

ABSTRACT

The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) or locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) has been a difficulty and challenge in the field of advanced rectal cancer, while pelvic exenteration (PE), as an important way to potentially achieve radical treatment of LARC and LRRC, has been shown to significantly improve the long-term prognosis of patients. The implementation of PE surgery requires precise assessment of the extent of invasion of LARC or LRRC and adequate preoperative preparation through multidisciplinary consultation before surgery. The lateral pelvis involves numerous tissues, blood vessels, and nerves, and resection is most difficult, and the ureteral and Marcille triangle approaches are recommended; while the supine transabdominal approach combined with intraoperative change to the prone jacket position facilitates adequate exposure of the surgical field and enables precise overall resection of the bony pelvis and pelvic floor muscle groups invaded by the tumor. Empty pelvic syndrome has always been an major problem to be solved during PE. The application of extracellular matrix biological mesh to reconstruct pelvic floor defects and isolate the abdominopelvic cavity is expected to reduce postoperative pelvic floor related complications. Reconstruction of the urinary system and important vessels after PE is essential, and the selection of appropriate reconstruction methods helps to improve the patient's postoperative quality of life, while more new methods are also being continuously explored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Pelvis/pathology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 222-226, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971255

ABSTRACT

The China PelvEx Collaborative, under the direction of Colorectal Cancer Committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Gastrointestinal Surgery Committee of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health, has formulated and issued the Chinese expert consensus for primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes and locally recurrent rectal cancer (2023 edition) , with the academic support of the Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Chinese Journal of Colorectal Disease (Electronic Edition). This Consensus refers to the expert consensus developed by the International PelvEx Collaboration, incorporates the latest international multi-center research results and combines the latest research results in China. The Consensus unifies some definitions, clarifies the surgical indications, and puts forward the definition and preventive measures of "empty pelvic syndrome" earlier. For the controversial classification of local recurrent rectal cancer, the Chinese classification was proposed for the first time in Consensus. At the same time, the definition of pelvic exenteration is controversial, and a more consistent cognition is proposed. It is believed that, with the in-depth research on complicated rectal cancer, C-PelvEx will gather more higher-level data from clinical research in several domestic centers, so as to further enrich the content of the updated Consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Pelvic Exenteration , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
20.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 215-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971254

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with advances in pelvic oncology and surgical techniques, surgeons have redefined the boundaries of pelvic surgery. Combined pelvic exenteration is now considered the treatment of choice for some patients with locally advanced and locally recurrent rectal cancer, but it is only performed in a few hospitals in China due to the complexity of the procedure and the large extent of resection, complications, and high perioperative mortality. Although there have been great advances in oncologic drugs and surgical techniques and equipment in recent years, there are still many controversies and challenges in the preoperative assessment of combined pelvic organ resection, neoadjuvant treatment selection and perioperative treatment strategies. Adequate understanding of the anatomical features of the pelvic organs, close collaboration of the clinical multidisciplinary team, objective assessment and standardized preoperative combination therapy creates the conditions for radical surgical resection of recurrent and complex locally advanced rectal cancer, while the need for rational and standardized R0 resection still has the potential to bring new hope to patients with locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL