Abstract Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal is a rare entity. Previous studies have suggested predictors for tumor recurrence. However, most of the prognostic factors were from the clinicopathological aspect. Objective: This study aims to analyze the correlation between pre-operative peripheral inflammation markers and survival outcomes, in order to identify prognostic biomarkers for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal who underwent surgery at our institute. The pre-operative circulating inflammatory markers, such as the neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, and monocyte counts were measured and their ratios including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio were calculated. The prognostic value of the measured hematologic parameters in relation to the survival outcomes was also evaluated. Results: A total of 83 patients were included, of which 26 patients showed tumor recurrence and 57 without recurrence. Neutrophil counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were closely connected with tumor stage. In the patients with recurrence, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio were elevated (p< 0.0001, p< 0.0001 and p = 0.001), while lymphocyte counts and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio were decreased (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016, respectively). The receiver operating curve analysis indicated that pre-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a potential prognostic marker for recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal (area under curve = 0.816), and the cut-off points was 2.325. Conclusions: Pre-operative neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte are significantly correlated with tumor recurrence in patients with external auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may be unfavorable prognostic factors of this disease.
Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma espinocelular do meato acústico externo é uma doença rara. Estudos anteriores sugeriram preditores de recorrência do tumor. Entretanto, a maioria dos fatores prognósticos se originou do aspecto clínico-patológico. Objetivo: Analisar a correlação entre marcadores inflamatórios periféricos pré-operatórios e os desfechos de sobrevida e identificar biomarcadores prognósticos para pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular do meato acústico externo. Método: Analisamos retrospectivamente pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma espinocelular do meato acústico externo submetidos à cirurgia em nosso instituto. Os marcadores inflamatórios circulantes pré-operatórios, como as contagens de neutrófilos, linfócitos, plaquetas e monócitos, foram medidos e as suas relações calculadas, inclusive as relações neutrófilos/linfócitos, plaquetas/linfócitos e linfócitos/monócitos. O valor prognóstico dos parâmetros hematológicos medidos em relação aos desfechos de sobrevida também foi avaliado. Resultados: Foram incluídos 83 pacientes, entre os quais 26 apresentaram recorrência tumoral e 57 não apresentaram. A contagem de neutrófilos e a relação neutrófilo/linfócito estavam intimamente associadas ao estágio do tumor. Nos pacientes com recorrência, a contagem de neutrófilos, a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos e a relação plaquetas/linfócitos eram elevadas (p < 0,0001, p > 0,0001 e p = 0,001), enquanto a contagem de linfócitos e a relação linfócitos/monócitos estavam diminuídas (p = 0,012 ep = 0,016, respectivamente). A análise da curva, Receiver Operating Characteristic, indicou que a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos pré-operatória era um potencial marcador prognóstico para a recorrência de carcinoma espinocelular do meato acústico externo (Área sob a curva = 0,816) e o ponto de corte foi de 2,325. Conclusão: A contagem pré-operatória de neutrófilos e linfócitos, as relações neutrófilos/linfócitos, plaquetas/linfócitos e linfócitos/monócitos estão significativamente correlacionadas com a recorrência do tumor em pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular do meato acústico externo. Além disso, a relação neutrófilos/linfócitos pode ser um fator prognóstico desfavorável dessa doença.
Subject(s)Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prognosis , Lymphocytes , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Ear Canal/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most commonly used method for non-surgical treatment of liver cancer, and it is usually used as an adjuvant therapy in patients who have not developed intrahepatic metastases after surgical resection. Postoperative adjuvant TACE therapy may provide a prognostic benefit in liver cancer patients with high recurrence risk. This article reviews the research progress of adjuvant TACE therapy for liver cancer after radical resection.
Subject(s)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/methods , Hepatectomy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Retrospective Studies
BACKGROUND@#Till date, the optimal treatment strategy for delivering adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in localized and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa), as a lower stage in PCa progression compared with metastatic PCa, is still unclear. This study compares the efficacy of castration alone with complete androgen blockade (CAB) as adjuvant ADT in patients with localized and locally advanced PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).@*METHODS@#Patients diagnosed with PCa, without lymph node or distant metastasis, who received RP in West China Hospital between January 2009 and April 2019, were enrolled in this study. We performed survival, multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, and subgroup analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 262 patients were enrolled, including 107 patients who received castration alone and 155 patients who received CAB. The survival analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 0.60-1.90, P = 0.8195). Moreover, the multivariable Cox model provided similarly negative results before and after adjustment for potential covariant. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence between the two groups in both non-adjusted and adjusted models. Furthermore, our subgroup analysis showed that CAB achieved better biochemical recurrence (BCR) outcomes than medical castration alone as adjuvant ADT for locally advanced PCa (P for interaction = 0.0247, HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14-1.00, P = 0.0497).@*CONCLUSION@#Combined androgen blockade achieved better BCR outcomes compared with medical castration alone as adjuvant ADT for locally advanced PCa without lymph node metastasis.
Subject(s)Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens , Castration , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Abstract Introduction Regional metastases of cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma occur in approximately 5 % of cases, being the most important prognostic factor in survival, currently with no distinction between parotid and neck metastasis. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic features among patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma exhibiting regional metastasis. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma who underwent parotidectomy and/or neck dissection from 2011 to 2018 at a single institution tertiary center was performed. Patient demographics, clinical, surgical and pathological information, adjuvant treatments, and outcome at last follow-up were collected. Outcomes included disease recurrence and death due to the disease. Prognostic value of clinic pathological features associated with disease-specific survival was obtained. Results Thirty-eight cases of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with parotid and/or neck metastasis were identified. Overall, 18 (47.3 %) patients showed parotid metastasis alone, 12 (31.5 %) exhibited neck metastasis alone and 8 (21.0 %) had both. A primary tumor in the parotid zone (Hazard Ratio ‒ HR = 5.53; p = 0.02) was associated with improved disease-specific survival. Poorer disease-specific survival was observed in patients with higher primary tumor diameter (HR = 1.54; p = 0.002), higher depth of invasion (HR = 2.89; p = 0.02), invasion beyond the subcutaneous fat (HR = 5.05; p = 0.002), neck metastasis at first presentation (HR = 8.74; p < 0.001), number of positive lymph nodes (HR = 1.25; p = 0.004), and higher TNM stages (HR = 7.13; p = 0.009). Patients presenting with isolated parotid metastasis during all follow-ups had better disease-specific survival than those with neck metastasis or both (HR = 3.12; p = 0.02). Conclusion Head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with parotid lymph node metastasis demonstrated better outcomes than cases with neck metastasis.
Resumo Introdução As metástases regionais do carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço ocorrem em aproximadamente 5% dos casos, sendo esse o fator prognóstico mais importante na sobrevida, atualmente sem distinção entre metástases de parótida e cervicais. Objetivo Avaliar as características prognósticas em pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase regional. Método Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo submetidos à parotidectomia e/ou esvaziamento cervical entre 2011 e 2018 em um único centro terciário de uma única instituição. Dados demográficos dos pacientes, informações clínicas, cirúrgicas e patológicas, tratamentos adjuvantes e desfechos no último acompanhamento foram coletados. Os desfechos incluíram recorrência e morte devido à doença. O valor prognóstico das características clínico-patológicas associadas à sobrevida específica da doença foi obtido. Resultados Foram identificados 38 casos de carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase de parótida e/ou pescoço. No geral, 18 (47,3%) pacientes apresentaram metástase da parótida isolada, 12 (31,5%) apresentaram metástase cervical isolada e 8 (21,0%) apresentaram ambos. Um tumor primário na região da parótida (Hazard ratio [HR] = 5,53; p = 0,02) foi associado a melhor sobrevida específica. Pior sobrevida específica foi observada em pacientes com maior diâmetro do tumor primário (HR = 1,54; p = 0,002), maior profundidade de invasão (HR = 2,89; p = 0,02), invasão além da gordura subcutânea (HR = 5,05; p = 0,002), metástase cervical na primeira apresentação (HR = 8,74; p < 0,001), conforme maior número de linfonodos positivos (HR = 1,25; p = 0,004) e estágios TNM mais elevados (HR = 7,13; p = 0,009). Os pacientes que apresentaram metástase da parótida isolada durante todo o acompanhamento apresentaram melhor sobrevida específica do que aqueles com metástase cervical ou ambos (HR = 3,12; p = 0,02). Conclusão Os casos de carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase intraparotídea demonstraram melhores desfechos do que aqueles com metástase cervical.
Subject(s)Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Abstract Objective To evaluate the presence of residual disease in the uterine specimen after hysteroscopic polypectomy or polyp biopsy in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We analyzed a series of 104 patients (92 cases from the Hospital AC Camargo and 12 from the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo) with polyps that were diagnosed by hysteroscopy, showing endometrioid EC associated with the polyp or in the final pathological specimen. Patients underwent a surgical approach for endometrial cancer from January 2002 to January 2017. Their clinical and pathological data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records. Results In78cases (75%), thepolyphad EC, and in 40(38.5%), itwas restricted tothe polyp, without endometrial involvement. The pathologic stage was IA in 96 cases (92.3%) and 90 (86.5%) had histologic grade 1 or 2. In 18 cases (17.3%), there was no residual disease in the final uterine specimen, but only in 9 of them the hysteroscopy suggested that the tumor was restricted to the polyp. In 5 cases (4.8%) from the group without outside of the polyp during hysteroscopy, myometrial invasion was noted in the final uterine specimen. This finding suggests the possibility of disease extrapolation through the base of the polyp. Conclusion Patients with endometrioid EC associated with polyps may have the tumor completely removed during hysteroscopy, but the variables shown in the present study could not safely predict which patient would have no residual disease.
Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a presença de doença residual no exame anatomopatológico definitivo de pacientes com câncer de endométrio endometrioide após polipectomia ou biópsia de pólipo histeroscópica. Métodos Analisamos 104 pacientes (92 casos do Hospital AC Camargo e 12 casos do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo) com pólipos diagnosticados durante histeroscopia e cuja biópsia histeroscópica ou exame patológico final do útero acusaram câncer de endométrio endometrioide. As pacientes foram submetidas a cirurgia para câncer de endométrio de janeiro de 2002 a janeiro de 2017. Os dados clínicos e anatomopatológicos de cada paciente foram retirados dos prontuários médicos Resultados Em 78 casos (75%), o pólipo continha a neoplasia, e em 40 (38.5%), ela estava restrita ao tecido do pólipo, sem envolvimento endometrial adjacente. O estadio final foi IA em 96 casos (92.3%) e em 90 (86.5%) tratava-se de grau 1 ou 2. Em 18 casos (17.3%), não havia doença residual no espécime uterino, mas emapenas 9 deles a histeroscopia sugeriu doença restrita ao pólipo. Em 5 casos (4.8%), não havia doença aparente extrapólipo na histeroscopia, mas havia invasão miometrial, sugerindo extravasamento do tumor pela base do pólipo. Conclusão Pacientes com câncer de endométrio associado a pólipos podem ter o tumor completamente removido durante a histeroscopia, mas, com as variáveis avaliadas, é difícil predizer com segurança qual paciente ficará sem tumor residual.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Polyps/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Neoplasm, Residual/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Polyps/pathology , Hysteroscopy , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Neoplasm, Residual/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze relapse rates and patterns in patients with endometrial cancer with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of current follow-up procedures in terms of patient survival, as well as the convenience of modifying the surveillance strategy. Methods Retrospective descriptive study including all patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer relapse at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Complejo Hospitalario Insular-Materno Infantil de Canarias, between 2005 and 2014. Results Recurrence was observed in 81 patients (10.04% of the sample); 66.7% of them suffered relapse within 2 years and 80.2% within 3 years after the termination of the primary treatment; 41.9% showed distant metastases while the rest corresponded to local-regional (40.7%) or ganglionar (17.4%) relapse; 42% of these were symptomatic; 14 patients showed more than 1 site of relapse. Relapse was detected mainly through symptoms and physical examination findings (54.3%), followed by elevated serummarker levels (29.6%), computed tomography (CT) images (9.9%) and abnormal vaginal cytology findings (6.2%). No differences in global survival were found between patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic relapse. Conclusion Taking into account that the recurrence rate of endometrial cancer is low, that relapse occurs mainly within the first 3 years post-treatment and that symptom evaluation and physical examination are the most effective follow-up methods, we postulate that a modification of the current model of hospital follow-up should be considered.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Clinical Protocols/standards , Endometrial Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Spain , Women's Health Services , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnostic imaging , Disease-Free Survival , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
Multi-gene assays have emerged as crucial tools for risk stratification in early-stage breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) in Chinese patients with pN0-1, estrogen receptor-positive (ER
Subject(s)Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Receptors, Estrogen
Abstract Objective Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare intraabdominal neoplasm that grows along serosal surfaces and is primarily found in young men. To Keywords date, only 16 cases of ovarian DSRCT have been previously reported in women in the English literature, and no large population-based studies on this topic exist. Case Report We report the case of a 19-year-old virgo with unremarkable past medical history, initially presented with abdominal fullness. After being treated with the optimal treatment modality (primary and secondary surgical debulking, unique chemotherapy, protocol and adjuvant radiotherapy), the patient has remained without tumor disease for 40 months. Conclusion Although the best therapy for patients with DSRCT has yet to be determined, combining complete surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is required to prolong survival and to achieve proper quality of life.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adolescent , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor/diagnosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor/pathology , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy and safety of the use of cryotherapy, cold knife or thermocoagulation compared to Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. METHODS Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing treatment with cryotherapy, cold knife, or thermo-coagulation compared with LEEP, to estimate its efficacy and safety. The search was conducted on MEDLINE/PUBMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Scopus, until September 2018. RESULTS The total of 72 studies were identified, of which only 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The treatment of CIN with cold knife decreases the risk of residual disease compared with LEEP (RR, 0.54, 95%CI, 0.30-0.96, p = 0.04). The management of premalignant lesions with cryotherapy, compared with LEEP, increases the risk of disease recurrence by 86% (RR, 1.86, 95%CI, 1.16-2.97, p = 0.01), increases the risk of infections (RR, 1.17, 95%CI, 1.08-1.28, p < 0.001) and reduces the risk of minor bleeding by 51% (RR, 0.49, 95%CI) %, 0.40-0.59, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The treatment of premalignant lesions of cervical cancer with cold knife reduces the risk of residual disease. Nevertheless, cryotherapy reduces the risk of minor bleeding in the 24 hours after treatment and increases the risk of recurrence of disease and infections.
RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del uso de crioterapia, cono frio o termo-coagulación en comparación con el procedimiento de escisión electroquirúrgica en asa (LEEP) para el manejo de neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales. MÉTODOS Revisión sistemática de ensayos controlados aleatorizados en mujeres con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical en tratamiento con crioterapia, cono frio, o termo coagulación y LEEP, para estimar su eficacia y seguridad. La búsqueda se realizó en MEDLINE/PUBMED, Registro Cochrane Central de Ensayos Controlados (CENTRAL) y Scopus, hasta setiembre de 2018. RESULTADOS Se identificaron 72 estudios, ocho cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Cono frio disminuyó el riesgo de enfermedad residual en comparación con LEEP (RR 0,54; IC del 95%, 0,30-0,96, p = 0,04). Crioterapia en comparación con LEEP incrementó el riesgo de recurrencia de enfermedad en un 86,0% (RR 1,86; IC del 95%, 1,16-2,97, p = 0,01) con un tiempo de seguimiento de seis a 24 meses, y de infecciones (RR, 1,17; IC del 95%, 1,08-1,28, p < 0,001); pero redujo el riesgo de sangrado menor en un 51,0% (RR 0,49; IC del 95%, 0,40-0,59, p ≤ 0,001). CONCLUSIONES Cono frio reduce el riesgo de enfermedad residual. Sin embargo, la crioterapia reduce el riesgo de sangrado menor en las 24 horas posteriores al tratamiento e incrementa el riesgo de recurrencia de enfermedad y de infecciones.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Cryotherapy/methods , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/surgery , Conization/methods , Electrocoagulation/methods , Postoperative Complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Risk , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
OBJECTIVES@#To observe the efficacy and adverse reactions of the combination of endostar with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced (IVb) and recurrent metastatic cervical cancer.@*METHODS@#Forty-four patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer, who were admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from December 2016 to December 2018 were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (22 cases in each group). The control group was given gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) or docetaxel plus cisplatin (DP) treatment, the experimental group was treated with endostar on the basis of the control group.@*RESULTS@#The objective response rate (ORR) was 42.9% in the experimental group and 22.7% in the control group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with chemotherapy alone, endostar combined with chemotherapy can prolong the median progression-free survival, with higher ORR and similar adverse reactions.
Subject(s)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Endostatins , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Recombinant Proteins , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Abstract Extramammary Paget disease is a rare neoplastic condition that more commonly affects postmenopausal Caucasian women. Although the vulvar area is the most frequently affected location, it corresponds solely to 1 to 2% of all vulvar malignancies. A 72-year-old female patient was observed in our outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of an erythematous and pruritic plaque on the vulva. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies were compatible with extramammary Paget disease of the vulva. Associated neoplastic conditions were excluded. Due to multiple relapses, the patient was submitted to three surgical interventions, including a total vulvectomy, and to external radiotherapy. The present case illustrates the chronic and recurrent nature of extramammary Paget disease despite aggressive procedures as well as the challenge in obtaining tumor-free resection margins.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Aged , Vulvar Neoplasms/pathology , Paget Disease, Extramammary/pathology , Vulvectomy , Imiquimod/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Vulvar Neoplasms/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Paget Disease, Extramammary/therapy , Plastic Surgery Procedures
ABSTRACT Purpose: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging is a promising modality for the staging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Current evidence suggests limited diagnostic value of the 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PSA-levels ≤0.3ng/mL. Experimental data have demonstrated an increase in PSMA-expression in PCa metastases by androgen deprivation in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA with low-dose androgen deprivation in patients with BCR and low PSA-levels. Materials and Methods: Five patients with PCa and BCR, following radical prostatectomy, underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT. A consecutive 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was performed 6 to 11 days after injection of 80mg of Degarelix (Firmagon®). We recorded PSA and testosterone serum-levels and changes of PSMA-uptake in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. Results: Median PSA prior 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 0.27ng/mL. All patients had a decrease in testosterone serum levels from median 2.95μg/l to 0.16μg/l following Degarelix injection. We observed an increase in the standardized uptake value (SUV) in PSMA-positive lymphogenous and osseous lesions in two patients following androgen deprivation. In another two patients, no PSMA positive signals were detected in either the first or the second scan. Conclusion: Our preliminary results of this feasibility assessment indicate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA-imaging induced by low-dose ADT. Despite several limitations and the small number of patients, this could be a new approach to improve staging by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PCa patients with BCR after primary therapy. Further prospective studies with larger number of patients are needed to validate our findings.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Aged , Organometallic Compounds , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Membrane Glycoproteins , Radiopharmaceuticals , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
ABSTRACT Objective: To build a model to evaluate the impact of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in men with PSA rise or persistent PSA after undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and Methods: The study included 107 node-negative patients treated with SRT after RP at a single institution. Patients received SRT for either prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rising, or PSA persistence after RP. All patients received local radiation to the prostate / seminal vesicle bed. The primary measured outcome was the biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to develop a risk-stratification group to identify predictive factors associated with the probability of BCR at 5yr. Results: At a median follow-up of 52 months, the BCR free survival rate and overall survival in 5 years was 73% and 94%, respectively. At multivariable analysis, pre-SRT PSA level > 0.35ng / mL (p = 0.023), negative margins (p = 0.038), and seminal vesicles invasion (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with BCR free survival. Three risk groups using regression analysis for SRT administration was built. Low-, intermediate- and the high-risk groups had a BCR free survival in 5-years of 96%, 84%, and 44% (p = 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: We developed a risk group stratification to show the impact of SRT based on prostate cancer characteristics. SRT showed to be extremely beneficial for patients with low- and intermediate-risk tumors. Moreover, the risk-group built could identify patients classified as high-risk who might benefit from more aggressive treatment for SRT.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Salvage Therapy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/radiotherapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Disease-Free Survival , Early Medical Intervention , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
ABSTRACT Purpose: Non - muscle - invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) can recur despite transurethral resection (TURBT) and adjuvant intravesical therapy. Tobacco products excreted in the urine are hypothesized to cause tumor - promoting effects on urothelial cells through direct contact. We determined if moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (defined as International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥ 8) was associated with increased tumor recurrence. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified 70 consecutive men initially diagnosed with NMIBC at our institution from 2010 - 2016. Means were compared with independent T - test and proportions with chi - square analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine independent predictors of recurrence. Results: The majority of patients had Ta disease (58.6%) followed by T1 (28.6%) and Tis (12.9%). Forty - one (58.6%) patients had moderate or severe LUTS upon presentation within 30 days of initial TURBT with mean IPSS of 13.2 vs. 5.2 in the control group (p < 0.01). Biopsy - proven tumor recurrence occurred in 24 (34.3%) patients at mean follow-up of 31.7 months. Mean time to recurrence was 14.6 months. Moderate or severe LUTS was an independent predictor of tumor recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 19.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86 - 127; p = 0.002). Voiding or storage symptoms based on the IPSS did not independently correlate with tumor recurrence (p = 0.08 and p = 0.31, respectively) although total mean IPSS score did (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.47, p = 0.005). Conclusions: The presence of moderate or severe LUTS may be an important prognostic factor in NMIBC. Patients with significant urinary symptoms could be monitored more aggressively due to higher recurrence risk.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Quality of Life , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Disease Progression , Middle Aged
ABSTRACT Purpose: The 8th edition of the TNM has been updated and improved in order to ensure a high degree of clinical relevance. A major change in prostate includes pathologically organ - confined disease to be considered pT2 and no longer subclassified by extent of involvement or laterality. The aim of this study was to validate this major change. Materials and Methods: Prostates were step - sectioned from 196 patients submitted to radical prostatectomy with organ confined disease (pT2) and negative surgical margins. Tumor extent was evaluated by a semiquantitative point count method. The dominant nodule extent was recorded as the maximal number of positive points of the largest single focus of cancer from the quadrants. Laterality was considered as either total tumor extent (Group 1) or index tumor extent (Group 2). Time to biochemical recurrence was analyzed with the Kaplan - Meier product limit analysis and prediction of shorter time to biochemical recurrence with Cox proportional hazards model. Results: In Group 1, 43 / 196 (21.9%) tumors were unilateral and 153 / 196 (78.1%) bilateral and in Group 2, 156 / 196 (79.6%) tumors were unilateral and 40 / 196 (20.4%) bilateral. In both groups, comparing unilateral vs bilateral tumors, there was no significant clinicopathological difference, and no significant association with time as well as prediction of shorter time to biochemical recurrence following surgery. Conclusions: Pathologic sub - staging of organ confined disease does not convey prognostic information either considering laterality as total tumor extent or index tumor extent. Furthermore, no correlation exists between digital rectal examination and pathologic stage.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Digital Rectal Examination , Neoplasm Staging/standards , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/chemistry , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Neoplasms/classification
Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze data of 57 women with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) regarding histological characteristics, clinical features and treatment management at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, in the Portuguese acronym). Methods The present retrospective study analyzed data obtained from clinical and histopathological reports of women with BOTs treated in a single cancer center between 2010 and 2018. Results A total of 57 women were included, with a mean age of 48.42 years old (15.43- 80.77), of which 30 (52.63%) were postmenopausal, and 18 (31.58%) were < 40 years old. All of the women underwent surgery. A total of 37 women (64.91%) were submitted to complete surgical staging for BOT, and none (0/57) were submitted to pelvic or paraortic lymphadenectomy. Chemotherapy was administered for two patients who recurred. The final histological diagnoses were: serous in 20 (35.09%) cases, mucinous in 26 (45.61%), seromucinous in 10 (17.54%), and endometrioid in 1 (1.75%) case. Intraoperative analyses of frozen sections were obtained in 42 (73.68%) women, of which 28 (66.67%) matched with the final diagnosis. The mean follow-up was of 42.79 months (range: 2.03-104.87 months). Regard ingthe current status of the women, 45(78.95%) are alive without disease, 2(3.51%) arealive with disease, 9 (15.79%) had their last follow-up visit > 1 year beforethe performanceof the present study but arealive, and 1 patient(1.75%) died of another cause. Conclusion Women in the present study were treated according to the current guidelines and only two patients recurred.
Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever uma série de 57 mulheres com tumores borderline de ovário (TBO) em relação às características histológicas, clínicas, e ao manejo do tratamento realizado no Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). Métodos O presente estudo retrospectivo analisou dados obtidos dos registros clínicos e histopatológicos de mulheres com TBO tratadas em um único centro oncológico de 2010 a 2018. Resultados Um total de 57 mulheres foram incluídas, com uma média de idade de 48,42 anos (15,43-80,77), das quais 30 (52,63%) eram menopausadas, e 18 (31,58%) tinham < 40 anos. Todas as mulheres foram operadas. Um total de 37 mulheres (64,91%) foram submetidas a cirurgia de estadiamento completo para TBO, e nenhuma foi submetida a linfadenectomia pélvica ou paraórtica. O tratamento com quimioterapia foi administrado em duas pacientes que recidivaram. Os diagnósticos histológicos finais foram: seroso em 20 mulheres (35,09%), mucinoso em 26 (45,61%), seromucinoso em 10 (17,54%) e endometrióide em 1 (1,75%). A avaliação histológica intraoperatória foi realizada em 42 (73,68%) das mulheres, das quais 28 (66,67%) foram compatíveis com os diagnósticos finais. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 42,79 meses (variando de 2,03 a 104,87 meses). Em relação ao status atual das mulheres, 45 (78.95%) estão vivas sem doença, 2 (3,51%) estão vivas com doença, 9 (15.79%) tiveram a última consulta de seguimento há > 1 ano antes da realização do presente estudo, mas estão vivas, e 1 paciente faleceu por outra causa. Conclusão As mulheres do presente estudo foram tratadas de acordo com as recomendações atuais e apenas duas mulheres apresentaram recorrência.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Precancerous Conditions/surgery , Precancerous Conditions/drug therapy , Brazil , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Menopause/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Age Distribution , Organ Sparing Treatments/statistics & numerical data , Salpingo-oophorectomy/statistics & numerical data , Hysterectomy/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
RESUMEN Introducción: Aunque el carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) tiene una buena sobrevida, en el 30% de los casos recidivará a largo plazo. Se han descrito factores pronósticos como el tamaño, histopatología, procedimiento quirúrgico y administración de yodo radiactivo. Objetivo: Este trabajo pretende determinar factores de riesgo de recidiva a largo plazo. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y observacional, se incluyeron a los pacientes sometidos a cirugía por CPT con seguimiento a 10 años, y se analizaron variables clínicas y bioquímicas relacionadas con la recidiva a largo plazo. Resultados: Se identificaron 91 pacientes con seguimiento de 10 años. No se encontró relación para recidiva con historia familiar oncológica, enfermedad tiroidea pre-via, pero sí con tabaquismo (p 0,040). Se encontraron a 27 (29%) con recidiva, en relación a lesiones >3 cm (p 0,05), y CPT multicéntrico (p 0,003). Conclusión: El tiempo de evolución prolongado favorece el crecimiento de las lesiones, y la diseminación de la enfermedad, así como la recidiva. El CPT es una enfermedad con capacidad metastásica a largo plazo, que requiere un seguimiento cercano y detección oportuna de pacientes susceptibles de recidiva. El tiempo entre el diagnóstico y la cirugía es un factor fundamental para el crecimiento de las lesiones y la propagación de la enfermedad, por lo que se debe reducir el tiempo de espera, evitando así las lesiones de mayor tamaño, diseminación de células tumorales y la recidiva con peor pronóstico para los pacientes.
ABSTRACT Introduction: The papillary thyroid cancer has good survival rate, however, 30% of the patients will have a recurrence. Prognostic factors have been described such as size, histopathology, surgical procedure and administration of radioactive iodine. Aim: To determine preventable risk factors for long-term recurrence. Material and method: This is a retrospective and observational study, patients undergoing surgery for CPT and 10 year follow up were included to analyze clinical and biochemical variables related to long-term recurrence. Results: Ninety-one patients with a 10-year follow-up were identified. No relationship was found for recurrence with oncological family history, previous thyroid disease, but smoking was a risk factor (p 0.040). We found 27 (29%) with relapse, in relation to lesions > 3 cm (p 0.05), and multicentric PTC (p 0.003). Conclusion: The long evolution time favors the growth of lesions, the spread of the disease, as well as the recurrence. The CPT is a disease with long-term metastatic capacity; it requires close monitoring and opportune detection of patients susceptible to recurrence. The time between diagnosis and surgery is a fundamental factor for the growth of the lesions and the spread of the disease, so the waiting time must be reduced, thus avoiding larger lesions, malignant cell dissemination and recurrence with worse prognosis for patients.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Disease-Free Survival
Abstract Introduction: Parotid carcinomas have varying histological types and diverse biologic behaviors. Establishing an adequate treatment plan and predicting recurrence is important. Objective: To analyze the risk factors associated with recurrence in our 5 year experience with 30 cases of primary parotid carcinoma undergoing surgery at a single institute. Methods: From January 2009 to December 2013, 30 patients with surgical treatment of parotid carcinoma were identified based on their medical records. Results: The 30 patients were comprised of 17 males and 13 females. Among 11 patients with T4 tumors, seven patients had recurrence. Among seven patients with cervical nodal metastasis, all patient except one had recurrence. Clinically late stages (stage III and IV) showed more common recurrence than early stage (stage I and II) lesions. Lymphovascular invasion was seen in 5 patients, and all patients had recurrence. Among 11 patients with extracapsular spread, 7 patients had recurrence. In 17 patients with high grade carcinomas, ten patients had recurrence. In 13 patients with low grade carcinomas, no patients experienced recurrence. Conclusion: T- and N-stage, clinical stage, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular spread, and histopathologic grade correlate significantly with recurrence in parotid carcinoma.
Resumo: Introdução: Os carcinomas da parótida têm diferentes tipos histológicos e comportamentos biológicos diversos. O estabelecimento de um plano de tratamento adequado e a previsão de recorrência são muito importantes. Objetivo: Analisar os fatores de risco associados à recorrência em nossa experiência de cinco anos com 30 casos de carcinoma parotídeo primário submetidos a cirurgia em uma única instituição. Método: De janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2013, 30 pacientes com tratamento cirúrgico de carcinoma parotídeo foram identificados com base nos prontuários. Resultados: Entre os 30 pacientes, 17 eram homens e 13, mulheres. Dos 11 pacientes com tumores T4, sete apresentaram recorrência. Entre sete pacientes com metástase em linfonodo cervical, todos, exceto um, apresentaram recorrência. Lesões em estágios clínicos tardios (III e IV) apresentaram recorrência mais comumente do que as dos estágios iniciais (I e II). A invasão linfovascular foi observada em cinco pacientes e todos os cinco apresentaram recorrência. Entre 11 pacientes com disseminação extracapsular, sete apresentaram recorrência. Dos 17 pacientes com carcinomas de alto grau, dez apresentaram recorrência. Em 13 pacientes com carcinomas de baixo grau, nenhum apresentou recorrência. Conclusão: Estágios T e N, estágio clínico, invasão linfovascular, disseminação extracapsular e grau histopatológico correlacionam-se de maneira significante com recorrência do carcinoma de parótida.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Parotid Neoplasms/mortality , Parotid Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Facial Paralysis/complications , Neoplasm Grading , Margins of Excision , Neoplasm Invasiveness/physiopathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Neoplasm Staging
ABSTRACT Objectives: The clinical significance of positive surgical margin (PSM) after a Nephron Sparing Surgery (NSS) is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between PSM and the risk of disease recurrence in patients with pT1 kidney tumors who underwent NSS. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study. A total of 314 patients submitted to a NSS due to stage pT1 renal tumor between January 2010 and June 2015 were included. Recurrence-free survival was estimated. The Cox model was used to adjust the tumor size, histological grade, pathological stage, age, surgical margins and type of approach. Results: Overall PSM was 6.3% (n=22). Recurrence was evidenced in 9.1% (n=2) of patients with PSM and 3.5% (n=10) for the group of negative surgical margin (NSM). The estimated local recurrence-free survival rate at 3 years was 96.4% (95% CI 91.9 to 100) for the NSM group and 87.8% (95% CI 71.9 to 100) for PSM group (p=0.02) with no difference in metastasis-free survival. The PSM and pathological high grade (Fuhrman grade III or IV) were independent predictors of local recurrence in the multivariate analysis (HR 12.9, 95%CI 1.8-94, p=0.011 / HR 38.3, 95%CI 3.1-467, p=0.004 respectively). Fuhrman grade proved to be predictor of distant recurrence (HR 8.1, 95%CI 1.6-39.7, p=0.011). Conclusions: The PSM in pT1 renal tumors showed to have higher risk of local recurrence and thus, worse oncological prognosis.